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  • SCHLUMBERGER OILFIELD REVIEW

    SPRING 2006

    VOLUME 18 N

    UMBER 1

    Spring 2006

    Oilfield Review

    Oilfield Technologies in Space

    Sonic Advances

    Acoustic Waves

    High-Resolution Core Visualization

  • 06_OR_002_0

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  • To say Chevron shared in Schlumberger sonic-logging tooldevelopment would be an understatement. Through theyears, I recognized that tool development, like most sci-ence, requires collaboration and that success is criticallydependent on human relationships like those we forgedwith Schlumberger R&D people. A couple of decades ago,as a relatively new Chevron employee, I got my first taste of collaboration with an engineering prototype of the Array-Sonic* tool. This was Chevrons first experience with anarray tool, and it seemed we were entering a new world of borehole acoustics.

    Some years later, we organized a test of dipole sonic toolsin the Sacramento Valley, California, USA. Steve Chang,then at Schlumberger-Doll Research, brought an experi-mental prototype of the DSI* Dipole Shear Sonic Imager,and Mobil brought their groundbreaking proprietary sonictools. Such tests let us build our in-house expertise. Forexample, we showed the original DSI development teamthat waveforms contained large dispersion, therefore justi-fying filtering at frequencies as low as 1.5 kHz, although we could not explain the cause for the dispersion in thoseearly days.

    Our involvement with MSIP (Modular Sonic Imaging Plat-form), the engineering name for the Sonic Scanner*acoustic scanning platform, began in 2001, when Schlumberger Kabushiki Kaisha (SKK) requested a fieldtest of an experimental prototype in diatomite formations inCalifornias San Joaquin Valley. Diatomite poses challengesfor sound waves, as illustrated in Sonic Investigations Inand Around the Borehole, page 14. Hitoshi Tashiro, theMSIP project manager at the time, visited us from SKK andbravely showed results that were worse than those from theolder DSI tool. This is not surprising for an experimentalprototype tool, and Hitoshi said, We have work to do.Three more experimental prototype tests followed, with sus-tained field support from Chevrons Dale Julander. On thefollowing visit, Vivian Pistre, the next project manager,demonstrated truly impressive results with the prototype.We at Chevron sensed the new tools potential and its com-plexity. We requested a written client guide, which DavidScheibner wrote and let us review at several stages. Weawaited the transition of this sonic tool to engineering-pro-totype status so we could have the acoustic waveforms tounderstand and use this technology in Chevron.

    The first time we got these waveforms in 2004 was inter-esting. David oversaw the field acquisition in California andhe used The Sunday Los Angeles Times as padding materialfor protecting the data DVDs in shipment. For the packagegoing to SKK, he wrapped a DVD in the sports section, pre-sumably for the sports lovers there, and for me, he used thedelightfully colorful food section. When I saw the data

    A Tool Journeys from Research to Commercialization: A Clients Perspective

    filea 1-GB file seemed huge thenhis thoughtful choiceallowed me to enjoy a huge photograph of a cantaloupebefore attacking the data. Today, we are undaunted by 6-GB waveform files.

    Upon recovering from the initial jolt of handling wave-forms from three dimensionswell azimuth, well axis and timeand a long dipole chirp signal, we began ourown journey of learning about this new tool. This path hadits highs (as when we discovered a polarity error duringacquisition, offered a solution and Vivian readily agreed to implement it) and lows (as we waded through hundredsof mysteriously named mnemonics). Vivian kept a growinglist of our suggestions, many of which Schlumberger imple-mented. Throughout this time the development team wasunwaveringly patient in answering our multitudinous ques-tions. In addition to Vivian and David, we turned to TakeshiEndo with questions. John Walsh, Tom Plona and JeffAlford also helped us. In all, the tool had at least eight fieldtests in Chevron wells, the most extensive one being in aGulf of Mexico well, with strong support from ChevronsLarry OMahoney.

    Now that MSIP technology has become the Sonic Scannertool, we are entering another new world of boreholeacoustics. This tool can probe the formation around thewellbore in new ways, opening the door to better decisionsin drilling, completions and petrophysical predictions.Other new applications will emerge. History shows sonictechnologies advanced faster when both Schlumberger andclients had easy access to raw waveforms. We must remem-ber this history lesson of collaboration and sharing rawdata; otherwise we risk stagnation.

