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LMR Program Launches New Project Initiatives SSC Pacific Scientists Mimic Marine Mammals to Build a Better Sonar MCAS Cherry Point Implements Innovative Water Quality Monitoring System New Environmental Director’s Entomology Skills Creating a Buzz & Minimize Interference with Base Activities population Honey Bee PMRF Establishing NEW HIVES to Protect

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Page 1: NEW HIVES Honey Bee population - Energy & Environment...44 Chief of Naval Operations Environmental Award Winners Recognized ... Honey bee swarm hanging from a tree branch. Hive damaged

LMR Program Launches New Project InitiativesSSC Pacific Scientists Mimic Marine Mammals to Build aBetter Sonar MCAS Cherry Point Implements Innovative Water QualityMonitoring System

New Environmental Director’s Entomology Skills Creating a Buzz

&Minimize Interference with Base Activitiespopulation

Honey BeePMRF EstablishingNEW HIVES to Protect

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Currents (ISSN 1544-6603) is the official energy and environmentalmagazine of the U.S. Navy, Chief of Naval Operations Energy

and Environmental Readiness Division (N45).

This magazine is an authorized publication for members of theDepartment of Defense. Statements made in the N45 Outlook columnreflect the official policy of the Navy. The contents in the remainder ofthe magazine are not necessarily the official views of, or endorsed by,the U.S. Government, the Department of Defense, or the United StatesNavy. Inclusion of any product or service in any Currents feature articledoes not constitute an endorse ment by the Navy. The Navy encouragesall readers to check with the appropriate supervising authority prior to

using any product or service mentioned in the magazine.

Article submissions should be submitted directly to Currents’ ManagingEditor, Bruce McCaffrey, using the Currents article template. A publicaffairs review must be completed before Currents management

can consider an article for publication.

Browse the Currents archive at that receive hard copies can contact Lorraine Wass [email protected] with requests for changes to mailing addressesand shipping quantities.

John Nelson, the new environmental director at the Pacific Missile Range Facility,is building new hives to establish a healthy bee population on base, conductassociated diagnoses, and ultimately guard against the potentially adverseimpacts of swarming events on base.

PMRF Establishing New Hives to ProtectHoney Bee Population, Minimize Interferencewith Base ActivitiesNew Environmental Director’s Entomology SkillsCreating a Buzz4

12 LMR Program Launches New ProjectInitiatives

Efforts Continue to Expand the Navy’s Knowledgeof Marine Mammals

22 MCAS Cherry Point Implements InnovativeWater Quality Monitoring System

System Reduces NPDES Manpower Requirements,Provides Real-Time Water Quality Data

Chief of Naval Operations Energy and Environmental Readiness Division

DIRECTORRear Admiral Douglas G. Morton



[email protected]

Currents Staff


Bruce McCaffrey Consulting, [email protected]



ART DIRECTORVictoria Bermel



[email protected]

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30 SSC Pacific Scientists StudyMarine Mammals to Build aBetter Sonar

New Research Focuses on HowSounds are Processed

35 Navy’s EnvironmentalStewardship Exhibit Opens atWallops Flight Facility

Traveling Exhibit Educates While itEntertains

40 Naval Sea Systems CommandLaunches Game ChangingTechnology for Fuel Conservation

GENISYS Software has the Potential toEnhance Warfighting Capability

44 Chief of Naval OperationsEnvironmental Award WinnersRecognized

Accomplishments Exemplify Navy’sCommitment to EnvironmentalStewardship

66 Warfare Centers, Industry Meetfor High Energy StorageConference

Professionals Focus on Safe, AffordableBatteries & Other Energy Sources

68 SERDP & ESTCP Announce 2015Projects of the Year

Notable Efforts Include Research onLighting Controls That Save Energy &Reduce Costs

featuresN45 OutlookTHIS IS MY final column as director ofOPNAV N45. By the time this magazinecrosses your desk and appears online,Rear Admiral Lou Cariello will have takenover the reins here and be applying hisexperience to the numerous issues inwhich we’re engaged. It’s complex workthat is vital for executing the Navy mission today and maintainingcapability for the future. I’m excited about the opportunities he’llhave to both lead and learn from the dedicated staff here at N45.

