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BASIC SECURITY CONCEPTSCOMPUTER SECURITY: Computer Security is the protection of computing system & the data that they store access.IMPORTANCE:Computer security supporting critical business process,Computer security protecting personal and sensitive informationComputer security enabling people to carry out their jobs , education & research

THREATSA threat is anything that can cause harm. In the context of computer security, a threat can be a burglar, virus, an earth quake, or a simple user errorEXAMPLES:The threats you face :VIRUSES:Damage worth f1.8bn in 12 days on the internet in 2003.

THREATSVIRUS BACK DOOR:Hidden after effects with potentially impact

DEGREES OF HARMDEF:It is defined as injuries ,suffering, disability or death.EXAMPLE:There is probably no threats flooding . If u dont use anti-virus software ,however there is a very good chance that your computer will become infected

COUNTERMEASURESA countermeasure is any step you take to ward off a threat to protect yourself, your data , or computer from harm.CLASSES:The first shield the user from personal harm , such as threats to personal propertyThe second safeguard protects the computer system from physical hazards such as power problems

COMPUTER RELATING INJURIESComputer use can cause physical injuries to the user.Prolonged mouse & keyboard use, staring at a monitor for too long, & poor seating condition are the primary causes of such injuries.

THREATS TO USERS In this topic we will discuss about the threats which user face.These are:IDENTITY THEFTLOSS OF PRIVACYPUBLIC RECORDS ON THE INTERNET


The fraudulent practice of using another persons name & personal information in order to obtain its personal documents or credits etc.e.g. With the right information an identity thief can virtually become the victim, obtaining a drivers license , bank accounts & other items in the victims name.DEF:-

METHODS OF IDENTITY THEFTIdentity thieves can use several methods low-tech as well as high-tech to obtain the information they need.

Shoulder SurfingSnaggingDumpster DivingSocial Engineering

Low-Tech Methods:

Shoulder surfingDEF:Shoulder surfing refers to using direct observation techniques, such as looking over someone's shoulder, to get information. It is commonly used to obtain passwords, PINs and security codes.etc

SHOULDER SURFING EXAMPLE:Someone might shoulder surf when you areEntering your computer password , ATM pinOr credit card number.

Criminals often use this technique to gain access to your personal accounts or to read personal information , such as e-mails .

How to prevent shoulder surfingTo prevent shoulder surfing ,experts recommend that you shield your paper work and your keyboard from view of others while filling some type of form or typing your PIN or passwords.

SnaggingA thief can try snagging information by listening on a Telephone extension or through a Wire tap while the victim gives credit card number or other personal information to someone.

Telephone Extension:An additional telephone set that is connected to the same telephone line.

DUMPSTER DIVINGIn general, dumpster diving involves searching through trash or garbage looking for something useful.

In IT world , DUMPSTER DIVING is a security attack which involves going through materials or files that have been thrown into the RECYCLE BIN.

ainedInformation stolen by thieves :Possible issues resulting from stolen info- :Dumpster diving stats:Identity theftAmericans receive over 4 million tons of junk mail each year.Street addressLoan fraudPhone numberBenefits fraudIdentity theft victims claim that 88% of the stolen information thieves obtained by D.DEmail addressEmployment related fraudBank account informationBank fraudOther personal informationOther identity fraud

HOW TO PREVENT YOURSELF FROM DUMPSTER DIVING -Never discard documents containing information such as a Social Security number, driver's license number, or bank account number into a public trash bin.

-Always shred important documents you choose to discard.

-Thoroughly cut up all old credit and debit cards so that the information is not legible .

Social engineering

DEF:An art of deceiving people.It is an effective technique which thief uses to obtain someones personal information under the pretext of something legitimate.


Claim to be a system administrator at the website of the victims bank ; and ask for the victims user ID and password for a system check.With this information thief can go online and access the victims account information directly through bank website.

LOSS OF PRIVACYPrivacy can be lost through many ways . likeWhenever you use store loyalty card to buy groceries , the purchases are logged in database.As it is your medical ,financial and credit records are available to anybody who authorize to view them.

LOSS OF PRIVACYe.g.Many insurance companies maintain data bases filled with info- about you . You might expect these firms to know your name & address , but you might be surprised to know that , they know how many times each month you put gas in your car or buy a magazine . A lot of companies do not keep this info- confidential , they may sell it to other companies who are interested in knowing about you.

PUBLIC RECORDS ON THE INTERNETYour personal info- is available to anybody who has the few dollars to buy it from commercial public record services . Some companies will give you detailed reports about most people .These reports include info- such as : Background information Criminal records etc

background informationIt includes marriage, divorce ,adoption , driving , credit history & bankruptcies records .AND along with many other legal records , are available to anybody who wants to view them.There are no. of companies that collect public records , package them and sell them to anyone who wishes to purchase.

CRIMINAL RECORDSCriminal records include:

federal crimes(like bank fraud , bribery , hacking etc)Felony crimes(like robbery , escaping from prison , murder , kidnapping etc )Misdemeanor crimes(like vandalism , trespassing , petty theft etc)ETC. These type of records are available on internet. Any one can buy this information through commercial public record sources.

ONLINE SPYING TOOLSSoftware developers have created many ways to track your activities online.These tools were created for benign purposes, now they are also being used in ways most consumers do not appreciate





COOKIESIt is a small text file that a web server asks your browser to place on your computer.It contains info- that identifies your computer

COOKIESe.g. your IP AddressYour User name or E-mail address & info- about your visit to the web site.Your last time visit to site , which pages you visit, which downlaod & how long you were at the site.

ARE COOKIES SAFE ?Each browser has its own set of cookies .Each website can read only its own cookies .Size=4096 bytes or 4KB .20 cookies per site , allow by browser .Per browser allow 300 cookies , if more cookies are created an old cookie will be deleted .

FOR HOW LONG COOKIES LIVE ?When it created an expiry time is also provided :Deleted if the expiry time has passed .Depend on server .If no time is given, cookies are deleted as the browser window is closed .Depend on user .

SIGNIFICANT THREATS TO PRIVACYDespite their helpful purposes there are threats to privacy .They can be used to store & report many types of information & these info- can be used against your wishes.

SIGNIFICANT THREATS TO PRIVACYe.g.The cookies maker might use the cookie to determine what kind of advertisement will appear on your screen the next time you visit web site All the info- that cookie stores can be used against your wishes.Your PC may be storing hundreds or thousands of cookies , many of them you dont want to keep them on your system,


WEB BUGS A small GIF-format (graphics interchange format) image file that can be embedded in a Web page.

A web bug can be as small as a single pixel that can be easily hidden.

A web bug is an object embedded in a web page or email, which ,(usually invisibly) allows checking that a user has accessed the contentBehind the tiny image ,however the lies code that allowing the bugs creator to track many of your online activities. It can record pages you view, keyword, personal info- & other data.

ANTI WEB-BUGA number of anti-web bugs now exist. To remove anti web-bugs , one of the following is :


SPYWAREInternet advertising is a common source of spyware. It is used to refer to many different kinds of software that can track a computer users activities & report them to the someone else.

SPYWAREe.g.You install and register a program it may ask u to fill out a form. These info- sends to the developer, who stores it in database.In this manner they are seen as perfectly because the user is aware about this information.

THREATS More commonly, spyware is installed on a computer without users knowledge & collects the info-.It can land on your pc from Web