Obstacle detector robot

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  • 1. Department of Electronic ScienceAKIs Poona College of Arts, Science & CommerceCamp, Pune- 411001

2. An Overview of Presentation Introduction Design & Development of Obstacle detectorRobot Study of Obstacle sensors Working of microcontroller & Motors Advantages, Disadvantages & Applications Acknowledgement & References 3. INTRODUCTIONRobot is a computer-controlled machine that isprogrammed to move manipulate objects, andaccomplishwork whileinteractingwithappropriate sensors and actuators mounted on itfor carrying out the desired operations.In this robots Infra red pairs are used for sensing theobstacles and IR leads are used for transmittingand receiving infra red rays. Using infrared raysrobots will find out the obstacles present in front ofthem and move right or left from their currentposition and move forward. 4. Obstacle detection robots are nothing but self thinkingrobots which can take decisions itself usingprogrammed brain without any guidance from humanbeings.There are two types of robots in one type robots performaction as we give signals remotely where as secondtype of robots are self thinking robots which can detectobstacle and move forward. This project is of secondrobots. 5. Design and Development ofObstacle Detector Robot 6. Graphical Block diagram:Obstacle Detector Robot 7. Interfacingcircuit of Robot 8. OBSTACLE SENSORSThe obstacle senor is used to avoid the robot from the clash to anyexternal devices (or) that is like walls, any obstacle which comes inits way. Here we are using the IR communications .the transmitterand the receiver parts. The transmitter produces the IR rays andthey are received by the receiver section. 9. Architecture of 8051Microcontroller Features RAM 128bytes ROM 4K I/O 4 ports Timer2 Interrupt 6 10. AtmelMicrochipNational SemiconductorDallas SemiconductorTexas InstrumentsIntel 11. The name "H-Bridge" is derived from the actual shape of theswitching circuit which controls the motion of the motor. It isalso known as "Full Bridge". Basically there are fourswitching elements in the H-Bridge as shown in the figurebelow. 12. Truth TableHigh Left High Right Low LeftLow RightDescription OnOff OffOn Motor runs clockwiseOffOnOn OffMotor runs anti-clockwise OnOnOffOffMotor stops or deceleratesOffOff On On Motor stops or decelerates 13. Direction P0.0 P0.1 P0.2 P0.3Forward 1010Backward0101Right 1001Left0110 14. An actuator which converts electrical signal into rotation. 15. Why only DC motor? We all know that AC motors are normally constant speedmotors. Variable speed ac drives uses very complexcircuitry because the ac motor speed is varied by thefrequency variation and is not quite easy. Stepper motor gives calculated angle of rotation theytake number of steps in one revolution they cannot bestopped in between the step. Also they are not constantrunning motors their use is limited to the area where youwant calculated steps to be taken such asprinters, plotters, and other similar applications. 16. Dc motors are widely used in industrywhere wide range of variable speed isrequired. High starting torque & easy speedvariations are some of the othercharacteristics of DC motors. 17. Step1: Initialization of I/O ports. Step2: Set Direction as Forward/ Backward/ Left/Right. Step3: check if any obstacle is detected according tothat change the motion of Robot. If no then Robot willgoes in forward direction. Step4: Wait for some time. Step5: go to step 3 to repeat the process. Step7: Wait for some time. Step 8: End 18. Advantages : Whenever robot senses any obstacle automatically diverts itsposition to left or right and follows the path without humanguidance. The programming of the microcontroller is easy. It is a low cost circuit. Disadvantages : It is time consuming project. It is use for short distance only. It is not recommended to keep the range very long because thiswould cause the ROBOT to keep moving forward and backwardas it senses any obstacle, even far away from it. It is not in human control 19. Applications Obstacle sensing robot can be applied at thetoys where small children will play. It can used for the army application. We can apply number pairs of IR pairs for thesafe direction control of the robot. In Mines. 20. FUTURE ASPECTS: We can extend this project with wirelesstechnology by IR (or) RF. This robot can be used for pick and place therequired object by giving directions to the robotbut IR pair should be replaced depending uponthe application. By doing extra things, it can be use in Armyapplication. 21. Photographs: 22. ReferencesBOOKS:1.The 8051 microcontroller & Embedded System( Mazidi , Pearson Education ,III edition)2.Mechatronics Principle and Applications (Godfrey Onwobolu, Pearson Education)3.Embedded System( Rajkamal, Pearson Education, II edition)4. .Introduction to Robotics (Vikram Kapila, Pearson Education,IV Edition) 23. Website: http://mechatronics.poly.edu http://www.roboticswikipedia.com http://www.mecatronicswikipedia.com http://www.datasheets.com http://www.J2RScientific.com http://www.expresspcb.com http://www.kiel51.com http://www.8051microcontroller.com 24. The power of imagination makes us infinite. Presented by : YUSUF INAMDARandIRFAN AHMAD