As policymakers and subject matter experts, we must continueminimizing and mitigating risks to the training and testing ourforces require. An aspect of this is our approach for interfacingwith our regulatory partners for environmental permits. With thechallenges those agencies face in analyzing huge numbers ofpermit requests, the Navy must do everything in our power toensure that the requests we submit for regulatory review meet allkey requirements on the first go round. We also need to commu-nicate early and often with regulators to help create shared, real-istic expectations for our consultations. Success on this front canhelp keep our training and testing on track—but failure could forceus to delay activities that are essential for readiness.

Contamination of drinking water by perfluorinated compounds(PFC) from firefighting chemicals continues to be of concern for theNavy. Over the past several months as the U.S. EnvironmentalProtection Agency has increased awareness and created a lifetimehealth advisory, we’ve ramped up sampling efforts on and aroundfacilities where firefighting training and/or aviation accidents haveoccurred and are providing bottled water where needed to ensurepeople have safe water to drink. We continue to inform affectedcommunities, develop policies and funding plans to eliminate PFCsfrom the supply chain, and look at options for remediating contam-inated water. We must, and we will, do the right thing to protectour own workforce and our neighbors near our installations.

The examples above are just two of a host of important energy,environmental, and compatibility issues which N45 and ourcolleagues throughout the Fleets and systems commands areworking daily, with the clear goal of empowering the Navy toperpetually meet its national security mission.

In closing, I offer my sincere thanks for all you do. It has been anhonor and a privilege to serve with you. �Rear Admiral Doug Morton

Director, Chief of Naval Operations Energy and Environmental Readiness Division

38 Energy Warrior

60 Trends of the Environment


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4 Currents summer 2016

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he new environmental director at the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) is building new hives to establish a healthy bee population on base, conduct associated diagnoses,and ultimately guard against the potentially adverse impacts of swarming events on base.

The ChallengePMRF at Barking Sands, located on the western side of Kauai, Hawaii, is the world’s

leading multi-dimensional integrated test and training range. The installation simultaneously supports surface, subsurface, air and space operations. The

installation is contained within a strip of land 7.5 miles long and one-half mile wide between the ocean and mountains.

Much of the land adjoining the installation is used for agriculture, which benefits from the area’s generally warm and dry climate. This climate

also contributes to numerous honeybee swarms. PMRF can see nine to 15

swarms during the year, with peakseason occurring during the

summer months.

New Environmental Director’s Entomology Skills Creating a Buzz


&Minimize Interference with Base Activitiespopulation

Honey BeePMRF EstablishingNEW HIVES to Protect

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Bee swarms at PMRF, particularlynear the air strip, typically have beenmanaged as a pest concern for anumber of reasons. First is bio-secu-rity. With aircraft coming in and out,there is potential for varroa mite(Varroa destructor) and other honeybee threats to be introduced. Varroamite, a significant threat to all honeybee colonies, has not yet beendetected on Kauai. Because PMRF is a

small installation with limited staff, itdoes not support an animal and planthealth inspection service.

Second, if swarms are not capturedand put into hives, the bees can estab-lish their colonies where they maypose problems for buildings andhumans. If hives become establishedin buildings not only they can damagethe structure but the bees couldbecome defensive and sting peopleperceived as a threat to the colony.

6 Currents summer 2016

PMRF can see nine to 15 swarms during the year, with peak season occurring during the summer months.

Honey bee swarm hanging from a tree branch.

Hive damaged by small hive beetle larvae in the “slime” stage.USDA

Deadly parasitic varroa mite on the back of a honey bee.Scott Bauer

The first spring after John Nelson,PMRF’s new environmental director,arrived he received a call about aswarm. While swarms were typicallyhandled by PMRF’s pest controlofficer, Nelson’s entomology trainingfueled his interest in checking outthe swarm. When a staff personfrom Hawaii’s Department of Agricul-ture (HDOA) arrived to collect theswarm, he told Nelson that he wouldfreeze the swarm to kill it and sendsamples to HDOA’s Bee program totest for parasites.

