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MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR LATERAL SUPPORT IN VECHILEINTRODUCTION Cars and autos converting to gas could be the only solution to our pollution problem. But time and again scares are raised about the safety of this. However, none of the nine reported explosions in vehicles in the city has been caused by an LPG blast, point out the members of the Indian Autogas Association. They add that there has not been a single accident caused by conversion from petrol to gas in city cars or autos LP Gas Leakage can be very dangerous because it increases the risk of Fire or deadly Explosion. Therefore we have planned to develop a system that warns by providing information and sounds an alarm as soon a leakage is detected. But unfortunately those detectors are pretty much expensive. This detector will turn buzzer to corresponding persons as soon as a leakage takes place. Detector will warn you Buzzer that a sound as long as the leakage occurs, stopping only when the problem disappears. This detector is calibrated to detect gas up to 10% of the L.E.L (Low Explosion Limit). Small gas quantities coming out from the left open tank for some MINUTES do not cause the gas detector alarm signaling even if it is clearly nose perceptible; in fact the quantity of gas presents in the environment can be under the alarm threshold. Drunk driving is very dangerous. Alcohol causes one to not be as aware. It also slows one's reflexes. This is a real problem when one is driving. Drunk drivers get into car accidents because they cannot tell what is happening around them or they cannot react fast enough.Drunk driving is dangerous to many different people. When one drives an automobile while under the influence of alcohol they put themselves in danger. Because one cannot react as fast to actions happening around them and their automobile accidents happen and people are killed. Many times it is not the driver that dies. When this happens not only do the drivers have to go to jail but they have to live with the fact that they killed someone because of their irresponsibility. The driver obviously, is not the only person affected by drunk driving. When a drunk driver kills someone the family and friends of the victim are affected.
Drunk Driving is becoming a major concern in our society today. Drunk driving is not a funny thing. It has killed many people and ruined the lives of many others. So we came with a new idea to avoid these problems by developing a system which is located in the vehicle which detects the alcoholics by breath and switch of the ignition system of the vehicle. Only one in every 20 road accidents is caused by the driver breaking the speed limit, the Government has admitted. Critics said the research, based on official police reports, destroyed the case for speed cameras. It came amid a separate row over the accuracy of the Government's figures for the number of people being injured or killed on the roads, which showed a three per cent fall last year.
Humans tend to blame somebody or something else when a mistake or accident occurs. A recent European study concluded that 80% of drivers involved in motor vehicle accidents believed that the other party could have done something to prevent the accident. A miniscule 5% admitted that they were the only one at fault. Surveys consistently reveal that the majority consider themselves more skillful and safer than the average driver. Some mistakes occur when a driver becomes distracted, perhaps by a cell phone call or a spilled cup of coffee. Very few accidents result from an 'Act of God,' like a tree falling on a vehicle. Speed Kills - The faster the speed of a vehicle, the greater the risk of an accident. The forces experienced by the human body in a collision increase exponentially as the speed increases. Smart Motorist recommends that drivers observe our 3 second rule in everyday traffic, no matter what your speed. Most people agree that going 100 mph is foolhardy and will lead to disaster. The problem is that exceeding the speed limit by only 5 mph in the wrong place can be just as dangerous. Traffic engineers and local governments have determined the maximum speeds allowable for safe travel on the nation's roadways. Speeding is a deliberate and calculated behavior where the driver knows the risk but ignores the danger. Fully 90% of all licensed
