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Transcript of Optical Fiber Based Sensors for Future Fossil Energy ... Library/Events/2017/crosscutting...Optical...

  • Solutions for Today | Options for Tomorrow

    Optical Fiber Based Sensors for Future Fossil Energy ApplicationsPresenter : Dr. Paul R. Ohodnicki, Jr. March 23, 2017

  • 2National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Presentation Overview

    NETL R&IC Sensor Material and Optical Fiber Sensor Program Overview Fossil Energy Needs Driving Advanced Sensors Enabling Materials for Harsh Environment Sensing Current Capabilities, Research Thrusts, and Partnerships

    Highlights of Recent Results and On-Going Activities H2 Sensing Materials for SOFCs Stability of High Temperature Functional Sensor Layers Thermal Emission Based High Temperature Sensing Theoretical Investigations of High Temperature Oxide Sensor Materials Enhanced Temperature Stability for Distributed Interrogation Embedding of Sensors for High Temperature Applications Optical Fiber Materials Research and Development

    Summary and Conclusions

  • 3National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Fossil Energy Needs Driving Advanced Sensors

    NETLHasNeeds,OngoingFundedProjects,andInHouseResearchActivityinHarshEnvironmentSensingforaBroadArrayofApplications.

    PowerGeneration(Combustion,FuelCells,

    Turbines,etc.)

    CO2Sequestration

    UnconventionalOil&Gas

    NaturalGasInfrastructure

  • 4National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Fossil Energy Needs Driving Advanced Sensors

    GradientsinTemperatureandCompositionofGasStreamInternaltoanSOFCareCriticalProcessParametersforMaximizedEfficiency/Lifetime.

    InHouseEffortsHaveExploitedtheSOFCTechnologyasaDemonstrationPlatformforHarshEnvironmentEmbeddedSensorsinElectrifiedComponents.

    SOFCTemperature:700800oCAnodeStream:FuelGas(e.g.H2Containing)

    CathodeStream:AirorO2

    IncompatiblewithTraditionalSensingTechnologies1)LimitsofHighTemperatureElectricalInsulation2)LimitedAccessSpace3)RequiresMultiPointSensing4)ElectrifiedSurfaces5)FlammableGasAtmospheres

  • 5National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Enabling Harsh Environment Sensor Materials

    SystemProperties:GasSpecies,T,P(InputVariables)

    FunctionalThinFilm:Electrical,Optical,Electrochemical(SensingElement)

    SensorTechnology:Electrochemical,ChemiResistive,RF,Optical

    (Transducer)

    SensorResponse(Sensitivity,Selectivity,Stability)

    KeyChallenge#1:FunctionalSensorMaterials

    KeyChallenge#2:MaterialsforDeviceStability

  • 6National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Emphasis on Optical Fiber Based Sensors

    e.g.Evanescent WaveSensors

    OpticalFiberBasedSensorsareParticularlyWellSuitedforHarshEnvironment andElectrifiedSystemApplications.

    EliminateElectricalWiringandContactsattheSensingLocation

    TailoredtoParametersofInterestThroughFunctionalMaterials

    EliminateEMIandPotentialInterferencewithElectricalSystems

    CompatibilitywithBroadbandandDistributedInterrogation

  • 7National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Recent Activity Focused on Wireless Sensors

    MoreRecentActivityHasBeenInitiatedonSurfaceAcousticWaveBasedSensorsCompatiblewithWirelessInterrogation.

    e.g.SurfaceAcousticWaveBasedSensors

  • 8National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Collaborative Interactions with Universities

    TheNETLResearch&Innovation CenterSeeksOpportunitiestoEngagewithPartnersFundedThroughtheCrosscuttingProgramtoPromotetheGoalsandMissionsofNETL.

    NumerousJointPublications(U.Pitt,U.Albany,OSU,U.Conn.VATech,Stevens)Several JointPatentApplications(U.Pitt.,Stevens,OSU)

    Advanced Functional

    Sensor Material Project Team

    ExtramuralCrosscutting

    ProgramResearch

    NETLOnSiteSensorMaterial/DeviceResearch

    CrosscuttingProgramExtramuralFunded

    Programs

  • 9National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Collaborative Interactions with Universities

    MoreRecently,TheCrosscutting ProgramUniversityOutreachProgramHasBeguntoInitiateFormalizedCollaborationsBetweentheNETLResearch&InnovationCenterandPartners.

    NETLResearch&InnovationCenter NewProjectActivityonSensingLayers CollaboratingonMaterialsforDeviceStability SeekingOpportunitiestoSupportUCRProjects

    CharacterizationSupport AccesstoUniqueNETLFacilities

    PromotingDevelopmentofHighTemperatureWirelessSensorTechnology

    e.g.SurfaceAcousticWaveBasedSensors

    Dr.RobertFryer,ORISEResearcher

  • 10National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Collaborative Interactions with Industry

    MoreRecently theTeamHasIdentifiedOpportunitiesforIndustrialPartnershipsandCollaborationstoPromoteTechnologyDevelopmentandDeployment.

    Performer: GE Global Research Award Number: DE-FE0027918 Partners: SUNY Polytechnic Institute, GEFuel Cells LLCProject Duration: 10/01/2016-03/31/2018

    Program objectiveTo achieve selectivity and stability of gas sensing by implementing a new generation of gas sensors, such as multivariable sensors [1-6].

    Phase 1 focusTo develop new sensing materials, perform lab tests for sensitivity and stability, field validate developed sensors on a SOFC system.

