Nota Bab 2 Locomotion and Support Part 1

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Transcript of Nota Bab 2 Locomotion and Support Part 1

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    SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN PERMAS JAYA

    PREPARED BY :PREPARED BY :--

    AZAM SENSEIAZAM SENSEI

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    CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 2CONCEPT MAP OF CHAPTER 2

    LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT

    LOCOMOTION & SUPPORT IN

    HUMANS & ANIMALSSUPPORT IN PLANTS

    TYPES OF

    SKELETON

    Muscles, ligaments

    & tendon LOCOMOTION AQUATIC PLANTSTERRESTRIAL

    PLANTS

    Birds

    Hydrostatic skeleton

    Exoskeleton

    Endoskeleton

    Fish

    Axial skeletonAppendicular

    skeleton

    Grasshopper

    Earthworms

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    The Necessity for Support &The Necessity for Support &

    Locomotion in Humans & AnimalsLocomotion in Humans & Animals

    WHY DO HUMANS & ANIMALSWHY DO HUMANS & ANIMALSNEED SUPPORT?NEED SUPPORT?

    1.1. To find the foodTo find the food2.2. To find partner for matingTo find partner for mating

    3.3. To protect/escape from theirTo protect/escape from theirpredatorpredator

    4.4. To shelter from bad environmentTo shelter from bad environment

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    The Necessity for Support &The Necessity for Support &

    Locomotion in Humans & AnimalsLocomotion in Humans & Animals Without support, animals & humansWithout support, animals & humanswould not be able tomaintain their bodywould not be able tomaintain their bodyshapeshape their body collapse under thetheir body collapse under the

    weight of theirown tissues.weight of theirown tissues.

    Support are provided by some formofSupport are provided by some formof

    skeletonskeleton..Hydrostatic skeletonHydrostatic skeleton

    ExoskeletonExoskeleton

    endoskeletonendoskeleton

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    HYDROSTATIC SKELETONHYDROSTATIC SKELETON

    AAfluidfluid--filled internal body cavityfilled internal body cavity ininwhich the fluid is held under pressurewhich the fluid is held under pressure maintaining the body shape & providingmaintaining the body shape & providing

    support for internal organsupport for internal organ

    The cavity is surrounded by musclesThe cavity is surrounded by muscles

    arr

    anged in layer

    s.arr

    anged in layer

    s.

    TheThe body shapebody shape of the animalof the animal changeschanges asasthese muscles contract & relax.these muscles contract & relax.

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    The animals areThe animals are soft&flexiblesoft&flexible, the, the hydrostaticfluidhydrostaticfluid

    does protect body parts bydoes protect body parts byactingasashockactingasashock

    absorber.absorber.

    Examples :Examples : earthworm, jellyfish,leech&caterpillar.earthworm, jellyfish,leech&caterpillar.

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    EXOSKELETONEXOSKELETON Arigid outer covering usually made upArigid outer covering usually made upof protein,of protein, chitinschitins &/@ calcium salt.&/@ calcium salt.

    InsectsInsects thethe cuticlecuticle (covered with wax(covered with waxto prevent water loss from the body),to prevent water loss from the body),cover the bodys surface.cover the bodys surface.

    The exoskeleton isThe exoskeleton is jointed / hingedjointed / hinged ==certain points of the skeleton are flexiblecertain points of the skeleton are flexible& can bend& can bend enabling the movement.enabling the movement.

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    Exoskeleton restrict the growth of animalsExoskeleton restrict the growth of animals thetheexoskeleton must be shed from time to time inexoskeleton must be shed from time to time in

    order for the animal to grow. (order for the animal to grow. (ecdysisecdysis))

    Also found in the shells ofAlso found in the shells ofmolluscsmolluscs & the bony& the bonyplates of tortoises.plates of tortoises.