The Purpose Behind This EffortNelson thought there might beanother way to address the concernswhile also protecting the beneficialand at-risk bee populations. He hadbeen exposed to beekeeping as achild—his family had hives when hewas growing up—and it felt likesomething he could do. He proposed

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Presidential Memorandum for a National Strategy on

Honey Bee and Pollinator Health President Barack Obama issued his Presidential Memorandum on 20 June 2014 to create the Federal Pollinator Health Task Force. Hecharged the Task Force with creating a “Federal Strategy to Promotethe Health of Honey Bees and Other Pollinators.” The Task Force is co-chaired by the Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of theU.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Selected documents associ-ated with the President’s Memorandum and resulting from the taskforce’s work can be found at the following links:

Presidential Memorandum—Creating a Federal Strategy to Promotethe Health of Honey Bees and Other Pollinators



National Strategy to Promote the Health of Honey Bees and Other Pollinators


The Department of Defense’s Role in the National Strategy toPromote the Health of Honey Bees and Other Pollinators (2015)


Pollinator Friendly Best Management Practices on Federal Lands


establishing an apiary where swarms could be placedinto hives, inspected for potential pests and protected,which is consistent with Federal guidance to protecthoney bees and other pollinators.

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) contribute to an estimated$14.6 million in U.S. crop production, making them crit-ical contributors to the country’s food supply. Their popula-tions are on the decline worldwide. A recent UnitedNations report estimated that 40 percent of invertebratepollinators, including bees and butterflies, are facingextinction. (For a copy of the report, visit One of the more publicized honey bee concerns iscolony collapse disorder (CCD) in which managed hivessuffer from the rapid loss of adult worker bees. Althoughno single cause for CCD has been clearly identified, anumber of issues have been suggested including suscepti-bility to threats from varroa mite, small hive beetle, beebrood diseases and pesticides, including neonicotinoids.Other important pollinators, such as bumblebees andbutterflies, also are at risk.

Recognizing the seriousness of declining pollinator popula-tions, President Barack Obama issued a PresidentialMemorandum in 2014 to create a “Federal Strategy toPromote the Health of Honey Bees and Other Pollinators.”The memorandum, noting the “breadth, severity, andpersistence of pollinator losses,” established the FederalPollinator Health Task Force, co-chaired by the Secretary ofAgriculture and the Administrator of the U.S. Environ-mental Protection Agency. The task force which included

The Pacific Missile Range Facility.

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representatives of all Executive Branchdepartments, including Department ofDefense, and other key federal govern-ment offices, was charged withcrafting the federal strategy.

In addition to research into the causesof population declines and publiceducation efforts to detail ways thatcitizens could support pollinators, thestrategy specifies steps to be taken onfederal facilities. It provides federalfacility managers with needed infor-mation to “promote the overall life-cycle of pollinators at Federalfacilities—improved foraging, repro-duction, shelter, and hibernation.”(See the addendum to SustainablePractices for Designed Landscape guid-ance, 2014, page 6.)

8 Currents summer 2016

The traps might help to prevent potential conflicts from a colony becoming established in buildings or near the air strip.

before they established colonies. Theapiaries are at two locations on theinstallation, one at the north end andthe other at the south end. Theselocations have been carefullyselected to avoid more populatedand frequented areas of the base. Inaddition, he has placed severalswarm traps around the base nearbuildings and other locations whereswarms might try to establish a newcolony. The traps are large, bucket-

What PMRF is DoingEstablishing hives requires equipment,including hive structures andbeekeeping suits. Nelson saw twoprimary ways to get hives structures—buy them online and have themshipped (prohibitively expensive toHawaii) or build them. Nelson reachedout to the local community and foundwoodworkers, including the pestcontrol contractor at PMRF, willing tohelp. Not only did the pest controlcontractor have beekeeping experi-ence, but he also was a woodworker.The team started building andcompleted the first Langstroth hives insummer 2015. (See our “LangstrothHives” sidebar for more information.)

Nelson has created two apiaries(placed hives) by capturing swarms

LEFT: Swarm of bees on a swarm trap at PMRF.

ABOVE: Frame of recently transferred comb with honey, pollen, bee bread, open brood, and sealed brood present.John Nelson

Beekeeper (Randy Nakama,Manu Kai) observing thereminder of bees from aswarm trap make their way into a newly established hive.John Nelson

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size containers that include a lure.When a swarm gets into a trap,Nelson and his team can move theswarm to one of the constructedhives. While there is no guaranteethat the swarms will only go to thesetraps, they make it easier to capturethe swarms. The traps might help toprevent potential conflicts from acolony becoming established inbuildings, near more populated partsof the base or near the air strip. Theteam is prepared to establish tenhives during the 2016 season.

