Open Business @ DMY Berlin 2011 - MakerLab

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Open P2P Design Markets and business models for Open and DIY projects Massimo Menichinelli --------------------------------------------------------------------------- June 04-05 2011 DMY Berlin - MakerLab http://dmy-berlin.com/en/festival/2011-2/makerlab/ Presentation available on: http://www.slideshare.net/openp2pdesign

Transcript of Open Business @ DMY Berlin 2011 - MakerLab

Page 1: Open Business @ DMY Berlin 2011 - MakerLab

Open P2P Design Markets and business models for Open and DIY projects

Massimo Menichinelli

---------------------------------------------------------------------------June 04-05 2011DMY Berlin - MakerLab http://dmy-berlin.com/en/festival/2011-2/makerlab/

Presentation available on:http://www.slideshare.net/openp2pdesign

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01.Why should a designer be concerned about business?

I'm a designer, after all!

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(Open) Design + Business ?

a designer / researcher studying how to co-design Open Processes with communities--> and trying to make his design / research activity a

sustainable business

+ a report on business models of:* Open Hardware* Fab Labs* DIY Craft

-->

http://www.youcoop.org/ http://www.platoniq.net/

http://www.goteo.org/

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From a paper project to a real project

Designers start thinking about the business

Source: http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/danprovost/glif-iphone-4-tripod-mount-and-stand

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From a paper project to a real project

Now on Apple Store!

Source: http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1104350651/tiktok-lunatik-multi-touch-watch-kits

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Just being Open” is not enough

.. but what about the market?

Source: http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1833785894/100k-stray-toasthed-pull-toys

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02.Open and DIY Business (as they are now)

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Business models of Open Source (software)

Non-monetary incentives:* problem solving* ethical questions* education + learning* reputation --> social interactions + jobs

--> it's not just about money! Also a gift economy

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Business models of Open Source (software)

Monetary incentives:* selling software (as open or even with dual licensing)* offering services (customisation, support, ...)* paid developer work* donation* software as service (freemium, ...)* embedding software into hardware

--> … it's not just only volunteer work! Also a market economy

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Business models of Open Source (software)

Red Hatfrst open source company expected to break through the $1bn mark in 2011.

Source: http://www.channelregister.co.uk/2011/03/24/redhat_q4_f2011_numbers/

Cost of developing Linux

The Linux Foundation (LF) (2008): $10.8 billion to build the Linux community distribution Fedora 9 in today’s dollars with today’s software development costs.

$1.4 billion to develop the Linux kernel alone.

Source: http://www.linuxfoundation.org/sites/main/fles/publications/estimatinglinux.html

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Please note: Open Business is not completely open

* identity (brand) is fxed and is warranty certifcate* existing business ecosystems may not be open* knowledge, expertise, tools, resources are not always “open”

Source: http://www.arduino.ccSource: http://www.blender.org/blenderorg/blender-foundation/logo/

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The levels of openness in Open Hardware

Patrick McNamara defned 4 possible levels of Openness in Open Hardware projects:

1. Closed: any hardware for which the creator of the hardware will not release any information.

2. Open Interface: all the documentation on how to make a piece of hardware perform the function for which it is designed is available (minimum level of openness).

3. Open Design: in which enough detailed documentation is provided that a functionally compatible device could be created by a third party.

4. Open Implementation: the complete bill of materials necessary to construct the device is available.

Source: http://www.osbr.ca/ojs/index.php/osbr/article/view/379/340

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The business models of Open Hardware

* Services and expertise (customization, consulting) * Manufacturing of owned or third party Open Hardware* Manufacturing of proprietary hardware based on Open

Hardware* Dual-licensing * Proprietary hardware designs based on Open Hardware* Proprietary software tools for developing Open Hardware* ... and:

Source: http://www.openp2pdesign.org/2011/open-design/business-models-for-open-hardware/

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The business models of Open Hardware

* Proprietary hardware tools for Open Hardware (Sparklelabs)

Source: http://kits.sparklelabs.com/

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The business models of Open Hardware

* Free services for building a greater user base (Adafruit Jobs Board)

Source: http://www.adafruit.com/jobs/

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The business models of Open Hardware

* Partnership between Open and Fabbing companies (Ponoko + Sparkfun)

Source: http://www.ponoko.com/make-and-sell/electronics

+ =

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The business models of Open Hardware

* Funding Open Hardware projects in exchange for documentation

Source: http://bildr.org/

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The business models of Open Hardware

* Piracy as a learning and market building strategy (Shanzai)

Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/ttstam/4177935719/

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The business models of Open Hardware

* Brick and mortar store (Makerbot - Botcave)

Source: http://www.makerbot.com/blog/2010/11/26/makerbot-botcave-store-opens-today/

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The business models of Open Hardware

* Renting spaces for co-working (Hackerspaces)

Source: http://hackerspaces.org/wiki/NYC_Resistor

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The business models of Open Hardware

* Microcredit / peer-to-peer lending / crowdfunding (Open Hardware Bank)

Source: http://www.oshwbank.org/

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The market of Open Hardware

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Source: http://blog.makezine.com/archive/2010/05/million-dollar-baby-businesses-de.html

2009:* 13 companies over $ 1 m.* total: $ 50 m.* $ 1 billion by 2015

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The market of Open Hardware: SparkFun

Source:http://www.sparkfun.com/news/599

Nathan Seidle (founder):

“In 2010, SparkFun had revenues of about $18.4MM. As of April of 2011, we have around 120 employees, up from 87 a year ago.”

“We hope to grow by 50% this year (2011) to around $28MM in sales. We expect to be in the 30-50MM range in the next 3-5.”

