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  1. 1. OBSSESIVE- COMPULSIVE DISORDER People who has obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) feel the need to check things repeatedly. They tend to have certain thoughts, or perform routines and rituals over and over, which causes distress and get in the way of daily life.
  2. 2. WHAT DEFINES OBSSESIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER ACCORDING TO THE DSM-5 ? 300.3 (F42). O A. The presence of obsessions, compulsions, or both 1. Obsessions are defined by recurrent thoughts, urges, or images which are intrusive and causes distress and anxiety. 2. The individual attempt to suppress thoughts, urges, or images by compulsion. Compulsions are defined by repetitive behaviors (hand- washing, checking things) or mental acts aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety (praying, counting, repetition of words silently).
  3. 3. WHAT CAUSES OBSSESIVE- COMPULSIVE DISORDER ? OCD may be linked to genetic factors and run in families, but there is no certainty as to why some people have it while others don't. Researchers have found that several parts of the brain are involved in fear and anxiety. Therefore, stress and environmental factors may play a role
  4. 4. WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF OBSSESIVE- COMPULSIVE DISORDER ? O Have repeated thoughts or images about many different things, such as fear of germs, dirt, or intruders; acts of violence; hurting loved ones; sexual acts; conflicts with religious beliefs; or being overly tidy O Do the same rituals over and over such as washing hands, locking and unlocking doors, counting, keeping unneeded items, or repeating the same steps again and again O Can't control the unwanted thoughts and behaviors O Don't get pleasure when performing the behaviors or rituals, but get brief relief from the anxiety the thoughts cause O Spend at least 1 hour a day on the thoughts and rituals, which cause distress and get in the way of daily life.
  5. 5. HOW IS OBSSESIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER DIAGNOSED ? O People with OCD typically try to solve their problem by detaching themselves and by avoiding situations that trigger their behaviors, or they may use alcohol or drugs to calm themselves. O OCD can be related to eating disorders, other anxiety disorders, or depression. O First, talk to your doctor about your symptoms. Your doctor should do an exam to make sure that another physical problem isn't causing the symptoms. The doctor may refer you to a mental health specialist.
  6. 6. WHAT ARE THE TREATMENTS FOR OBSSESIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER ? Psychotherapy. A type of psychotherapy called cognitive behavior therapy is especially useful for treating OCD. It teaches a person different ways of thinking, behaving, and reacting to situations that help him or her feel less anxious or fearful without having obsessive thoughts or acting compulsively. One type of therapy called exposure and response prevention is especially helpful in reducing compulsive behaviors in OCD. Medication. Doctors also may prescribe medication to help treat OCD. The most commonly prescribed medications for OCD are anti-anxiety medications and antidepressants. Anti-anxiety medications are powerful and there are different types. Many types begin working right away, but they generally should not be taken for long periods. Antidepressants are used to treat depression, but they are also particularly helpful for OCD, probably more so than anti-anxiety medications. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/index.shtml
  7. 7. IRRATIONAL AND UNWANTED THOUIGHTS AND BEHAVIORS. The repetitive and aggravating thoughts of OCD are referred to as obsessions. Some people try to control them and people with OCD repeat rituals or behaviors, which are called compulsions. People with OCD cant control these thoughts and rituals. Examples of obsessions are fear of germs, of being hurt or of hurting others, and troubling religious or sexual thoughts. Examples of compulsions are repeatedly counting things, cleaning things, washing the body or parts of it, or putting things in a certain order, when these actions are not needed, and checking things over and over.
  8. 8. LIVING WITH OBSSESIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/when-unwanted- thoughts-take-over-obsessive-compulsive-disorder/index.shtml
  9. 9. PSYCHOTHERAPY TREATMENT FOR OBSSESIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) Obsessive-compulsive ritualizers have maintained their improvement after exposure in vivo for up to 3 years' follow-up in the United States, Britain, Greece, and Australia. Unlike exposure in vivo, relaxation is of little value. Early gains in treatment predict long- term outcome. Exposure therapy is usually on an outpatient basis and takes 1-30 sessions. Self-exposure homework is critical. Sessions at home are also required, together with relatives cooperating as exposure psychotherapists. Some patients can treat themselves almost unaided, while others need extensive assistance. Clomipramine is helpful for ritualizers with coexisting depression, but depression tends to recur when clomipramine therapy is stopped.Review of behavioral psychotherapy, I: Obsessive-compulsive disorders American Journal of Psychiatry 1981 138:5, 584-592
  11. 11. Medication treatment used for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)