Nuclear Energy In India

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Nuclear Power Capacity In India, Nuclear Fuel (Uranium & Thorium) Reserves, Nuclear Power Plants & Reactors

Transcript of Nuclear Energy In India

  • Nuclear Energy In India Industry Information Insights 2014
  • Table of Contents Introduction Nuclear Fission Reaction Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear Reactor Types Nuclear Power Capacity Imported Fuel For Nuclear Power Domestic Nuclear Fuel Uranium Reserves Thorium Reserves Electricity Generation Fast Breeder Reactors FDI In Nuclear Power Sector Nuclear Spent Fuel Uranium Imports
  • Introduction Nuclear power plants convert the energy released from the nucleus of an atom via nuclear fission that takes place in a nuclear reactor. The change in the mass of the particle represents the release of energy. The heat is removed from the reactor core by a cooling system that uses the heat to generate steam, which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator producing electricity. Electricity was generated by a nuclear reactor for the first time ever on 3 September, 1948 at the X-10 Graphite Reactor in Oak Ridge, Tennessee in the United States, and was the first nuclear power plant to power a light bulb.
  • Introduction A nuclear reactor produces and controls the release of energy from splitting the atoms of uranium. In the reactor core the U-235 isotope fissions or splits, producing a lot of heat in a continuous process called a chain reaction. The process depends on the presence of a moderator such as water or graphite, and is fully controlled. The moderator slows down the neutrons produced by fission of the uranium nuclei so that they go on to produce more fissions.
  • Nuclear Fission Reaction
  • Components of Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear Reactor Heat Exchanger (Steam Generator) Steam Turbine Condenser Electric Generator Cooling Tower
  • Nuclear Reactor Types PHWR: Pressurized Heavy water Reactor FBR: Fast Breeder Reactor AHWR: Advanced Heavy Water Reactor LWR: Light Water Reactor A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) commonly uses unenriched natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and moderator. The heavy-water coolant is kept under pressure, allowing it to be heated to higher temperatures without boiling. The advanced heavy-water reactor (AHWR) is the latest Indian design for a next-generation nuclear reactor that burns thorium in its fuel core. It is slated to form the third stage in India's three-stage fuel-cycle plan. This phase of the fuel cycle plan is supposed to be built starting with a 300 MW prototype in 2016.
  • Nuclear Power Capacity The present nuclear power capacity of 4780 MW is expected to reach 10,080 MW on progressive completion of nuclear power projects under construction. The XII Five Year Plan includes start of work on nineteen new nuclear power reactors with a total capacity of 17,400 MW. The projected nuclear power capacity of 63,000 MW by the year 2032 as envisaged in the Integrated Energy Policy was based on capacity addition from a mix of indigenous as well as foreign technology based reactors.
  • Imported Fuel For Nuclear Power Currently, the country has 20 nuclear power reactors under commercial operation with an installed generating capacity of 4780 MW. Under the separation plan, ten of commercially operating reactors are currently placed under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards and are eligible for imported fuel. These reactors are RAPS 1 to 6 located at Rawatbhata, Rajasthan; KAPS 1&2 at Kakrapar, Gujarat and TAPS 1&2 at Tarapur, Maharashtra. Of these, one reactor, RAPS-1 located at Rawatbhata, Rajasthan (100 MW) is under extended shutdown for techno-economic assessment. The remaining nine reactors normally operate at their full capacity. In addition, KK1&2 at Kudankulam, Tamil Nadu are also under IAEA safeguards. The uranium for the reactors under IAEA safeguards is imported from Russian Federation, Kazakhstan, France and Uzbekistan.
  • Domestic Nuclear Fuel Ten nuclear power reactors - KGS 1 to 4 located at Kaiga, Karnataka; NAPS 1 & 2 at Narora, Uttar Pradesh; MAPS 1 & 2 at Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu; and TAPS 3 & 4 at Tarapur, Maharashtra use indigenous uranium. Due to a mismatch between demand and supply of domestic Uranium, the total power generated by these reactors is generally lower than their gross installed capacity of 2,840 MW. Domestic availability of mined uranium is currently inadequate to meet the entire requirements of running of the existing nuclear power plants at full generating capacity.
