New˜Zealand ov˜erview - WPMA New Zealand | Wood ... New˜Zealand ov˜erview 03 New˜Zealand pine...

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Transcript of New˜Zealand ov˜erview - WPMA New Zealand | Wood ... New˜Zealand ov˜erview 03 New˜Zealand pine...

  • 11NewZealand overview 03

    NewZealand pine the super renewable wood 04

    NewZealand pine propeties 06

    NewZealand pine performance 09

    Renewable and sustainable forest resource 11

    Pruning produces quality clear wood 16

    Log conversion 18

    Lumber and grades 19

    Protection in transit 24

    Drying 27

    Preservative treatments 32

    Working with New Zealand pine 36

    Machining 37

    Gluing 39

    Finishing 42

    Mouldings and millwork 44

    Furniture and components 46

    Engineered wood products 48

    Plywood and LVL 50

    Addressing engineering consistency with LVL 53

    Wood building solutions 55

    Construction 56

    Joinery and interior ttings 61

    Industrial use 63

    contents

  • 2 the new zealand story

    You are here. In a dIfferent place and space. thIs Is new Zealand, a land apart, where geographIc IsolatIon forged both a land of spectacular beautY and an Independent spIrIt Youd expect from the Youngest countrY on earth. a respect for the land, wIth the hands on abIlItY to make thIngs work. an InventIve people drIven to fInd theIr own waY, to challenge the expected. where new Is In our name, wIth a fusIon of dIverse cultures creatIng a fresh expressIon unlIke anYthIng else Youll ever experIence.here. refreshIng new perspectIves on our place, from our people, on Your world.

  • 3

    NewZealandhasastunningvarietyoflandformsfrom

    spectacularalpineglaciersandmassivemountainranges

    torollinggreenfarmlandandlong,sandybeaches. It

    isalsothehomeofuniqueflightlessbirdssuchasthe

    kiwi,theworldsheaviestinsectandalivingdinosaur

    thetuataralizard.

    Vastpineplantationswereestablishedlastcentury

    protectingtheremainingindigenousforestsandproviding

    atimberresourceforfutureeconomicgrowth.

    TheMaoripeoplewerethefirsttosettleinNewZealand

    1000yearsago,followedmuchlaterbyBritishcolo-

    nisation.ModernNewZealandisaprogressiveand

    enterprisingcountry,withresidentsdrawnfromall

    cornersoftheglobe includingtheworldsbiggest

    Polynesianpopulation.

    new zealand

    The home of New Zealand pine is a spectacularly beautiful country of vast mountain chains, steaming volcanoes, sweeping

    coastlines, deeply indented fiords and lush rainforests.

    ComparableinsizetotheUnitedKingdombutwithapopulationoffourmillion,NewZealandisoneoftheworldsleastcrowdedcountries.Itsvastopenspaces,temperateclimate,diversecultureandpurenaturalenvironmentmakeitoneoftheworldstoptraveldestinations.

  • 4

    Joinery and interiors

    Favouredforwindows,doors,framesandjambs,mouldings,

    stairs,cabinetryandbenchtops.Solid-clear,finger-jointed

    andlaminatedproductoptionsareavailable.

    Furniture and components

    Excellenttechnicalproperties,finisheseasilyinnatural

    orenhancedcoloursandisadaptabletomostfurni-

    turestyles.Demandforpartiallyandfullyprocessed

    componentsincludes:blanks,edge-gluedpanels,clear

    andfinger-jointedcutstockforfurtherremanufacture,

    mouldings,stairparts,doorandwindowpartsandfur-

    niturecomponents.

    Construction and packaging

    Strength,stiffnessandgoodworkingpropertiesmake

    pineapopularchoicefor2x4andpost-and-beamcon-

    struction.Alsousedwidelyforpallets,woodenpackaging

    andcabledrums.

    new zealand PIne the sUPer renewaBle wood

    NewZealand-grownPinus radiataisasupersoftwoodofthe21stcenturyoneofthemostattractiveandversatileindustrialwoodspeciesavailableinglobalmarkets.Itperformsconsistentlywellacrossawiderrangeofcommercialapplicationswhencomparedwithalmostanyotherspeciesincludingallofthefollowingcategories:

  • 5Round wood

    Postsandpolesmadefrompreservative-treatedpine

    outperformallothersoftwoods,andmosthardwoods,

    inawiderangeofhigh-hazardoutdoorsituations.

    Engineered wood

    Pineisusedwidelyinthemanufactureofglued-laminated

    timber(glulam),laminatedveneerlumber(LVL),plywood

    andseveralotherengineeredwoodproducts.

    Veneers and overlays

    Thetimbercanbeslicedorpeeledtoproducehigh-quality,

    naturalclearveneerforavarietyofproducts,including

    engineereddoorstiles,curvedplywood,overlaidpanels

    andmediumdensityfibreboard(MDF).

    MDF and particleboard

    Pinefibreisfavouredbyproducersofhigh-qualityMDF

    becauseof itscolour,consistenthighqualityandthe

    surfacefinishthatcanbeachieved.Particleboard,fine

    particleboardandMDF-strandboardareamongother

    paneloptions.

    Excellent technical properties, finishes easily

    in natural or enhanced colours and adaptable to

    most furniture styles.

  • 6666 new zealand PIne ProPertIes

    new Zealand pine is widely known throughout the asia-pacific region as an excellent packaging and general-purpose building timber, but this extremely versatile timber is also favoured for many other uses.

