Nongreen revolution for socioeconomic transformation in Terai
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Nongreen revolution for socioeconomic transformation in TeraiJay Kant Raut, Ph.D.Central Department of Biotechnology Tribhuvan University Kirtipur, Kathmandu
2011/11/14 In the last century, the Green Revolution addressed the food needs of the human population through the development of high yielding and early maturing varieties that performed under favorable conditions of nutrition and moisture (Khush 2001). Prior to this time, increased production was dependent on expansion of land area for crop production. In recent years, yield gain through breeding has not kept pace with population growth (Serageldin 1999).
immense amount of lignocellulosic biomass resource, which, like solar energy, is sustainable
more than 70% of agricultural and forest products have not been put to total productivity and have been discarded as wastes
mushrooms not only can convert these huge lignocellulosic biomass wastes into human food but also can produce notable biomedicinal products, which have many health benefits2A mushroom-based industry utilizing the lignocellulosic waste materials can have a positive long-term global impact on
human nutrition, human health, environmental conservation and regeneration, as well as promoting economic and social changes
Therefore, the significant impact of mushroom cultivation , mushroom derivatives and products on human welfare in the 21st century can be considered globally as a Nongreen RevolutionNongreen revolution
3 What is a mushroom?
Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of certain fungithe equivalent of the apple, not of the tree..
KMushroom DiversityTo date about 812 species (227 genera 675 species- Basidiomycotina;59 genera and 137 species- Ascomycotina)
edible (110 spp.), Poisonous (65 spp.) fermentation (5 spp.) decoration (12 spp.)mycorrhizal (50 spp.) medicinal (73 spp.) other uses 5 (spp.)Total mushroom diversity of Nepal
6The world of fungi provides a fascinating and almost endless source of biological diversity, which is a rich source for exploitation
Mushroom Farming: Global ScenarioIt has great scope in developing countries like Nepal, China, India because of the cheap and easily available raw materials needed for this activity.
China as for example, in 1978, the production of edible mushroomswas only 60,000 tonnes while In 2006, it was over 14 million tonnes.
More than 30 million people directly or indirectly engaged in mushroom production and businesses
China has become a leading mushroom producer and consumer in the world
Its global production has reached 33.4 million tons in 2007 while it was 26 million tons in 2000
The world market in 2006 was valued at over US$ 60 billion while it was US$ 40 billion in 20017Mushroom farming is getting popular around the world.Top world producer of mushrooms (2007)Sources: FAO, United Nations
8Mushroom Farming: Domestic Scenario
Mushroom farming started in 1974 on commercial scale from Kathmandu valley
The production was 30 kg in that year which has reached to 834 metric tons in 2010
The per capita consumption/day reached 0.02 g in 2005 from 0.01 g in 2000
These increase can be taken as a highly encouraging sign coming from the potential mushroom consumers in Nepal
In 2005, its import was 0.06 thousand metric tons and export was 0.03 thousand metric tons 9Button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus)Shitake (Lentinus edodes)Oyster (Pleurotus sajor-caju) Oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) Straw mushroom (Volvarielia volvaceae)Black mushroom (Auricularia polytrica)The most popular mushrooms in Nepal which have been farming on commercial scale
10The paraphyletic group Protists, along with Animalia, Plantae & Fungi.Advantage of Mushroom Cultivation1. Wastes such as cereal straws are largely burnt by the farmers, which causes air pollution. It is ecofriendly activities and can greatly reduce environmental pollution.
2. It is a labour intensive activity and serve as means of generating employment, particularly for rural women and youths in order to raise their social status.
3. It enriches the diet with high quality proteins, minerals and vitamins which can be of direct benefit to the human health and fitness.
The extractable bioactive compounds from medicinal mushrooms would enhance humans immune systems and improve their quality of life.
