Obsessive-compulsive disorder

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  • 1.Obsessive-compulsive disorderAlan

2. Definition Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disordercharacterized by unreasonable thoughts and fears(obsessions) that lead you to do repetitive behaviors(compulsions). 3. Introduction affects almost 3% of worlds population. Start anytime from preschool to adulthood Typically between 20-24. many different forms of OCD differ from person toperson. cause of OCD is still unknown. Better when diagnosed early. 4. Specific criteria to be clinically diagnosed Anxiety disorder with presence of obsessions orcompulsions. ego dystonic realize thoughts and actions areirrational or excessive. Must take up more than 1 hour a day. Must disrupt daily routine. Symptoms cant result from effects of other medicalconditions or substances. 5. Obsessions repetitive and constants thoughts, images orimpulses that cause anxiety or distress. thoughts, images, or impulses not about real-lifeproblems. Try to ignore or counter act thoughts, images, orimpulses. thoughts, images, or impulses recognized as aproduct of ones own mind and not imposed fromwithout. 6. Compulsions Repetitive behaviors or mental acts person does inreaction to obsessions. behaviors or mental acts done to avoid or decreasedistress. behaviors or mental acts are clearly excessive ornot realistic. 7. History 14th & 15th century thought people were possessedby the devil and treated by exorcism 17th century thought people were cleansing theirguilt 18th century finally considered medical issue 20th century began treating with behavioraltechniques 8. Theories Scientist split into 2 groups Psychological disorder where people are responsible for feelings they have Abnormalities in the brain 9. Causes Serotonin is involved in regulating anxiety Abnormality in the neurotransmitter serotonin In order to send chemical messages serotonin must bindto the receptor sites located on the neighboring nervecells OCD suffers may have blocked or damaged receptorsites preventing serotonin from functioning to full potential Possible genetic mutation Some people suffering have mutation in the humanserotonin transporter gene 10. OCD and the Brain PET scans show people with OCD have differentbrain activity from others Another theory: miscommunication between theorbital frontal cortex, the caudate nucleus, andthe thalamus Caudate nucleus doesnt function properly andcauses thalamus to become hyperactive and sendsnever-ending worry signals between OFC andthalamus OFC responds by increasing anxiety 11. PET scans indicate differences in brain activity of OCD patients versus normal 12. Comorbidity Has excessive comorbidity with other diseases Common diseases: Depression, Schizophrenia, TouretteSyndrome Depression is the most common Many people with OCD suffered from depression first 2/3 of OCD patients develop depression makes OCD symptoms worse and more difficult to treat People with OCD common diagnosed as Schizophrenic hard to separate obsessions from delusions 13. Treatment Only completely curable in rare cases Most people have some symptom relief withtreatment Treatment choices depend on the problem andpatients preferences Most common treatments: Behavioral Therapy Cognitive Therapy Medication 14. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Cognitive: change the way they think to deal with their fears Behavioral: change the way they react to anxiety-provokingsituations Exposure and Response Prevention Slowly learning to tolerate anxiety associated with notperforming ritual behavior Psychotherapy Talking with therapist to discover what causes the anxietyand how to deal with symptoms Systematic Desensitization Learning cognitive strategies to deal with anxiety thengradual exposure to feared object 15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapycont Should be done when people are ready for it Must be customized for each persons specific form of OCDand their needs No side affects except increased anxiety with exposure tofear Often lasts about 12 weeks Positive effects off CBT last longer than those ofmedication If OCD returns can successfully treat again with sametherapy Best treatment approach for most is CBT combined withmedication 16. Medication Anxiolytic benzodiazepine such as chloradiazepoxide or diazepam give temporary relief from anxiety but not really effective onobsessions and compulsions Antidepressants because of common depression Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): alter the levels ofneurotransmitter serotonin in the brain which helps brain cellscommunicate with one another Prevents excess serotonin from being pumped back into original neuron that released it Then can bind to receptor sites of nearby neurons and send chemical message that can help regulate anxiety and obsessive compulsive thoughts Most effective drug treatment helping about 60% of patients Ex: Prozac, Zoloft, Lexapro, Paxil 17. Conclusion OCD is a complicated issue Most cases are incurable Best form of treatment is CBT in combination withmedication Most important thing that can be done to discovermore about OCD and its treatments is to researchthe brain