  • 7

    Product characteristics

    Thefollowingdescriptionofthephysicalcharacteristics

    isintendedtoprovidepreliminarytechnicaladvicefor

    currentandintendingusers.

    names

    NewZealandpine,radiatapine,whitepine,Monterey

    pine, Pinus radiata.

    density

    Mediumdensityensuresversatility.Averagetreedensity

    (oven-dryweight/greenvolume)islowernearthepith

    andhighernearthebark.Itvarieswithgrowthsiteand

    agefromaround390kilogramspercubicmetre(kg/m3)

    for25-year-oldtreesonalow-densitysitetoaround460

    kg/m3for45-year-oldtreesonahigh-densitysite.A

    30-year-oldtreeonamedium-densitysitehasadensity

    ofaround415kg/m3.

    strength

    Thetimbercomparesfavourablywithotherspeciesin

    bendingstrength,bendingstiffnessandfastening.Under

    JAS600,pineisratedequaltospeciesinthespruce-

    pine-fir(SPF)classificationusedintheUnitedStates

    andCanada.Shearstrengthisexcellentafactorofits

    uniformtexture.

    permeability

    Pineformsheartwoodatabout15yearsandprogresses

    slowly.At30yearsabout20%ofthestemisheartwood.

    Highpermeabilityofthesapwoodmakesiteasytodry

    andtreatwithpreservatives.Heartwoodislessperme-

    ablethanthesapwood,butdriesreadilyandcanalso

    beeffectivelypreservativetreated.Whenexposedto

    thepossibilityofdecay,thetimbershouldbepreserva-

    tivetreated.

    sap stain

    Althoughsapstainfungiwillcoloniseanddiscoloursap-

    wood,ithasnoinfluenceongeneralwoodproperties.

    Thesapwoodissusceptibletoinsectattack,particularly

    tothelarvaeoftheAnobium punctatumfurnitureborer

    beetle,butkilndryingreducesthatlikelihood.

    shrinkage and stability

    Pinehasgoodstabilityandlow-to-moderateshrinkage.

    Itcompareswellwithmostothersoftwoods.Fromgreen

    todry(12%moisturecontent[mc])itshrinks,onaver-

    age,3.9%tangentiallyand2.1%radially,whichisslightly

    lessthanforDouglasfir.Stabilitycanbeimprovedby

    high-temperaturedryingorquartersawing.

  • 88colour

    Pinehasalight-colouredsapwoodwithslightlydarker

    heartwood.Exposuretothesunleadstoayellowingof

    bothheartwoodandsapwood.Nospecialfinishingtech-

    niquesareneededforauniformfinishedappearance.

    mechanical properties

    Themechanicalpropertiesofsawnlumberareclosely

    relatedtoknotsizeanddensity.Becausedensityincreases

    withdistancefromthecentreofthetree,mechani-

    calpropertiesfollowthatcharacteristic.Properties,

    particularlydensity, increaseasringwidthdecreases

    (ringwidthgenerallydecreaseswithdistancefromthe

    centreofthetree).Typicalmechanicalpropertiesfor

    clear-grade,30-year-oldmaterial(20-millimetre[mm]

    standardspecimens)areshownontheright.

    Typical mechanical properties

    (basedonstandard20x20mmdefect-freesamples)

    property (12% mc) units range

    Density kg/m3 400500

    Bendingstressatproportionallimit MPa 3545

    Modulusofrupture MPa 80100

    Modulusofelasticity GPa 710

    Worktomaximumload kJ/m3 80110

    Compressionatproportionallimit MPa 2030

    Compressionstrength MPa 3545

    Shearstrength MPa 1013

    Sidehardness N 30004500

    Shrinkage(wetto12%mc)

    Tangential % 3.54.5

    Radial % 1.52.5

    Longitudinal % 00.5

    Source:Scion

    Earlywood and latewood densities

    species basic density (kg/m3)

    Earlywood Latewood

    Radiatapine 350 550

    Balsamfir 340 610

    Sitkaspruce 330 575

    Lodgepolepine 360 630

    Ponderosapine 315 580

    Douglasfir 300 690

    Westernhemlock 390 615

    Source:Scion

    Shear strength is excellent a factor of its uniform texture.

  • 9

    PineoutperformsmajorcompetingtimbersfromNorth

    America,Europeandthetropics.InaScion(NewZealand)

    comparisonofmachiningandmechanicalproperties

    with13similarNorthAmericanspecies,NewZealand

    pinefinishedaclearwinner,withanoverallscoreof70%

    againstanaveragescoreof59%.

    Italsoperformswellagainstmanyhigher-priced

    tropicalspecies,includingramin,nyotah,whiteseraya,

    jelutong,rubberwoodandtusam.Overalldifferencesare

    sosmallcomparedwiththesespeciesthatpinecould

    easilyreplaceanyoneofthemformostuses.

    Themachiningqualitiesofpinehavealsobeen

    comparedwitharangeofwidelyrenewablesoftwoods

    inBritainandEurope,anditemergedsecondonlyto

    Paranapine(Araucaria angustifolia).

    Contrarytosomebeliefs,fastgrowthdoesnotadversely

    affectthemachiningpropertiesofpine.Goodresultscan

    beobtainedwithalltypesofhandandmachinetools.

    new zealand PIne PerForMance

    IndependentscientificstudiesconsistentlyprovethatNewZealandpineperformsbetterthanmostoftheworldswidelyavailablerenewablesoftwoodsandmanyhardwoods.

    Comparison with Asian species5

    4

    3

    2

    1

    NewZealandradiatapine

    Rubberwood Whiteseraya

    Ramin