11The paraphyletic group Protists, along with Animalia, Plantae & Fungi.Nutritional AttributeFood value of the different cultivated mushroom (% fresh weight)Mushrooms/ Food ItemsProteinCHOFatCalciumThiamineRiboflavinIronNiacin(Ca)Vit. B1Vit. B2(Fe)Vit. B3Pleurotus pulmonarius2.95.661.7184.108.40.206.47.72(26-35)*Volvariella volvacea3.860.6220.127.116.11.3(25-29)*Agaricus brunnescens3.518.104.22.168.1-trace5.85(24-34)*Lentinula edodes22.214.171.1243--1.97.6(13-17)*Auricularia polytricha126.96.36.199.150.080.193.64(4-8)*Potato29.10110.10.040.70.04Milk188.8.131.52180.040.170.10.17Fish14-202-31-215601.21.51.2Egg13213.368180.271-150.27Meat21-184.108.40.206.292.5229Carrot220.127.116.1190.060.060.80.06Compiled from various sources. * Numbers in parenthesis are dry weight data(Sources: Tropical Mushroom Cultivation by T.H. Quimio, 2002)
12They are good source of minerals, p,k,Fe, cu. They are richer in vitamins than most vegetables and almost free from fat (0.2g/100g)Protein content is twice as high as that in most vegetables. They are low in calories (less than35 K cal/100g) with traces of sugars and without cholestrol.Advantage of Mushroom Cultivation4. Mushroom cultivation is a cash crop. It generates additional family income or foreign exchange that will definitely improve the economic standards of the people.
5. Some tropical mushrooms ( e.g. Straw mushrooms) are relatively fast growing organisms and can be harvested in 3 to 4 weeks after spawning. It is a short return agricultural business and can be of immediate benefit to the community.
13The paraphyletic group Protists, along with Animalia, Plantae & Fungi.Suitability of Mushroom farming in TeraiA wet and warm climate and have an abundant supply of agricultural wastes which are relatively cheap
A plentiful supply of manual labor
Costs of building materials and other inputs related to construction costs are much lower
Comparatively well facility of transportation
14The paraphyletic group Protists, along with Animalia, Plantae & Fungi.Suitability of Mushroom farming in TeraiTerai is bordering the highly populated Indian states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Uttaranchal with potential huge market
The supply and demand gap in the world trade of mushrooms and the shrinkage of production in countries like Japan, Taiwan and South Korea due to high labor costs would result in better international market prices for Terai mushroom producers
15The paraphyletic group Protists, along with Animalia, Plantae & Fungi.SubstrateMushroom speciesRice Straw Straw(Volvariella), Oyster (Pleurotus), Button (Agaricus)Wheat strawOyster (Pleurotus), Button (Agaricus), Stropharia, Straw (Volvariella)SawdustShiitake (Lentinus), Oyster (Pleurotus), Ear (Auricularia),Reishi (Ganoderma), Maitake (Grifola frondosa),Lions Head or Pom Pom (Hericium)Sawdust-strawOyster (Pleurotus), StrophariaCotton wasteOyster (Pleurotus), Straw (Volvariella)from textile industryLogsNameko (Pholiota), Shiitake (Lentinus)White jelly (Tremella)Crushed bagasse andOyster (Pleurotus)molasses wastes fromsugar industryWater hyacinth/Water lilyOyster (Pleurotus), Straw (Volvariella)Banana leavesStraw (Volvariella)Bean strawOyster (Pleurotus)Sawdust-rice branNameko (Pholiota), Ear (Auricularia), Shiitake (Lentinus)Shaggy Mane (Coprinus), Winter (Flammulina),Various types of raw substrate available in Terai and associated mushroom species
Socioeconomic ImpactThe people can get themselves trained on mushroom cultivation or mushroom seed production to earn their livelihood
Very profitable entrepreneurship. One can get a minimum 40% profit out of mushroom cultivation
It can provide self employment opportunity to large number of unemployed youth, farmers and specially the woman entrepreneurs
Women in Terai are mostly confined to indoor activities. They can perform it in their house to generate additional income and improve their socioeconomic conditions
17The paraphyletic group Protists, along with Animalia, Plantae & Fungi.Socioeconomic ImpactStrongly discourage the youth migration for foreign employment in the society
Alleviate the malnutrition in the society providing a good source of protein nutrition in the substitute of animal protein (meat)
18The paraphyletic group Protists, along with Animalia, Plantae & Fungi.RecommendationsPeoples should be made aware on recent development of mushroom and its farming through local media and other possible means (e.g. mushroom fair, mushroom excursion, mushroom dinner).
Mushroom farming is both a science and an art. The science, in its broad form, will come through research, training, workshops/courses. The art will come through practical involvement and experience,
Thus, regional mushroom resource centers should be established that produce technical manpower to operate and manage the mushroom farming venture
19which can be done by periodically organizing seminars, workshops and trainers training on mushroom so as to extend the technology properly and perfectly to the villagers or growers through trainers.RecommendationsQuality spawn (mushroom seeds), and necessary technical assistance should be made available to growers on time
Till now, mostly the mushroom farming were done in farmers level i.e. cottage industry level. Thus, now