Obstacle Detection Based Robot

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OBSTACLE DETECTION BASED ROBOT USING IR SENSORSA Mini Project report submitted in Partial fulfillment of the requirements For the award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING By Under the esteemed guidance of Prof. M.V.H.BHASKARA MURTHY M.Tech (Ph.D) Department of E.C.E






This is to certify that the mini project work entitled OBSTACLE DETECTION BASED ROBOT USING IR SENSORS, is a bonafide work done by S.RAMAKRISHNA SAI, V.CH.PAVAN KUMAR PATNAIK, L.HARISANKAR, P.GANESH submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY in ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING.




ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This report would be incomplete without the mention of those who have directly or indirectly helped us during the tenure of this project. We would like to thank Dr.L.S.SASTRY, Principal, SRI VAISHNAVI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING for having permitted us to take up this project. We would also like to express our deepest sense of gratitude towards Prof.M.V.H.BHASKARA MURTHY, Head of the Department, Electronics and communication Engineering, Sri Vaishnavi College of Engineering and Sri

T.MANIKYALA RAO, the Project coordinator, E.C.E Department, Sri Vaishnavi College of Engineering for their invaluable help during this project. Their guidance has been instrumental and has proved to be of immense help at every stage of the project. We would like to thank our guide Sri M.V.H.BHASKARA MURTHY , Head of the Department, Electronics and communication Engineering, Sri Vaishnavi College of Engineering for constantly monitoring our progress and suggesting improvements at various stages in the project We would like to thank all the other staff members of Electronics and communication Engineering Department, Sri Vaishnavi College of Engineering for Co-operating with us all through the period of project. Lastly, we would like to thank everyone who has been involved in the progress of the project, whose contributions, have added a lot of value.


ABSTRACTIn robotics, obstacle avoidance is the task of satisfying some control objective subject to non-intersection or non-collision position of constraints. Normally obstacle avoidance is considered to be distinct from path planning in that one is usually implemented as a reactive control which a controller will then guide a robot along. Whenever robot senses any obstacle automatically diverts its position to left/right and follows the path. Robot consists of two motors, which control the side pair wheels of each and help in moving forward and backward direction. It senses the object with help of obstacle sensor. IR pair is used for detecting the obstacle. In this project we develop a robot such that it will be moving according to path assigned to it if at all there is any obstacle in between then the robot stops and change its direction. This sort of project is very much useful in the industries where the automated supervision is required. Hardware specification are Regulated power supply, AVR Series Micro controller, IR sensor, DC Motor. Software tools are WINAVR to compile the source file and generate the hexadecimal code, AVR Studio 4.18. This robot can be applied at the toys where children will play. ROBOT can be used for the army application by fixing a cam to it. We can apply number of IR pairs for the safe direction control. This project is considered to be the key link to the 3rd generation of robotics.


LIST OF FIGURES Figure number NameBLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE PROJECT Figure1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 Figure 2.10 Figure 2.11 Figure 2.12 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Block diagram of Embedded System Basic Layout of Microcontroller Block Diagram of Microcontroller-ATMEGA8 Architecture of ATMEGA8 Pin Diagram of ATMEGA8 A simple 5V DC Regulated Power Supply System Step down transformer Dc Motor Parts of Dc motor Basic Commutator A Simple Electric Motor DC Motor Rotations vs. Polarity Obstacle Sensor Circuit Diagram of Obstacle Sensor Electromagnetic Spectrum A radio frequency energy wave superimposed upon an infrared energy wave

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ContentsChapter1. Embedded Systems 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Examples of Embedded Systems 1.3 Microcontrollers and Microprocessors 1.4 Typical Microcontroller Architecture and Features 1.5 The UART: What it is and how it works 1.5.1 Synchronous Serial Transmission 1.5.2 Asynchronous Serial Transmission