    Phase 1 will advance fundamental understanding of multivariable gas sensing at high temperatures for cost-effective and stable SOFC sensors. Generated data will allow development of recommendations for Phase 2 deliverables.

    Project BenefitsDeveloped sensor approach will become a robust tool for any SOFC system, directly affecting system robustness and reliability as well as optimizing operation.

    (1) Potyrailo et al. Nat. Photonics 2007, 1, 123-128(2) Potyrailo et al. Chem. Rev. 2011, 111, 73157354(3) Carpenter et al. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 5025-5034(4) Potyrailo et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013, 110, 1556715572(5) Potyrailo et al. Nat. Commun. 2015, 6, 7959(6) Potyrailo Chem. Rev. 2016,116, 1187711923

    Highly Selective and Stable Multivariable Gas Sensors for Enhanced Robustness and Reliability of SOFC Operation

    Sensor

  • 11National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Unique Facilities of the Project Team

    NETLOnSiteResearchHasDevelopedCapabilitiesforSensorMaterialandOpticalFiberSensorDeviceDevelopmentandOptimizationforHarshEnvironmentApplications.

    CustomSensorDevelopmentReactors

    UniqueSensorFabricationFacilities

    CustomSensorDevelopmentReactorsSimulate: PowerGenerationandCombustionSystems Subsurface/GeologicalEnvironments PressurizedGasandOilBasedSystems

    CommercialandCustomOpticalInterrogatorSystemsforOpticalFiberSensors

    LaserHeatedPedestalGrowthSystemforFabricatingSingle

    CrystalFibers

  • 12National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Unique Facilities Available at NETL

    PilotScaleFacilitiesExistatNETLforDemonstrationsofPrototypeSensorConceptsUnderApplicationRelevantConditions(Turbine,Combusion,SOFC).

    Combustorexhaust gases

    Test coupon

    Combustorexhaust gases

    Test coupon

    HighPressureCombustionFacility(Aerothermal Rig)

    Simulateshotgaspathofaturbine Naturalgasorhydrogenfuel Capableof2lb/sairflow@10atm Temperature:upto1300C Opticallyaccessiblecombustorandtestsections

    HybridPerformanceFacility(Hyper)

    A300kWsolidoxidefuelcellgasturbine(SOFCGT)powerplantsimulator 120kWGarrettSeries85APUwithsingleshaftturbine,2stageradial

    compressor,andgeardrivengenerator 100+processvariablesmeasuredincludingrotationalspeed(1,200Hz;

    40,500rpm),air/fuelflow,temperature(turbine:637C;SOFC:1133C),pressure(upto260kPa),etc.

  • 13National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Functional Thin Films for High Temp Sensing

    AuNanoparticleIncorporatedOxideThinFilmsforMultiParameterGasSensingByLeveragingtheFiberOpticSensingPlatformforSOFCRelevantApplications(~700800oC).

    GasStreamResponse TemperatureResponse

  • 14National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Functional Thin Films for High Temp Sensing

    HighElectronicConductivityPlasmonicOxidesHaveBeenDemonstratedtoShowGreatPromiseforHighTemperatureOpticalSensing,e.g.LadopedSrTiO3.

  • 15National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Functional Thin Films for High Temp Sensing

    EngineeredPorosityoftheFunctionalOxideBasedSensingLayersHasBeenExploredandDemonstratedinCollaborationwithProf.KevinChenatUniversityofPittsburgh.

    Nanostructuring toTailorRefractiveIndexforDevice Compatibility

  • 16National Energy Technology Laboratory

    FuelGasStreamVariations FuelUtilization FuelUtilization

    Functional Thin Films for High Temp Sensing

    ProofofConceptDemonstrationsforBothAuIncorporatedSilicaandLaDopedSrTiO3 BasedFunctionalSensorLayerEnabledOpticalFiberSensors.

  • 17National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Functional Thin Films for High Temp Sensing

    HighTemperature,LongerTermStabilityExperimentsHaveHighlightedtheImportanceofReactiveEvaporationofNobleMetalNanoparticleandThinFilmSensingLayers.

    Au/TiO2PreExposure

    Au/TiO2PreExposure

    700oC29%H2/N2

    800oC1%H2/N2

    800oC29%H2/N2

    800oC29%H2/N2

    Au(s)+H2(g) AuH(g)Au(s) Au(g)

    1.00E13

    1.00E12

    1.00E11

    1.00E10

    1.00E09

    1.00E08700C 750C 800C 850C 900C

    Fugacity,A

    tm

    EffectofTemperature

    AuH Au

    1.00E12

    1.00E11

    1.00E10

    1.00E09 29%H2 5%H2 2%H2 1%H2 0.5%H20.1%H2

    Fugacity,A

    tm

    EffectofH2 Concentration

    AuH Au

    Datafor800C

  • 18National Energy Technology Laboratory

    Functional Thin Films for High Temp Sensing

    QuantitativeModelDeveloment HasInitiatedtoUnderstandFactorsImpactingStabilityofVariousHighTemperatureMetalsIncludingMicrostructure/GasPhaseChemistry.

    EstimatesofTotalMassLossBasedonGasPhaseDiffusionModels

    Au(s)+H2(g) AuH(g)AccountingforNanoparticulate MicrostructureAllowedforImprovedAgreementwithExperimentalResults

    J.P.Baltrus,G.R.Holcomb,J.H.Tylczak,andP.R.Ohodnic