NOrthern IReland

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  • 1. Northern Ireland By: Maribel Colocho Zuleima Avalos

2. nationalism The nationalism that is practiced in northern Ireland is the Ulster nationalism. The Ulster unionist party dominates northern Ireland. Ulster nationalism is a name given to a school of thought in Northern Irish politics that seeks the independence of northern Ireland from the United Kingdom without becoming part of the republic of Ireland. Ulster nationalism represented a reaction from within Unionism and Loyalism to the uncertain position offered to the union by the British government. 3. Origins of Ulster Began in 1946 when W. F. McCoy (a former cabinet in Government of Northern Ireland) advocated the Dominion of Ulster unionist Party. He felt that the uncertain constitutional state of Northern Ireland made it vulnerable. The term Ulster derives from one of the four traditional provinces; name is used to refer to Northern Ireland within unionism and Ulster loyalism. He wanted to use the Ulster nationalism as a way to safeguard Northern Ireland's relationship with the United Kingdom. 4. Northern Ireland peaceprocess 5. Government Northern Ireland WAS an integral part of As a result of the Good Friday Agreement the United Kingdom, but under the terms of 1998, a new coalition government was of the Government of Ireland Act in 1920, formed on Dec. 2, 1999, with the British it had a semiautonomous government. government formally transferring In 1972, however, after three years ofgoverning power to the Northern Irish sectarian violence between Protestantsparliament. and Catholics that resulted in more thanDavid Trimble, Protestant leader of the 400 dead and thousands injured, Britain Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) and winner suspended the Ulster parliament.of the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize, became The Ulster counties were governed first minister. directly from London after an attempt toThe government has been suspended return certain powers to an elected four times since then; it has remained assembly in Belfast.suspended since Oct. 14, 2002. 6. Northern Ireland WAS part of the United Kingdom, but under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act in 1920, it had a semiautonomous government. However, in 1972 after three years of violence between Protestant and Catholic, the United Kingdom suspended the Ulster parliament The Good Friday Agreement of 1998 also known as the Belfast Agreement was a major political development in Northern Ireland peace process. As a result of the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, a new coalition government was formed on Dec. 2, 1999, with the British government formally transferring governing power to the Northern Irish parliament. 7. Northern Ireland did not separate from Ulster was part of Catholicthe South until William Gladstone Ireland until the reign of Elizabeth presented, in 1886, his proposal for I (15581603) when, afterhome rule in Ireland. suppressing three Irish rebellions, The Protestants in the North feared the Crown confiscated lands in domination by the Catholic majority. Ireland and settled the Scots Industry, moreover, was concentrated Presbyterians in Ulster. in the North and dependent on the A rebellion in 16411651, brutallyBritish market. crushed by Oliver Cromwell, When World War I began, civil war resulted in the settlement ofthreatened between the regions. Anglican Englishmen in Ulster. Northern Ireland, however, did notbecome a political entity until the six Subsequent political policy favoring counties accepted the Home Rule Bill of Protestants and disadvantaging 1920. Catholics encouraged further This set up a semiautonomous Protestant settlement in Northernparliament in Belfast and a Crown- Ireland. appointed governor advised by a cabinetof the prime minister and 8 ministers,as well as a 12-member representationin the House of Commons in London. 8. Ca t h o l i ca n d P r o t e s t a n t C o mmu n i t i e s When the Republic of Ireland gained British troops were brought in toseparate them but they became aMo u n t sovereignty in 1922, relationstarget of Catholics, particularly by improved between North and Souththe IRA, which by this time had Irish Republican Army (IRA), turned into a full-fledged terrorist outlawed in recent years, continuedmovement. the struggle to end the partition of The goal of the IRA was to ejectthe British and unify Northern Ireland.Ireland with the Irish Republic to In 19661969, rioting and streetthe south. fighting between Protestants and The Protestants remained Catholics occurred in Londonderry, tenaciously loyal to the UnitedKingdom, and various Protestant fomented by extremist nationalistterrorist organizations pursued the Protestants, who feared theUnionist cause through violence. Catholics might attain a local Various attempts at majority, and by Catholics representational government and demonstrating for civil rights.power-sharing