drivers speed at some point in their driving career; 75% admit to committing this offense regularly. Consider this example: a pedestrian walks out in front of a car. If the car is traveling at just 30 mph, and the driver brakes when the pedestrian is 45 feet away, there will be enough space in which to stop without hitting the pedestrian. Increase the vehicle speed by just 5 mph and the situation changes dramatically. At 35 mph, with the pedestrian 45 feet away and the driver braking at the same point, the car will be traveling at 18 mph when it hits the pedestrian. An impact at 18 mph can seriously injure or even kill the pedestrian. Who are the bad drivers? They are young, middle-aged, and old; men and women; they drive luxury cars, sports cars, SUVs and family cars. Almost every qualified driver I know admits to some type of risky driving behavior, most commonly speeding. Aggressive Drivers - As we've described, modern cars are manufactured to very safe standards, and the environment they're driven in is engineered to minimize the injuries suffered during an accident. The most difficult area to change is aggressive driver behavior and selfish attitudes. A 1995 study by the Automobile Association in Great Britain found that 88% of the respondents reported at least one of the behaviors listed below directed at them (in order of descending frequency):y y y y y y
Aggressive tailgating Lights flashed at them because the other motorist was annoyed Aggressive or rude gestures Deliberate obstruction -- preventing them from moving their vehicle Verbal abuse Physical assault
The same group was then asked about aggressive behavior they had displayed towards other drivers. 40% indicated that they had never behaved aggressively towards another driver. A further 60% of the survey respondents admitted to one or more of the following behaviors (listed in order of descending frequency):
y y y y y y
Flashed lights at another motorist because they were annoyed with them Gave aggressive or rude gestures Gave verbal abuse Aggressively tailgated another motorist Deliberately obstructed or prevented another from moving their vehicle Physically assaulted another motorist (one positive response)
These behaviors are probably under-reported, since most people are not willing to admit to the more serious actions, even if no penalty exists. The majority of these incidents happened during the daylight hours (70%), on a main road (not freeway or divided highway). BLOCK DIAGRAM
LCD 16X2ALCOHOL BREATH ANALYZER
LPC 2129 ARM MICROCONTROLLER
IGNITION CUT OFF
LPG/CNG SENSORACCELERATION/ DE-ACCELERATION
BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION:
This system consists of 8-bit microcontroller which acts as a heart of the system, which will be monitoring the sensor continuously and sends the information to the hardware which will switch of the ignition system of the vehicle. Alcohol detection is a tin dioxide semiconductor gas sensor which has a high sensitivity to alcohol with quick response speed. this model is suitable for alcohol detection such as portable breath alcohol checker or ignition locking system in automobiles Ignition cut off system is a solid state electro mechanical relay which is connected to microcontroller and ignition unit when microcontroller provides the information this will turn on or off depending on the condition Ideal sensor for use to detect the presence of a dangerous LPG leak in your storage tank. This unit can be easily incorporated into an alarm unit, to sound an alarm or give a visual indication of the LPG concentration. The sensor has excellent sensitivity combined with a quick response time. The sensor can also sense iso-butane, propane, LNG and smoke.
3.1 ADVANCED RISC MACHINE T - Thumb architecture extension(16) D - Core has debug extensions M - Enhanced multiplier I - Embedded ICE macro cell S - Fully Synthesizable
3.2 FEATURES OF ARM7 CPU at the heart of LPC2000 family is an ARM7.
ARM7 is a RISC computer with a small instruction set and consequently with a small gate count.
It had high performance Low power consumption. It takes small amount of Silicon die area. Heart of ARM7 CPU is the instruction pipeline.
3.3 INTRODUCTION The ARM7TDMI is a member of the Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) family of general purpose 32-bit microprocessors, which offer high performance for very low power consumption and price. The ARM architecture is based on Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) principles, and the instruction set and related decode mechanism are much simpler than those of micro programmed Complex Instruction Set Computers. This simplicity results in a high instruction throughput and impressive real-time interrupt response from a small and costeffective chip. Pipelining is employed so that all parts of the processing and memory systems can operate continuously. Typically, while one instruction is being executed, its successor is being decoded, and a third instruction is being fetched from memory. The ARM memory interface has been designed to allow the performance potential to be realized without incurring high costs in the memory system. Speed-critical control signals are pipelined to allow system control functions to be implemented in standard low-power logic, and these control signals facilitate the exploitation of the fast local access modes offered by industry standard dynamic RAMs.
3.4 ARM ARCHITECTURE The ARM7TDMI processor employs a unique