NEW ORLEANS – WHEN TECHNOLOGY DOES NOT WORK mardi gras mardi gras

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Transcript of NEW ORLEANS – WHEN TECHNOLOGY DOES NOT WORK mardi gras mardi gras

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  • NEW ORLEANS WHEN TECHNOLOGY DOES NOT WORK mardi gras mardi gras
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  • New Orleans - located in southeastern Louisiana, Bounded by parishes of St. Tammany (north), St. Bernard (east), Plaquemines (South)and Jefferson (south west)
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  • New Orleans AKA Crescent City course of Lower Mississippi River around and through the city
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  • New Orleans AKA The Big Easy by musicians (20 th Century ease of finding work), during prohibition, one time cheapest city to live in US City that care forgot (1938) outwardly easy-going, carefree nature of many
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  • La Nouvelle-Orlans founded May 7 th, 1718 by French Mississippi Company City named after Philippe dOrlans (Duke of Orlans regent of France)
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  • Site Mississippi River (city located on banks) 169km up river from Gulf of Mexico Area 902km 2 (467.6 km 2 51.55% is land) Lake Pontchartrain (north) Lake Borgne (east)
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  • Orignal city settled on natural levees or high ground along mississippi river Lakes, marshlands, and bayous extend from the city in all directions
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  • A humid, semi-tropical climate in New Orleans is kept from extremes by surrounding waters Average Temperatures: January, 10.7 C; July 27.7 C; annual average, 20.1 C Average Annual Precipitation: 1571.8 mm (wet) Hurricanes pose great risk
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  • Elevation: Ranges from 5 feet below sea level to 15 feet above; mean elevation, 1-2 feet below sea level 51% of city is at or above sea level More densley populated higher ground (more $$$ also higher)
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  • situation Located close to the gulf of Mexico
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  • situation Mouth of Mississippi (from Great Lakes to GOM) river
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  • function Trade along trading route and portage between Mississippi and Lake Pontchartrain (French) City centre of commerce during late 1700 (sugar) Transportation hub and distribution centre
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  • function One of the largest and busiest ports in the world (5 th largest in US Oil refining and petrochemical production White collar corporate base (onshore/offshore petroleum and natural gas production
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  • Technology Turn of 20 th century drainage plan by engineer and inventer A.Baldwin Wood Wood invented flapgates and other hydraulic devices (pumps) Wood Screw Pump (1913) and Wood Trash Pump (1915)
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  • Technology
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  • Designed to expand the city (geographically) despite surrounding swamp Prior urban development limited to higher ground natural river levees and bayous
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  • Technology Woods pump system drain huge tracts of swamp and marshland City expanded into low-lying areas Over 20 th century rapid subsidence (natural and human induced left new populated areas several feet below sea level
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  • Technology vulnerable to flooding even before the city's city expansion into low lying areas late 20th century, however, scientists and New Orleans residents gradually became aware of the city's increased vulnerability
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  • Technology 1965 hurricane Besty killed dozens (most city dry) May 8 th, 1995 flood(rain)demonstrated weakness of pumping systemflood
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  • Technology After floods measures undertaken to dramatically upgrade pumping capacity By 1980s-90s became clear extensive, rapid and ongoing erosion of the marshland & swamps Gulf Outlet Canal left city more exposed to hurricane storm surges
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  • 1958 2009
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  • Hurricane Katrina Aug. 29 th, 2005 Winds category 3, frequent intense gusts and tidal surge
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  • Saffir/Simpson Hurricane Scale* CategoryDefinition/Likely Effects ONE Winds 75-95 mph (65-82 kts): No real damage to building structures. Damage primarily to unanchored mobile homes, shrubbery, and trees. Also, some coastal flooding and minor pier damage. TWO Winds 96-110 mph (83-95 kts): Some roofing material, door, and window damage of buildings. Considerable damage to vegetation, mobile homes, etc. Flooding damages piers and small craft in unprotected anchorages break moorings. THREE Winds 111-130 mph (96-113 kts): Some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings with a minor amount of curtainwall failures. Mobile homes are destroyed. Flooding near the coast destroys small structures with larger structures damaged by floating debris. Terrain may be flooded well inland. FOUR Winds 131-155 mph (114-135 kts): More extensive curtainwall failures with some complete roof structure failure on small residences. Major erosion of beach areas. Terrain may be flooded well inland. FIVE Winds greater than 155 mph (greater than 135 kts): Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. Flooding causes major damage to lower floors of all structures near the shoreline. Massive evacuation of residential areas may be required. Note: A "major" hurricane is one that is classified as a Category 3 or higher. * In operational use, the scale corresponds to the one-minute average sustained wind speed as opposed to gusts which could be 20 percent higher or more.
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  • Hurricane Katrina Most severe portion of hurricane missed the city 22 storm surge caused 53 breaches in drainage and navigational canal levees Worst engineering disaster in US
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  • Hurricane Katrina 17 th street canal, industrial canal and London Avenue Canal levee breachedbreached Aug. 31 st 2005 80% of city flooded Some parts 15 under water lower 9th ward
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  • Hurricane Katrina 90% of city evacuated (1 st mandatory evacuation) evacuation 10% remaining elderly and poor Superdome was used as shelter
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  • Hurricane Katrina Reasons for staying homes would be enough protection, lack of $$$, no transportation, protection of property Evacuation for Ivan resulted in many eldery sick due to long waits (6-10 hours) 1 million left, 100,000 stayed 20,000 in superdome
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  • Hurricane Katrina Deaths by state Alabama2 Florida14 Georgia2 Kentucky1 Louisiana1,577* Mississippi238 Ohio2 Total1,836 Missing135 [1] [1] *Includes out-of-state evacuees counted by Louisiana
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  • Rescue Efforts Disruption of communication infrastructure cell phone, land line phones, internet access not working Local TV stations disrupted Most roads in & out of city damaged Only route out of city I-10 Twin Span Bridge Collapsed
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  • Rescue Efforts Disruption of communication infrastructure cell phone, land line phones, internet access not working Local TV stations disrupted Most roads in & out of city damaged Only route out of city I-10 Twin Span Bridge Collapsed
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  • Rescue Efforts
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  • Lake Pontchartrain Causeway emergency traffic only Louis Armstrong International Airport humanitarian and rescue operations August 30 th governor Kathleen Blanco ordered complete evacuation of those that remained Astrodome in Houston Texas
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  • Hurricane Katrina Faulty design specifications, incomplete sections, substandard construction of levee segments contributed to flooding Flooding of 2/3 rd of city could have been prevented
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  • Hurricane Katrina Engineering failure lawsuit against US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) builders and designers of levee system (Flood Control Act 1965) Jan. 2008 responsibility failure and flooding blamed on USACE but they could not be held financially liable due to sovereign immunity in Flood Control Act 1928
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  • Katrina Aftermath Looting Gretna Danziger Bridge
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  • Heath Concerns Dehydration Food poisoning Spread of hepatitis A, cholera, tuberculosis, typhoid fever (contamination of food and H 2 O supplies) Sept. 6 E. coli detected in H 2 O supply
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  • Population of New Orleans
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  • Population Pop 2005 (pre-Katrina) 454,865 2010 60% African American, 33% white, 2.9% Asian, 5,3% Hispanic 20,000-14,000 illegal immigrants (Mexico) Migration to New Orleans people returning, result of global financial crisis of 2008-2009
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  • Economic Impacts Pre-Katrina economy dependent on transportation, entertainment & public services Labour force loss of 70,000 jobs (service) Construction sector only sector to thrive
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  • Environmental & political