foundered during the1970s, and both sides were further These confrontations became knownpolarized. as the Troubles. Direct rule from London and thepresence of British troops failed to 9. Mairead Corrigan and Betty In 1997, Northern Ireland made a Williams, founders of the Communitysignificant step in the direction of of Peace People, a nonsectarianstemming sectarian strife. organization dedicated to creating The first formal peace talks began peace in Northern Ireland. on Oct. 6 with representatives of Intermittent violence continued, eight major Northern Irish political however, and on Aug. 27, 1979, anparties participating, a feat that in IRA bomb killed Lord Mountbatten itself required three years of as he was sailing off southern negotiations. Ireland. Two smaller Protestant parties, This incident heightened tensions. including extremist Ian Paisley's Catholic protests over the death ofDemocratic Unionists, boycotted the IRA hunger striker Bobby Sands intalks. 1981 fueled more violence. Sinn Fein, the political wing of the Riots, sniper fire, and terroristIRA, won two seats in the British attacks killed more than 3,200 parliament people between 1969 and 1998.Although the election strengthened Among the attempts at the IRA's political legitimacy, it was reconciliation undertaken during the the IRA's resumption of the 17- 1980s was the Anglo-Irishmonth cease-fire, which had Agreement (1985), which, to thecollapsed in Feb. 1996, that gained dismay of Unionists, marked thethem a place at the negotiating 10. A landmark settlement, the Good The resounding commitment to the Friday Agreement of April 10, 1998,settlement was demonstrated in a came after 19 months of intensivedual referendum on May 22, 1998: negotiations.the North approved the accord by a The accord called for Protestants to vote of 71% to 29%, and in the Irish share political power with the Republic 94% favored it. minority Catholics, and it gave the In October, the Nobel Peace Prize Republic of Ireland a voice in was awarded to John Hume and Northern Irish affairs.David Trimble, leaders of the largest In turn, Catholics were to suspend Catholic and Protestant political the goal of a united Irelanda parties, an incentive for all sides to territorial claim that was the raisonensure that this time the peace d'tre of the IRA and was written into would last. the Irish Republic's constitution unless the largely Protestant North voted in favor of such an arrangement, an unlikely occurrence. 11. A New CoalitionGovernment In Dec. 1998 the rival Northern Ireland If the IRA did not begin the politicians agreed on the organization and destruction of their weapons by Jan. contents of the new coalition government,31, 2000 the Ulster Unionists but in June 1999, the peace process again hit an impasse when the IRA refused to threatened to withdraw from the disarm prior to the Assembly of Northern Northern Irish parliament, shutting Ireland's new provincial cabinet.down the new government. Sinn Fein insisted that the IRA would With the compromise , this only begin giving up its illegal weapons government was quickly formed, and after the formation of the new on Dec. 2, 1999, the British government; Unionists demanded government formally transferred disarmament first.governing power to the Northern As a result, the Ulster UnionistsIrish parliament. boycotted the Assembly session that would have nominated the cabinet to run By the deadline, Sinn Fein had made the new coalition government.little progress toward disarmament The nascent Northern Irish government =British government suspended was stillborn in July 1999.parliament on Feb. 12, 2000, and By end of November, David Trimble, once again imposed direct rule. leader of the Ulster Unionists, abandoned In July 2001, after issuing one last the no guns, no government position and took a difficult leap of faith in agreeingultimatum to the IRA to begin to form a government prior to Sinn Fein'sdestroying its weapons stores, disarmament. Ulster Unionist leader Trimbleresigned his post as first minister. 12. A New Coalition Government Following Trimble's departure, the The Council on Foreign Relations has IRA offered another vague andestimated that Protestantparamilitary groups have been open-ended disarmament plan, onlyresponsible for 30% of the civilian to withdraw it.deaths in the Northern Irish Oct. 23, days before Britain was to conflict. suspend the Assembly, Sinn Fein The two main Protestant vigilantegroups are the Ulster Volunteer leader Gerry Adams dramaticallyForce (UVF) and the Ulster Defence announced that the IRA had indeedAssociation (UDA). begun disarming. As a result,Strongest during the 1970s, their Trimble was reelected as first ranks have since diminished. minister.While Protestant paramilitarieshave observed a cease-fire since the British and Irish leaders hoped thatIRA declared one, none of these Protestant paramilitary groups would groups have made any moves toward also begin to surrender theirsurrendering their weapons as weaponsstip