Nucleic Acids DNA vs. RNA
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Nucleic AcidsDNA vs. RNAChapter 12-3
Nucleic AcidsThere are 2 types of nucleic acids.DNA RNAAll living organisms have both DNA and RNA.Nucleic acids are made of nucleotides.They carry genetic information.
DNA vs. RNA DNA Deoxyribonucleic acidDouble-strandedSugar = deoxyriboseNucleotide Bases:AdenineThymineGuanineCytosineRNARibonucleic acidSingle-strandedSugar = riboseNucleotide Bases:AdenineUracilGuanineCytosine
DNA Nitrogen BasesG bonds to CA bonds to T
G and A are purinesC and T are pyrimidines
DNA Nucleotide Structure
DNADouble Helix2 strands wrapped around each otherStrands are twisted because of the bonding of pyrimidines to purines
DNADouble HelixStrands are oriented in opposite directions 3 to 5 OR 5 to 3
Function of DNADNA can be copied, but that does NOT explain how a gene works.DNA contains coded instructions for making proteins.The first step of making proteins is decoding the genetic messages by copying the nucleotide sequence from DNA into RNA.
RNA Nucleotide StructureRibose
RNASingle Helix1 twisted strand3 TypesmRNA Messenger RNAtRNA Transfer RNArRNA Ribosomal RNA
Functions of RNAIn most cells RNA molecules have just one job protein synthesis.All 3 types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis.Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.The assembly of amino acids is controlled by RNA.
mRNAMessenger RNA serve as messengers from DNA to the rest of the cell. They carry copies of the instructions found on genes.
tRNAtRNA takes the messages from mRNA and decodes them for the ribosome. During the construction of a protein, transfer RNA transfers each amino acid to the ribosome.
rRNAProteins are assembled on ribosomes.Ribosomes are made up of ribosomal RNA.Ribosomal RNA helps build the actual protein. rRNA puts together the amino acid messages carried by mRNA and decoded by tRNA.
DNA vs. RNA Venn Diagram