  • Uranium Reserves Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), a constituent unit of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is engaged in survey, prospecting & exploration activities for uranium deposits in various parts of the country. Uranium Corporation of India (UCIL) exploits identified uranium resources in the country. As of May, 2014, AMD has established 2,11,473 tonne in situ Uranium oxide (U3O8) (equivalent to 1,79,329 tonnes of Uranium) reserves in different states in India.
  • State-wise Uranium Reserves State U3O8 (Tonnes) U (Tonnes) Andhra Pradesh 91540 77625 Telangana 18550 15731 Jharkhand 61118 51828 Meghalaya 21180 17961 Rajasthan 8393 7117 Karnataka 4682 3970 Chhattisgarh 3986 3380 Uttar Pradesh 785 666 Uttarakhand 100 85 Himachal Pradesh 784 665 Maharashtra 355 301 Total 211473 179329
  • Thorium Reserves The Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research (AMD), a constituent unit of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), has so far established 11.93 million tonnes of monazite (Thorium bearing mineral) in India, which contains about 1.07 million tonnes of thorium. Monazite is the only commercially available mineral in India as a source of thorium. It is found in the beach sands of coastal India. Indian Rare Earths Limited (IREL), a Central Public Sector Undertaking wholly owned by the Government of India, under the administrative control of the Department of Atomic Energy is engaged in mining and mineral separation of beach sand minerals. IREL produces monazite in its plant at Manavalakurichi in Tamil Nadu, Chavara in Kerala and OSCOM in Odisha.
  • State-wise Monazite Reserves State Monazite (Million tonnes) Odisha 2.41 Andhra Pradesh 3.72 Tamil Nadu 2.46 Kerala 1.9 West Bengal 1.22 Jharkhand 0.22 Total 11.93
  • Electricity Generation The target of nuclear energy generation in the XI Five Year Plan was 163,395 million units (MUs), which was revised to 124,608 MUs at Mid-Term Appraisal stage. The actual generation in the XI Five Year Plan was 109,642 MUs. The shortfall in generation was on account of non-availability of indigenous uranium in the required quantity, delay in fruition of international cooperation resulting in delay in availability of imported uranium and revision of completion schedule of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP) and Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) projects to XII Five Year Plan.
  • Fast Breeder Reactors Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) help multifold enhancement in the nuclear power generation capacity in the country not only by not requiring mined uranium for their fuel, but also producing surplus plutonium (a man made nuclear fuel material produced in nuclear reactors) that can meet lifetime fuel requirements of these reactors and also provide fuel for initial load of additional FBRs. FBRs provide the essential pathway to enable full deployment of vast thorium resources in the third stage of nuclear power programme, to meet substantial part of the Indian energy needs for several centuries. The 500 MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) being constructed at Kalpakkam is in advanced stage of construction and commissioning. At present Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam Limited (BHAVINI), a public sector undertaking under Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is constructing one 500 MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu. Being first of its kind reactor in the country, several technological challenges are being encountered during the equipment manufacture and construction; and BHAVINI has been successfully overcoming these challenges through indigenous research efforts.
  • FDI in Nuclear Power Sector There have been suggestions made to allow Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in nuclear power generation sector. The economic survey 2008-09 had suggested allowing FDI in nuclear power generation sector with a cap of 49%. However, no decision in this regard has been taken. The present policy puts atomic energy in the list of prohibited sectors. However, there is no restriction on FDI in the nuclear industries for manufacturing of equipment and providing other supplies for nuclear power plants and related other facilities.
  • Nuclear Spent Fuel About 640 tonnes of spent fuel was generated in the year 2012-13 from nuclear power generation. India has adopted a closed fuel cycle option, which involves reprocessing and recycling of the spent fuel. During rep