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    All Rights Reserved 2012 Ng Chee Kin

    Written By

    Ng Chee KinB.Sc.(Hons.), MBA

    ngcheekin@gmail.commrcheekin@blogspot.com.au

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    4 Hazard warning symbols:

    Highly flammable

    Examples:Ethanol, petrol

    Explosive

    Examples:Sodium, potassium

    Corrosive

    Examples:Concentratedhydrochloric acid,sodium hydroxide

    Poisonous/toxic

    Examples:Lead, mercury

    Irritant

    Examples:Chlorine, chloroform

    Highly flammable

    Examples:Ethanol, petrol

    1.3 The Steps in a Scientific Investigation

    (1) Identifying the problem

    (2) Forming a hypothesis

    (3) Planning the experiment

    (4) Controlling variables

    (5) Collecting data

    (6) Analysing and interpreting data

    (7) Drawing a conclusion

    (8) Writing a report

    1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units

    1 Physical quantities and their s1 units:

    Physicalquantities

    SI unitsUnit

    symbols

    length metre m

    mass kilogram kg

    time second s

    temperature kelvin K

    electric current ampere A

    1.5 Weight and Mass

    1 The weight of an object is the pull of theEarths gravity on the object.

    2 The mass of an object is the quantity of matterin the object.

    1.6 Measuring Tools

    Physicalquantity

    Tools/methodUnits

    and theirrelationship

    Length ofstraight lines

    Metre rule,ruler, calipers(internal &

    1 cm = 10 mm1 m = 100 cm1 km = 1000 m

    external),micrometer,verniercalipers

    Length of

    curves

    String

    and ruler,opisometer

    Area ofregularshapes

    Mathematicalformulae,graph paper

    1 cm2= 100 mm2

    1 m2= 10 000 cm2

    1 km2= 1 000 000 m2

    Area ofirregularshapes

    Estimationusing graphpaper

    Volume of

    liquids

    Measuring

    cylinder,pipette,burette

    1 ml= 1 cm3

    1 l= 1 000 cm3

    1 m3= 1 000 000 cm3

    Volume ofregular-shaped solids

    Mathematicalformulae,waterdisplacementmethod(Eureka canor measuring

    cylinder filledwith water) 1 m3= 1 000 000 cm3

    Volume ofirregular-shaped solids

    Waterdisplacementmethod(usingEureka canor measuringcylinder filledwith water)

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    1.7 The Importance of Standard Units

    1 Standard unit improves internationalcommunications.

    2 They also ensure the physical quantities aremeasured accurately and consistently.

    CHAPTER 2

    Cell As a Unit of Life

    2.1 What is a Cell?

    1 A cell is the basic unit of life. 2 Its function is to carry out life processes.

    Protoplasm Cell membrane

    Nucleus Cytoplasm

    Cell

    Animal cells Plant cells

    Irregular in shape Regular in shape

    No cell wall Have cell wall

    No chloroplasts Have chloroplasts

    Mostly no vacuoles Have large vacuoles

    3 The functions of cell structures:

    Structure Function

    Nucleus Controls all cell activities

    Cytoplasm A place where chemicalprocesses take place

    Cell membrane Controls flow of materialsin and out of cell

    Cell wall Gives shape to the cell

    (e)

    (f)

    2 A multicellular organism has many cells. (a) (b)

    (c)

    2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Body

    1 Organisation of cell:

    Cell (simple)

    Tissue

    Organ

    System

    Organism (complex)

    nucleus

    Chloroplast Carries outphotosynthesis

    Vacuoles Stores water anddissolved materials

    4 A microscope is used to study the general

    structure of a cell.

    2.2 Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms

    1 A unicellular organism has one cell only.

    (a)

    (b)

    (c)

    (d)

    Pleurococcus

    Amoebapseudopodium

    nucleus

    Chlamydomonas

    Paramecium

    chloroplast

    cilium

    Euglena

    Yeast

    nucleus

    bud

    Chondrus

    Hydra

    Spirogyra

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    2 Examples of cell: (a) Nerve cell

    (b) Red blood cell

    (c) Epithelial cell

    (d) Bone cell

    3 Examples of tissue: (a) Connective tissue

    (b) Mucsle tissue

    (c) Nerve tissue

    (d) Epithelial tissue

    4 Examples of system:

    (a) (b)

    (c) (d)

    (e) (f)

    BrainTongue

    KidneyEye

    StomachLungs

    5 Examples of system:

    2.4 The Human Being A Complex Organism

    1 A human being is a complex multicellularorganism because the cells are organized intotissues, organs and systems.

    2 Cell specialisation helps to divide bodyfunctions among the different types of cells.

    3 Cell specialisation and cell organisationensure the life processes are carried outeffectively.

    Pituitarygland

    Testis(male)

    Ovary(female)

    Adrenalgland

    Thyroidgland

    Female

    Oviduct orFallopian tube

    Ovary

    UterusVagina

    Male

    Spermduct

    Urethra

    penis

    Testis

    Sexglands

    Endocrine system

    Nose

    Trachea Bronchus

    Lungs

    Skin

    Liver

    Kidney

    Urinarybladder

    Respiratory system Excretory system

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    CHAPTER 3

    Matter

    3.1 What is Matter?

    1 Matter is everything that has mass and

    occupies space. 2 Examples of matter are wood, air, water, soiland living things.

