Obsessive compulsive disorder power point (ocd)

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  • 2. PREVALENCE 1.6% lifetime prevalence Onset in late adolescence/early adulthood Usually chronic Equal between genders High comorbity with depression (70% lifetime prevalence with OCD
  • 3. PATHOLOGY Increased metabolic activity in the basal ganglia PET scans have strongly implicated involvement of the orbito-frontal cortex, the caudate nucleus, and the thalamus Primitive cleaning and checking behaviors are hard-wired in the thalamus Most OCD cases represent an abnormality of serotonergic functioning in the fronto-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuit
  • 4. PATHOLOGY (CONTINUED) Increased activity in the head of the caudate nucleus inhibits Globus pallidus fibers that ordinarily dampen thalamic activity This resulting increase in the thalamic activity produces increased activity in the orbitofrontal cortex This completes the circuit, via the cingulate gryus, the caudate and produces increased activity in the head of the caudate
  • 5. SIGNS & SYMPTOMS People with OCD may experience; Obsessions of contamination Repeatedly thoughts and images Irrational fear of injury or diseases Inappropriate sexual thoughts Shaking, nail-biting, plucking hairs, and other repetitive movements All of these intervene with daily activities and affect overall happiness
  • 6. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS These deficits affect the frontal-striatal functioning, especially in the orbitofrontal-striatal circuitry causing; Impairment of executive functioning. Visual memory and motor speed. Poor organization skills and poor non-verbal skills. Lack of proper performance in set-shifting, alternation, and response inhibition.
  • 7. TREATMENTS Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) CBT is a psychological treatment based on ones symptoms, treatment procedures, and a specified outcome Helps construct cognitive abilities Helps reduce the level of anxiety which lead to acts of obsession. Pharmacotherapy Treatment using drugs, especially SSRIs that inhibit the uptake of serotonin after released in the synapses Messages are being transmitted between two nerve cells from a chemical synapse which creates a small gap. The presynaptic cell sends information releasing into the neurotransmitters. Serotonin is filled by these gaps. SSRI Drugs used include Clomipramine, Fluoxetine, Sertraline, & Fluvoxamine
  • 8. TREATMENTS (CONTINUED) Psychosurgery Used only in severe cases Used if patients fail to respond to medication and therapy Surgical techniques are singulotomy and leucotomy 25-30% of patients benefit from surgery