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  • 8/7/2019 Nikhil asignment





    (Hyper Text Markup Language)

    Submitted To: Submitted by:

    Mr. Rajwinder Singh Nikhil

    MBA-2nd year

    Roll no.:-5889, Sec-C

    School Of Management Studies

    Punjabi University, Patiala


  • 8/7/2019 Nikhil asignment


  • 8/7/2019 Nikhil asignment


    HTML elements consisting of "tags" surrounded by angle brackets within

    the web page content. It is the building blocks of all basic websites.

    It allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create

    interactive forms. It provides a means to create structured documents by

    denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists,

    links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts in languages such as

    JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML webpage.

    HTML can also be used to include Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define

    the appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer

    of both HTML and CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicit

    presentational markup.

    Origins-In 1980, physicist Tim Berners-Lee, who was a contractor at

    CERN, proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system forCERN researchers

    to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposingan Internet-based hypertext system.Berners-Lee specified HTML and wrote

    the browser and server software in the last part of 1990. In that year,

    Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineerRobert Cailliau collaborated

    on a joint request for funding, but the project was not formally adopted by

    CERN. In his personal note from 1990 he list "some of the many areas inwhich hypertext is used" and puts an encyclopedia first.

    HTML is a language for describing web pages.

    HTML stands forHyperText Markup Language

    HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language

    A markup language is a set ofmarkup tags

    HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages

    The definition of HTML is HyperText Markup Language.

    HyperTextis the method by which you move around on the web byclicking on special text called hyperlinks which bring you to the next

    page. The fact that it is hyperjust means it is not linear i.e. you can

    go to any place on the Internet whenever you want by clicking on

    links there is no set order to do things in.

    Markup is what HTML tags do to the text inside them. They mark it

    as a certain type of text (italicisedtext, for example).

  • 8/7/2019 Nikhil asignment


    HTML is a Language, as it has code-words and syntax like any other


    How does it work?

    HTML consists of a series of short codes typed into a text-file by the site

    author these are the tags. The text is then saved as ahtmlfile, and viewed

    through a browser, like Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Thisbrowser reads the file and translates the text into a visible form, hopefully

    rendering the page as the author had intended. Writing your own HTML

    entails using tags correctly to create your vision. You can use anything from

    a rudimentary text-editor to a powerful graphical editor to create HTML


    HTML Tags

    HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags

  • 8/7/2019 Nikhil asignment


    HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like

    HTML tags normally come in pairs like and

    The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag

    Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags

    What are the tags up to?

    The tags are what separate normal text from HTML code. You might know

    them as the words between the . They allow all the

    cool stuff like images and tables and stuff, just by telling your browser what

    to render on the page. Different tags will perform different functions. The

    tags themselves dont appear when you view your page through a browser,

    but their effects do. The simplest tags do nothing more than apply formatting

    to some text, like this:

    These words will be bold, and these will


    In the example above, the tags were wrapped around some text, and

    their effect will be that the contained text will be bolded when viewed

    through an ordinary web browser.

    If you want to see a list of a load of tags to see whats ahead of you, look at

    this tag reference. Learning the tags themselves is dealt with in the next

    section of this website, My First Site.

    Is this going to take long?

    Well, it depends on what you want from it. KnowingHTML will take only afew days of reading and learning the codes for what you want. You can have

    the basics down in an hour. Once you know the tags you can create HTML


    However, using HTML and designing good websites is a different story,

    which is why I try to do more than just teach you code here at HTML Source

    I like to add in as much advice as possible too. Good website design ishalf skill and half talent, I reckon. Learning techniques and correct use of

    your tag knowledge will improve your work immensely, and a good

    understanding of general design and the audience youre trying to reach will

    improve your websites chances of success. Luckily, these things can be

  • 8/7/2019 Nikhil asignment


    researched and understood, as long as youre willing to work at it so you can

    output better websites.

    HTML Documents = Web Pages

    HTML documents describe web pages

    HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text

    HTML documents are also called web pages

    The purpose of a web browser (like Internet Explorer or Firebox) is to read

    HTML documents and display them as web pages. The browser does not

    display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page:

    My First Heading

    My first paragraph.


    My First Heading

    My first paragraph.

    Example Explained

    The text between and describes the web page

    The text between and is the visible page content

    The text between and is displayed as a heading

    The text between


    is displayed as a paragraph


  • 8/7/2019 Nikhil asignment


    HTML Headings

    Headings are defined with the to tags.

    defines the largest heading. defines the smallest heading.

    If you type this the result will be in

    next column. Result

    This is heading 1

    This is heading 2

    This is heading 3

    This is heading 4

    This is heading 5

    This is heading 6

    This is heading 1

    This is heading 2

    This is heading 3

    This is heading 4

    This is heading 5

    This is heading 6

    Headings Are Important

    Use HTML headings for headings only. Don't use headings to make

    text BIG orbold.

    Search engines use your headings to index the structure and content of your

    web pages.


  • 8/7/2019 Nikhil asignment


    Since users may skim your pages by its headings, it is important to use

    headings to show the document structure.

    H1 headings should be used as main headings, followed by H2 headings,

    then the less important H3 headings, and so on.

    HTML Lines

    The tag creates a horizontal line in an HTML page.

    The hr element can be used to separate content:

    Type this than your result will be

    se in next column:

    Your Result:

    The hr tag defines a horizontal


    This is a paragraph

    This is a paragraph

    This is