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New Zealand Defence Doctrine Publication
NEW ZEALAND DEFENCE DOCTRINE NZDDP–D (fourth edition)
iNew Zealand Defence Doctrine
NEW ZEALAND DEFENCE DOCTRINE (NZDDP–D) (FOURTH EDITION)
The New Zealand Defence Force Publication New Zealand Defence Doctrine (NZDDP–D) is issued for use by the New
Zealand Defence Force and is effective forthwith for guidance in defence doctrine.
T.J. Keating Lieutenant General Chief of Defence Force Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force WELLINGTON
CONDITIONS OF RELEASE
The information within this publication is Crown copyright.
No material or information contained in this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or
transmitted in any form outside New Zealand Defence Force establishments, except as authorised in writing by the
New Zealand Defence Force.
The information may be released by the New Zealand Defence Force to a recipient Defence Force for defence
purposes only. It may be disclosed only within the recipient Defence Force, except as otherwise authorised by the
New Zealand Defence Force.
© New Zealand Defence Force 2017
ii New Zealand Defence Doctrine Publication
Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force is responsible for publishing doctrine and maintaining a hierarchy of such
publications. Users wishing to quote New Zealand doctrinal publications as reference material in other work should
confirm with the Deputy Director Doctrine whether the publication and amendment state remain extant. Comments on the
factual accuracy or proposals for amendment should also be directed to the Deputy Director Doctrine at:
The Doctrine Cell
Directorate of Future Force Development
Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force
20 Aitken Street
DTelN: 349 7477
Telephone: +64 4 496 0477
Facsimile: +64 4 496 0699
NZDF intranet: http://www.nzdf.mil.nz
Chief Communications and information Services
Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force
iiiNew Zealand Defence Doctrine
The New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) has a unique culture that is underpinned by the shared values of courage,
commitment, and comradeship. These cultural values are the tenets from which the NZDF builds an organisation that is
united, professionally trained, competent, appropriately equipped, and capable of serving the interests of New Zealand,
confronting the security challenges of the future, and meeting the requirements of the New Zealand Government. This
culture provides the foundation for New Zealand’s unique approach to the conduct of military operations.
In the performance of its military duties, the NZDF has been involved in activities across the full spectrum of operations in
all corners of the world. Historically, the majority of New Zealand’s involvement in operations overseas has always been
as part of a coalition framework, alongside nations and organisations with interests that compliment our own.. These past
experiences and the influence of defence partners have helped shape New Zealand’s approach to the conduct of military
The NZDF articulates its philosophical approach to the conduct of military operations through military doctrine. New
Zealand Defence Doctrine (NZDDP-D), which sits at the pinnacle of the NZDF’s hierarchy of doctrine publications, is the
capstone doctrine publication. It introduces the philosophical concept of military doctrine and its application by the NZDF.
NZDDP-D focuses primarily on the doctrinal components of New Zealand’s military strategy, but it also describes the
New Zealand approach to military activity at all levels. New Zealand’s military doctrine is formulated and based on
our own national experiences of making strategy and conducting military operations. Whilst authoritative, NZDDP-D
conveys broad principles that require judgement in their application, according to situational imperatives. Doctrine is not
mandatory dogma to be applied in all circumstances; that is simply not the New Zealand Defence Force’s way of doing
This publication is primarily intended for NZDF commanders and staff at all levels.
NZDDP-D is divided into seven chapters.
• Chapter 1 – New Zealand Policy, Strategy, and Military Doctrine provides an understanding of national security, the
main features of New Zealand’s strategic policy that support its security interests, and how the NZDF helps New
Zealand to achieve strategic policy objectives. It also discusses the importance of strategy and its different types, as
well as the role, utility, and levels of military doctrine. Finally this chapter discusses the instruments of national power.
iv New Zealand Defence Doctrine Publication
• Chapter 2 – Levels of Military Operations provides an overview of the three levels of military operations — strategic,
operational, and tactical — and how these levels overlap. Intertwined with these three levels is the hierarchy of
operations. This hierarchy provides a clear understanding of the building blocks of military operations.
• Chapter 3 – The Context of Military Operations provides an understanding of the nature of war and conflict. It further
discusses war, types of warfare, the range of security events, and the need to operate using a comprehensive
approach in a joint, interagency, and multinational environment.
• Chapter 4 – New Zealand Defence Force Operational Tenets identifies and explains the essential elements of NZDF
military operations. These essential elements, defined as the NZDF’s operational tenets, are fundamental to the
conduct of military operations and permeate down through New Zealand military doctrine.
• Chapter 5 – The Characteristics of the Military Instrument identifies that the essence of warfighting is underpinned
by the three components of fighting power that may be applied in war and in stability and support operations.
These components are: conceptual, moral, and physical. It also describes the six components of capability and the
importance of preparedness and reserves in generating military capability.
• Chapter 6 – The Utility of the New Zealand Defence Force explains that whilst the NZDF’s warfighting ability provides its
raison d’être, it can be employed on a wide variety of activities across the spectrum of military operations. The NZDF
will require its combat potential for many of these operations, but some will be more benign, including those mounted
to improve living conditions following natural or humanitarian disasters. NZDF assets have a greater utility beyond
their threat or use of hard power. International Defence Engagement is how the New Zealand Government employs the
NZDF’s personnel, equipment, and activities to achieve influence without the use or threat of force.
• NZDDP-00.1 Command and Control (2nd Edition)
• NZDDP-06.1 Rules of Engagement (2nd Edition)
• NZDDP-1.0 Personnel (2nd Edition)
• NZDDP-2.0 Intelligence
• NZDDP-3.0 Campaigns and Operations (2nd Edition)
• NZDDP-4.0 Defence Logistics
• NZDDP-5.0 Joint Planning
• NZDDP-6.0 Communications and Information Systems
vNew Zealand Defence Doctrine
The New Zealand Defence Force acknowledges its intellectual debt in preparing this publication to a number of overseas
military doctrinal publications, including the following.
• ADDP–D – Foundations of Military Doctrine, 3rd Edition, July 2012, Australian Defence Headquarters, Canberra,
• AJP-01(D) Allied Joint Doctrine, December 2010, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, Brussels, Belgium.
• JDP 0–01 – British Defence Doctrine, 5th Edition, November 2014, Ministry of Defence, London, United Kingdom
• JP-1 – Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, March 2013, Department of Defence, Washington DC, United
• JDN 1/15 Defence Engagement, August 2015, Ministry of Defence, London, United Kingdom.
Other works referenced or relied upon in this publication are listed below.
• Defence White Paper 2016, June 2016, Ministry of Defence, Wellington, New Zealand.
vi New Zealand Defence Doctrine Publication
Title Page i
List of Illustrations viii
Executive Summary ix
Chapter One: New Zealand Defence Policy, Strategy, and Military Doctrine 1
National Security 3
The Legal Basis of the New Zealand Defence Force: The Defence Act 5
Policy, Strategy, and Military Doctrine 5
Defence Policy 6
The Role of Military Doctrine 12