Chapter2. Hardware 2.1 Microcontroller (ATMEGA8) 2.1.1 Features 2.1.2 AVR Description 2.1.3 Architecture 2.1.4 Pin Diagram 2.1.5 Pin Description 2.2 Power Supply 2.2.1 Step down Transformer 2.2.2 Rectifier Unit 2.2.3 Filter 2.2.4 Regulator Unit 2.3 Motors 2.3.1 Definition 2.3.2 Dc Motor 2.3.3 Principle 2.3.4 Construction 2.3.5 Working of Dc Motor 2.3.6 Advantages and Disadvantages6

2.4 Obstacle Sensor 2.4.1 Circuit of Obstacle Sensor 2.4.2 Features 2.4.3 Applications Chapter3. Software (AVR STUDIO) 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Why AVR? 3.3 WINAVR 3.3.1 Compiler 3.4 AVRISP2 3.4.1 Features Chapter4. Infrared Technology 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Wireless Communication 4.3 Infrared Technology 4.4 IR Advantages 4.5 IR Disadvantages 4.6 Health Risks 4.7 Security 4.8 Importance of Standards Chapter5. Code Chapter6. Applications and Result 6.1 Applications 6.2 Result Chapter7. Future Aspects and Conclusion 7.1 Future Aspects 7.2 Conclusion References


IntroductionA robot obstacle detection system comprising: a robot housing which navigates with respect to a surface; a sensor subsystem having a defined relationship with respect to the housing and aimed at the surface for detecting the surface, the sensor subsystem including: an optical emitter which emits a directed beam having a defined field of emission, and a photon detector having a defined field of view which intersects the field of emission of the emitter at a finite region; and a circuit in communication with the detector for redirecting the robot when the surface does not occupy the region to avoid obstacles. Obstacle sensors are nothing but the IR pair. As the transmitter part travel IR rays from to receiver here also transmitter send the data receiver but these IR pair are places beside each other. So whenever the obstacle sensor found an obstacle in between its way the IR rays reflects in a certain angle. BLOCK DIAGRAM:

POWER SUPPLY: Power supply can be broken down into a series of blocks, each of which performs a particular function. The transformer is 230v AC supply. Transformers work only with AC


and here we are using step down transformer because to step down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC (i.e.; 230v to12v). This transformer is fed into rectifier. In bridge rectifier there are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC and it is most important and it produces full-wave with varying DC so that we go for smoothing capacitor it smooth the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple. By using regulator we can eliminate the ripple. In regulator to set DC output to a fixed voltage. MICRO CONTROLLER: Here we are using ATMEGA8 microcontroller. This is used to control all the operations of a circuit to get the accurate result. The micro controller we use is of the 28 pins and of 3 ports. DC MOTOR: Motors are used for the movement of the robot. Here we use the dc motor as it has the principle of the speed controlling. OBSTACLE SENSOR: The obstacle senor is used avoiding the robot from the clash to any external devices or any obstacle which comes in its way. Here we are using the IR communications the transmitter and the receiver parts. The transmitter produces the IR rays and they are received by the receiver section.


Chapter 1

Embedded Systems1.1 IntroductionAn embedded system is a special-purpose computer system designed to perform a dedicated function. An embedded system performs one or few pre-defined tasks usually with very specific requirements and often includes task-specific hardware and mechanical parts not usually found in a general-purpose computer. Since the system is dedicated to specific tasks, design engineers can optimize it by reducing the size and cost of the product. Physically, the embedded systems range from portable devices such as digital watches and MP3 players to large stationary installations like traffic lights, factory controllers or the systems controlling nuclear power plants. In terms of complexity embedded systems run with a single microcontroller chip to very complex with multiple units, peripherals and networks mounted inside a large chassis or enclosure. Mobile phones or handheld computers share some elements with embedded systems, such as the operating systems and microprocessors which power them but are not truly embedded systems themselves because they tend to be more general purpose allowing different applications to be loaded and peripherals to be connected. As the embedded system is the combination of both software and hardware .Software deals with the languages like WINAVR, C, and VB etc., and Hardware deals with Processors, Peripherals, and Memory. Memory: It is used to store data or address. Peripherals: These are the external devices connected Processor: It is an IC which is used to perform some task Processors are classified into four types like: 1. Micro Processor (p) 2. Micro controller (c) 3. Digital Signal Pro