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  • New Zealand Defence Doctrine Publication


  • iNew Zealand Defence Doctrine


    The New Zealand Defence Force Publication New Zealand Defence Doctrine (NZDDP–D) is issued for use by the New

    Zealand Defence Force and is effective forthwith for guidance in defence doctrine.

    T.J. Keating Lieutenant General Chief of Defence Force Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force WELLINGTON

    November 2017


    The information within this publication is Crown copyright.

    No material or information contained in this publication should be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or

    transmitted in any form outside New Zealand Defence Force establishments, except as authorised in writing by the

    New Zealand Defence Force.

    The information may be released by the New Zealand Defence Force to a recipient Defence Force for defence

    purposes only. It may be disclosed only within the recipient Defence Force, except as otherwise authorised by the

    New Zealand Defence Force.

    © New Zealand Defence Force 2017

  • Introduction

    ii New Zealand Defence Doctrine Publication


    Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force is responsible for publishing doctrine and maintaining a hierarchy of such

    publications. Users wishing to quote New Zealand doctrinal publications as reference material in other work should

    confirm with the Deputy Director Doctrine whether the publication and amendment state remain extant. Comments on the

    factual accuracy or proposals for amendment should also be directed to the Deputy Director Doctrine at:

    The Doctrine Cell

    Directorate of Future Force Development

    Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force

    Freyberg Building

    20 Aitken Street


    New Zealand

    DTelN: 349 7477

    Telephone: +64 4 496 0477

    Facsimile: +64 4 496 0699


    NZDF intranet:


    Chief Communications and information Services

    Headquarters New Zealand Defence Force


  • Introduction

    iiiNew Zealand Defence Doctrine



    The New Zealand Defence Force (NZDF) has a unique culture that is underpinned by the shared values of courage,

    commitment, and comradeship. These cultural values are the tenets from which the NZDF builds an organisation that is

    united, professionally trained, competent, appropriately equipped, and capable of serving the interests of New Zealand,

    confronting the security challenges of the future, and meeting the requirements of the New Zealand Government. This

    culture provides the foundation for New Zealand’s unique approach to the conduct of military operations.

    In the performance of its military duties, the NZDF has been involved in activities across the full spectrum of operations in

    all corners of the world. Historically, the majority of New Zealand’s involvement in operations overseas has always been

    as part of a coalition framework, alongside nations and organisations with interests that compliment our own.. These past

    experiences and the influence of defence partners have helped shape New Zealand’s approach to the conduct of military



    The NZDF articulates its philosophical approach to the conduct of military operations through military doctrine. New

    Zealand Defence Doctrine (NZDDP-D), which sits at the pinnacle of the NZDF’s hierarchy of doctrine publications, is the

    capstone doctrine publication. It introduces the philosophical concept of military doctrine and its application by the NZDF.

    NZDDP-D focuses primarily on the doctrinal components of New Zealand’s military strategy, but it also describes the

    New Zealand approach to military activity at all levels. New Zealand’s military doctrine is formulated and based on

    our own national experiences of making strategy and conducting military operations. Whilst authoritative, NZDDP-D

    conveys broad principles that require judgement in their application, according to situational imperatives. Doctrine is not

    mandatory dogma to be applied in all circumstances; that is simply not the New Zealand Defence Force’s way of doing



    This publication is primarily intended for NZDF commanders and staff at all levels.


    NZDDP-D is divided into seven chapters.

    • Chapter 1 – New Zealand Policy, Strategy, and Military Doctrine provides an understanding of national security, the

    main features of New Zealand’s strategic policy that support its security interests, and how the NZDF helps New

    Zealand to achieve strategic policy objectives. It also discusses the importance of strategy and its different types, as

    well as the role, utility, and levels of military doctrine. Finally this chapter discusses the instruments of national power.

  • Introduction

    iv New Zealand Defence Doctrine Publication

    • Chapter 2 – Levels of Military Operations provides an overview of the three levels of military operations — strategic,

    operational, and tactical — and how these levels overlap. Intertwined with these three levels is the hierarchy of

    operations. This hierarchy provides a clear understanding of the building blocks of military operations.

    • Chapter 3 – The Context of Military Operations provides an understanding of the nature of war and conflict. It further

    discusses war, types of warfare, the range of security events, and the need to operate using a comprehensive

    approach in a joint, interagency, and multinational environment.

    • Chapter 4 – New Zealand Defence Force Operational Tenets identifies and explains the essential elements of NZDF

    military operations. These essential elements, defined as the NZDF’s operational tenets, are fundamental to the

    conduct of military operations and permeate down through New Zealand military doctrine.

    • Chapter 5 – The Characteristics of the Military Instrument identifies that the essence of warfighting is underpinned

    by the three components of fighting power that may be applied in war and in stability and support operations.

    These components are: conceptual, moral, and physical. It also describes the six components of capability and the

    importance of preparedness and reserves in generating military capability.

    • Chapter 6 – The Utility of the New Zealand Defence Force explains that whilst the NZDF’s warfighting ability provides its

    raison d’être, it can be employed on a wide variety of activities across the spectrum of military operations. The NZDF

    will require its combat potential for many of these operations, but some will be more benign, including those mounted

    to improve living conditions following natural or humanitarian disasters. NZDF assets have a greater utility beyond

    their threat or use of hard power. International Defence Engagement is how the New Zealand Government employs the

    NZDF’s personnel, equipment, and activities to achieve influence without the use or threat of force.


    • NZDDP-00.1 Command and Control (2nd Edition)

    • NZDDP-06.1 Rules of Engagement (2nd Edition)

    • NZDDP-1.0 Personnel (2nd Edition)

    • NZDDP-2.0 Intelligence

    • NZDDP-3.0 Campaigns and Operations (2nd Edition)

    • NZDDP-4.0 Defence Logistics

    • NZDDP-5.0 Joint Planning

    • NZDDP-6.0 Communications and Information Systems

  • Introduction

    vNew Zealand Defence Doctrine


    The New Zealand Defence Force acknowledges its intellectual debt in preparing this publication to a number of overseas

    military doctrinal publications, including the following.

    • ADDP–D – Foundations of Military Doctrine, 3rd Edition, July 2012, Australian Defence Headquarters, Canberra,


    • AJP-01(D) Allied Joint Doctrine, December 2010, North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, Brussels, Belgium.

    • JDP 0–01 – British Defence Doctrine, 5th Edition, November 2014, Ministry of Defence, London, United Kingdom

    • JP-1 – Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States, March 2013, Department of Defence, Washington DC, United


    • JDN 1/15 Defence Engagement, August 2015, Ministry of Defence, London, United Kingdom.

    Other works referenced or relied upon in this publication are listed below.

    • Defence White Paper 2016, June 2016, Ministry of Defence, Wellington, New Zealand.

  • Introduction

    vi New Zealand Defence Doctrine Publication



    Title Page i

    Authorisation ii

    Preface iii

    Acknowledgements iv

    Contents vi

    List of Illustrations viii

    Executive Summary ix

    Chapter One: New Zealand Defence Policy, Strategy, and Military Doctrine 1

    Introduction 3

    National Security 3

    The Legal Basis of the New Zealand Defence Force: The Defence Act 5

    Policy, Strategy, and Military Doctrine 5

    Defence Policy 6

    Strategy 8

    The Role of Military Doctrine 12