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Similar models for DIY Craft... Etsy

Source: http://www.etsy.com/

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Similar models for DIY Craft... Etsy

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Source: http://www.etsy.com/press/kit/

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Similar models for DIY Craft... Sewing Cafes

* Renting spaces for co-working (Sewing Cafes)

Source: http://sweatshopparis.blogspot.com/

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...and 1 more: Crowdsourcing (Threadless)

Founded in 2000 with just $ 1,000, now it has a revenue of $ 17,000,000 in annual sales with a 35% proft margin

Source: http://www.threadless.com/submithttp://www.openp2pdesign.org/2011/open-design/business-models-for-diy-craft/

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A place for Open / DIY projects: Fab Labs

How to start it:* $50,000-$55,000 (or open source low-cost version for $12,500 - $5000)

* value proposal: facilities or innovation support

* The Enabler business model: launch new Labs or support them* The Education business model: a global distributed model of education

through Fab Labs (Fab Academy + P2P learning among users)* The Incubator business model: provide infrastructure for entrepreneurs to

turn their Fab Lab creations into sustainable businesses. * The Replicated / Network business model: product / service that utilizes

the infrastructure, staff and expertise of a many Fab Labs.

* not so interested in becoming proftables

(though they could)+ Hackerspaces, Sewing Cafes, Techshops, ...

Source: http://www.openp2pdesign.org/2011/fabbing/business-models-for-fab-labs/

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A place for Open / DIY projects: Fab Labs

* attached to institutions... or to brands (Absolut Lab, Madrid) http://www.absolut-lab.com/

Source:http://www.openp2pdesign.org/2011/fabbing/business-models-for-fab-labs/http://www.advertolog.com/absolut/print-outdoor/berlin-7686855/

-->

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Does the long tail of Etsy help small DIY business?

* very few users can make a living on it

* competition, but impossibility to increase volumes

--> downward pressure on prices* rather an incubator for the most promising DIYers (a low-cost entry point into the market)

Source: http://www.openp2pdesign.org/2011/open-design/business-models-for-diy-craft/

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Does the long tail help small DIY business?

None of the business examined tries to help its user to make a living on their project. At least Shapeways uses revenues to lower prices down. But Shapeways:* generated 244,000 € in revenue over 2009, but at the same time it lost

1,400,000 € * received a $ 5,000,000 fund from VC in order to open offices in the USA

Source: http://www.openp2pdesign.org/2011/fabbing/business-models-for-fab-labs/

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… and a lesson from the past

In 1914 Ford offered a $5 per day wage ($110 in current dollar terms), which more than doubled the wages. Ford's policy proved that paying people more would enable Ford workers to afford the cars they were producing and be good for the economy. Ford explained the policy as proft-sharing rather than wages.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Ford

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03.The future of Open and DIY Business: where will be value created?

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Look for what is becoming a commodity

A commodity is a good for which there is demand, but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a market. [...] the market treats it as equivalent or nearly so no matter who produces it.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commodity

Commoditization (also called commodifcation) occurs as a goods or services market loses differentiation across its supply base, often by the diffusion of the intellectual capital necessary to acquire or produce it efficiently. […] a unique, branded product into a market based on undifferentiated products.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commoditization

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Hardware and Software, becoming commodities

* ('50s-'70s) Hardware is the product, software is for free: mainframes--> Hacker ethic of sharing information

* ('80s-'90s) Hardware is commodity, software is the product and it's proprietary: personal computers --> Microsoft emerges

* ('00s-...) Even software is a commodity, so let's sell services and get data from users: open source, web 2.0, services around software, software as service, the cloud --> web 2.0 emerges

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Manufacturing and Design, becoming commodities

* ('90s-'00s) Manufacturing becomes a commodity and slowly disappears in the West (thanks to China)

* ('10s-...) Now it's even more a commodity (thanks to Fabbing)

* ('00s-...) Professional design is slowly becoming a commodity (thanks to Fast Fashion, Ikea, design schools bubble, Shanzai)

--> Where is value now, in Design and Manufacturing?

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… so is still value in creativity?

Source: http://www.freedomofcreation.com/home/3d-systems-acquires-freedom-of-creation

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… or in attention, collaboration, creativity from “users”?

“ We fnd this previously unmeasured type of household sector innovation to be quite large: 6.2% of UK consumers - 2.9 million individuals - have engaged in consumer product innovation during the prior 3 years. In aggregate, consumers’ annual product development expenditures are 2.3 times larger than the annual consumer product R&D expenditures of all frms in the UK combined. “

Eric A. Von Hippel, Jeroen De Jong, Steven FlowersComparing Business and Household Sector Innovation in Consumer Products: Findings from a Representative Study in the UK Source: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1683503

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Open and P2P Money, are they a solution?

Does it address the current problems of money, or is just a way of making it “open” reinventing the wheel Without proposing business models?

Source: http://www.bitcoin.org/

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When everything is peaking...

Even renewable resources like wood are peaking.. What and how are we going to manufacture when everybody will be able to do it?

Source: http://ecoalfabeta.blogosfere.it/2011/03/il-picco-del-legno.html

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… reinventing an open wheel is not enough

Will just making open an unstainable past be sustainable?

Source: http://www.theoscarproject.org/

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New language, business for the new media: collaboration

Every new technology takes time to develop its own uses, languages and business models.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Car

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New language, business for the new media: collaboration

Every new technology takes time to develop its own uses, languages and business models.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse-drawn_vehicle

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… blocks of an Open, DIY and P2P Economy

* open business for design, energy, materials, tools

* open business that consider information as abundant but materials and energy as scarce resources

* open money (but well designed and linked to energy and materials)

* API between open businesses

* Open processes + distributed testing of business models

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Any question or comment?

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Thank you!

Massimo Menichinelli

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[email protected]/openp2pdesign