    Gopa S. DeChevron Energy Technology CompanySan Ramon, California

    Gopa S. De is a Research Consultant with Chevron Energy Technology Com-pany in San Ramon, California, USA. She began her career with Chevron OilField Research Company in 1982. Her major research interests are sonic loggingand rock physics. She has a PhD degree in condensed matter physics from theUniversity of California, San Diego. Gopa is a member of the American PhysicalSociety, the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG), the SEG ResearchCommittee and the SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering (SPEREE) Review Board. Gopa rendered her signature in both Roman and Bengali scripts.

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    * Mark of Schlumberger.

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  • Schlumberger

    Oilfield Review4 A Closer Look at Pore Geometry

    Geoscientists are applying advanced medical technology toimage internal structures of rock and core samples at high resolution. X-ray computed tomography provides a digital alternative to conventional core analysis. With the help of innovative visualization technology, digital core volumes can be virtually sliced, manipulated and viewed from any angle,revealing highly detailed information about porosity, permeability and rock composition.

    14 Sonic Investigations In and Around the Borehole

    Advances in sonic tool design and data quality are improvingour ability to characterize mechanical and fluid propertiesaround the borehole and deep into the formation. This articlehighlights sonic-logging applications including measurements inultraslow formations, radial profiling to identify near-wellboredamage, anisotropy analysis for designing completion opera-tions, enhanced permeability estimation and high-resolutionimaging far from the borehole.

    Executive EditorMark A. Andersen

    Advisory EditorLisa Stewart

    Senior EditorsMark E. TeelMatt Garber

    EditorsDon WilliamsonRoopa GirMatt Varhaug

    Contributing EditorsRana RottenbergJoan Mead

    Design/ProductionHerring DesignSteve Freeman

    IllustrationTom McNeffMike MessingerGeorge Stewart

    PrintingWetmore & CompanyCurtis Weeks

    Address editorial correspondence to:Oilfield Review1325 S. Dairy Ashford Houston, Texas 77077 USA(1) 281-285-7847Fax: (1) 281-285-1537E-mail: editorOilfieldReview@slb.com

    Address distribution inquiries to:Matt GarberSchlumberger Cambridge ResearchHigh Cross, Madingley RoadCambridge, England CB3 0EL(44) 1223 325 377Fax: (44) 1223 361 473E-mail: DistributionOR@slb.com

    Useful links:

    Schlumbergerwww.slb.com

    Oilfield Review Archivewww.slb.com/oilfieldreview

    Oilfield Glossarywww.glossary.oilfield.slb.com

    On the cover:

    The Cassini space probe approachesSaturn after its 612 year journeyacross the solar system. Some of theinstruments it carries are based onoilfield technologies and are designedto help scientists perform close-upstudies of Saturn, its rings, moonsand magnetic environment.

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  • Spring 2006Volume 18Number 1

    63 Contributors

    64 Coming in Oilfield Review

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    34 Borehole Acoustic Waves

    This article describes simple and complex acoustic waves in the borehole. We examine propagation of compressional,shear, Stoneley and flexural waves in isotropic, anisotropic andinhomogeneous formations from monopole and dipole sources.

    44 From Inner Earth to Outer Space

    Sensitive oilfield detectors are helping scientists investigatethe fundamental nature and origin of objects in outer space. In 1996, the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous spacecraft, orNEAR, equipped with oilfield sensors, left Earth for the asteroid 433 Eros, some 160 million miles away. In this article,we discuss the NEAR mission along with other examples thatshow how oilfield technologies are being used in the quest forknowledge and understanding of outer space.

    Syed A. AliChevron Energy Technology Co.Houston, Texas, USA

    Abdulla I. Al-KubaisySaudi AramcoRas Tanura, Saudi Arabia

    Roland HampWoodside Energy, Ltd.Perth, Australia

    George KingBPHouston, Texas

    Eteng A. SalamPERTAMINAJakarta, Indonesia

    Y.B. SinhaIndependent consultantNew Delhi, India

    Richard WoodhouseIndependent consultantSurrey, England

    Advisory Panel

    Oilfield Review subscriptions are available from:Oilfield Review ServicesBarbour Square, High StreetTattenhall, Chester CH3 9RF England(44) 1829-770569Fax: (44) 1829-771354E-mail: orservices@t-e-s.co.ukwww.oilfieldreview.comAnnual subscriptions, including postage,are 180.00 US dollars, subject toexchange-rate fluctuations.

    Oilfield Review is published quarterly bySchlumberger to communicate technicaladvances in finding and producing hydro-carbons to oilfield professionals. OilfieldReview is distributed by Schlumberger toits employees and clients. Oilfield Reviewis printed in the USA.

    Contributors listed with only geographiclocation are employees of Schlumbergeror its affiliates.

    2006 Schlumberger. All