    Examples :Examples : insects, crabs, lobsters, tortoiseinsects, crabs, lobsters, tortoise

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    ENDOSKELETONENDOSKELETON Found in the bodies of all vertebrates includingFound in the bodies of all vertebrates including

    fish, amphibians & birds.fish, amphibians & birds.

    Consist of hard skeleton ofConsist of hard skeleton ofbones & cartilagebones & cartilagefound insidefound inside the bodythe body made up of calcium &made up of calcium &phosphate.phosphate.

    Works with the muscular system to performWorks with the muscular system to performmovement & locomotion. It support the body &movement & locomotion. It support the body &protects the organs.protects the organs.

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    The Necessity for Support &The Necessity for Support &

    Locomotion in Humans & AnimalsLocomotion in Humans & Animals The functions of skeleton :The functions of skeleton :

    Provide shape & supportProvide shape & supportEnables movement (locomotion)Enables movement (locomotion)

    Protects internal organsProtects internal organs

    Stor

    es calcium

    & phosphate i

    onsSt

    ores calciu

    m& ph

    osphate i

    ons

    Produces blood cellsProduces blood cells

    A firm base for the attachment ofA firm base for the attachment ofmusclesmuscles

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    The Necessity for Support &The Necessity for Support &

    Locomotion in Humans & AnimalsLocomotion in Humans & AnimalsProblems that could be faced by humans

    and animals in support and locomotion, gravitationalforce,friction&resistancegravitationalforce,friction&resistancewhen movingwhen moving

    aroundaround Aspect need to be considered when describing theAspect need to be considered when describing the

    locomotion of an animal :locomotion of an animal :-- StabilityStability when it moves, it is temporarily unstable, butwhen it moves, it is temporarily unstable, but

    its stability will be restored when it stops.its stability will be restored when it stops. SupportSupport must have enough support from its bodysmust have enough support from its bodys

    skeletonskeleton

    PropulsionPropulsion must be propelled in order to movemust be propelled in order to move

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    HOW TO OVERCOME THEHOW TO OVERCOME THE

    PROBLEMS?PROBLEMS?

    RESISTANCE & FRICTIONRESISTANCE & FRICTION by streamliningby streamlining

    their bodies.their bodies.

    GRAVITATIONAL FORCEGRAVITATIONAL FORCE most animalsmost animals

    have their own supporting structures (finshave their own supporting structures (fins

    fishes, wingsfishes, wings birds & strong limbsbirds & strong limbs tetrapodstetrapods

    & humans)& humans) provide the propulsive force toprovide the propulsive force toovercome the problemovercome the problem

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    The skeletal system together with itsThe skeletal system together with itsmuscles are designed specially to overcomemuscles are designed specially to overcomethe problems associated with support &the problems associated with support &locomotion of humans & animals.locomotion of humans & animals.

    To initiate locomotion, the force requiredTo initiate locomotion, the force required

    is generated by contraction of muscles,is generated by contraction of muscles,whereas the movement is transmitted bywhereas the movement is transmitted bythe skeleton.the skeleton.

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    FUNCTION OF THE SKELETONFUNCTION OF THE SKELETON

    MOVEMENTMOVEMENT bones interact with thebones interact with the

    skeletal muscle.skeletal muscle.

    BLOOD CELL FORMATIONBLOOD CELL FORMATION most of themost of theblood cells are formed in the bone marrow ofblood cells are formed in the bone marrow of

    the long bones.the long bones.

    MINERAL STORAGEMINERAL STORAGE bones act as abones act as areservoir for calcium & phosphorus.reservoir for calcium & phosphorus.

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    SKELETAL SYSTEMSKELETAL SYSTEM

    HUMAN SKELETON

    AXIAL SKELETON

    APPENDICULAR SKELETON

    SKULL VERTEBRAL COLUMN RIB CAGE PECTORAL GIRDLE

    PELVIC GIRDLE

    FORELIMB BONES

    HINDLIMB BONES

    CERVICAL

    THORACIC

    LUMBAR

    SACRUM

    COCCYX

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