    3.2 The States of Matter

    1 Matter exists in three states: solid, liquidandgas.

    2 Matter changes its state when it is heated orcooled.

    3 The kinetic theory of matterstates that matterconsists of tinyand discreteparticles.

    4 Characteristics of state matter:Characteristic Solid Liquid Gas

    Arrangementof particles

    Closelypacked

    Further apart Very farapart

    Spacesbetweenparticles

    Very small Large Very large

    Movement ofparticles

    No freemovement,vibrateabout a fixedposition

    Move freely,collide withone another

    Movefreely, veryrapidly andrandomly

    Density High Medium Low

    Shape Definiteshape

    No definiteshape

    No definiteshape

    Volume Definitevolume

    Definitevolume

    No definitevolume

    Examples Soil, wood,most metals

    Water,mercury(a type ofmetal)

    Air

    3.3 The Concept of Density

    1 Densityis defined as mass per unit volume ofa substance.

    MassDensity =

    Volume

    2 The unit of density is gram per cubiccentimeter (g/cm3).

    3 The buoyancy of a substance is affected by itsdensity.

    4 Buoyancy (or flotation) refers to the abilityof a substance to float or sink in another

    substance. 5 A lower density substance will float on a

    higher density liquid. 6 On the other hand, a higher density substance

    will sink in a lower density liquid.

    3.4 The Properties of Matter and Their Applicationin Everyday Life

    Matter Example Applications

    Solid Iron, steel To construct buildings,bridges and vehicles,make cooking utensils

    Wood To build bridges adhouses, making furniture

    Plastic To make toys, componentsin vehicles

    Liquid Mercury To make thermometer,hydrometer

    Water To make drinks, cooking,washing and cleaning

    Gas Air To fill buoy, rise hotair balloons, make asubmarine sink or float

    CHAPTER 4

    The Variety of Resources on Earth

    4.1 The Various Resources on Earth

    1 The basic resources needed for life on Earthare:

    Basic

    resource

    ImportanceUseful

    substancesAir Needed for

    respiration andcombustion

    Oxygen,nitrogen,carbondioxide

    Carbon dioxideis needed forphotosynthesis

    Water Needed to supportthe functions of thebody systems

    Fresh water

    Soil Contains air, water,minerals and organicsubstances which areneeded to supportliving things

    Humus

    Minerals Minerals such asmetals are usedto make usefulproducts andconstruct buildings

    Metals

    water (1.00 g/cm3)

    zinc (7.10 g/cm3)

    cork (0.24 g/cm3)

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    Fossilfuels

    Used to produceenergy in powerplants, factories,vehicles, machinesand to make plastics

    Coal,petroleum,natural gases

    Living

    things

    They are sources

    of food, buildingmaterials, clothesand fuel

    Meat, skin,

    carcasses,silk, milk

    4.2 Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

    Comparing elements, compounds and mixtures

    Aspect Element Compound Mixture

    Appearance

    Definition It is thesimplessubstance

    It is madeup of twoor moresubstanceswhich arechemicallycombined

    It is madeup of twoor moresubstanceswhichare notchemicallycombined

    Composition Only

    consists ofone typeof particle

    Can consist

    of one ormore thanone type ofparticle

    Separationmethod

    Cannot beseparated

    by anyprocesses

    Can beseparated

    by chemica lmeans only,such aselectrolysis

    Can beseparated

    byphysicalmeans,such asfiltration

    Examples Iron,hydrogen,oxygen,helium,carbon,mercury

    Naphthalene,sugar, rubber,table salt,water

    Soil, air,dessert

    Comparing metals and non-metals

    Physicalproperties

    Metals Non-metals

    Surfaceappearance

    Shiny Dull

    Brittlenessand hardness

    Ductile (canbe pulled intostrands) andhard

    Brittle (canbreak easily)and soft

    Malleability(ability to beshaped)

    Malleable Non-malleable

    Conductivityof heat

    Goodconductor ofheat

    Poorconductor ofheat

    Conductivityof electricity

    Goodconductor ofe