While established colonies sometimescan be moved, one of Nelson’s earlyexperiences demonstrated potentialproblems. A colony discovered under-neath a temporary building was nearthe building entrance and needed tobe removed. The team attempted tomove the colony by transferring thelayers of comb into Langstroth hiveframes. While such a transfer can bedone successfully under good condi-tions, this one did not proceed as

Langstroth Hives John Nelson is using Langstroth hives forthe PMRF apiary. Of the three types of hivescurrently popular with beekeepers, theLangstroth is probablythe one most peoplerecognize. Patented in1852 and developed byLorenzo Langstroth, thehive is composed ofstackable boxes withframes. The larger broodbox holds ten deeperframes where the queenstarts laying her broodand worker bees drawcomb (wax). The smallerboxes placed over the brood box are called“supers” or “honey supers” where workerbees store excess honey.

The first PMRF hive has a full brood box andthe bees are starting to draw wax and storehoney in the first super box. In the othersuccessful hive, the bees are still buildingout the brood box.

hoped. As the ambient temperaturerose, the wax of the brood and honeycombs began to soften and thecombs were falling apart. During theprocess some parts of the combsoverlapped, making the colonyvulnerable to small hive beetle attack.Ultimately, after the colony wasmoved into a hive, the hive beetlesoverwhelmed the hive and it failed.

Although that colony did not succeed,some of the collapsed combs fromthat relocation effort were full ofkiawe honey—known to be light andflavorful. The honey filled several jarsand provided a vehicle for generatingadded interest for the apiary effort.

To give the other new hive colonies a“leg up” Nelson provided sugar waterduring times that nectar was notreadily available. In a fashion similar tohummingbird feeders, supplementingnectar sources with sugar water canhelp to establish and support healthyhives. Healthy hives are better able towithstand and control the inevitable

LEFT: Newly established PMRF bee hive (brood box) after transferring a swarm of feral bees.

ABOVE: Frame of recently transferred comb with honey, pollen, bee bread, open brood, and sealed brood present.John Nelson

John Nelson

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This is not rocket science. With a little research, anyone can take up beekeeping.

—John Nelson

presence of some small hive beetles.During the spring, with the abundanceof kiawe (Prosopis pallida, a type ofmesquite) on PMRF, the hives have asignificant nectar source during itsflowering period.

The initial hives were inspected,sampled and approved by the stateapiarist (beekeeper). PMRF willcontinue to work with the state,providing bee, pollen and waxsamples that can be tested forpossible parasites and pesticideloads, and bee tissue for genetictesting. These hives could becomesentinel hives, providing timely valu-able information about the colonies’health and potential threats to honeybee populations on Kauai, as well asprovide insights into which strains ofbees are present and succeeding.(For more on honey bee strains, seeour “Honey Bee Basics” sidebar.)This cooperation might be able tocontribute data to research on colonycollapse disorder.

Public Outreach & EducationThe PMRF bee project offers numerouseducation and outreach opportunities.Public education efforts, both on baseand off, can help people to:

� Understand the critical role honeybees and other pollinators play.

� Learn more about the precipitousdeclines in honey bee and polli-nator populations.

� Become more aware of ways tosupport pollinators.

� Recognize that honey bees aregenerally non-aggressive.

� Distinguish between honey beesand more worrisome wasps (alsocommon at PMRF).

Understanding more about beeswarms—why swarms occur, whatthey look like and what people cando when they see a swarm—is avaluable first step. Swarms happenwhen a queen bee and about one-third to one-half of the workers leave

to establish a new colony. In theexisting hive a new queen willemerge. The departing worker beessurround the queen to protect herwhile other bees scout out a locationto establish a new hive. Oftenswarms are seen on tree branches,on fences or under building eaves.When bee traps are set with lure, thebees might swarm on the trap.

Important things to keep in mindwhen finding a swarm:

� Swarming bees typically are notdefensive and do not pose a threat.

� Do not disturb the swarm.

� Do not spray or try to kill the bees.

� Call a beekeeper. They are eagerto capture swarms and know howto do it safely.

At PMRF, anyone sighting a swarmcan contact the Environmental Divi-sion and Nelson and his team willcapture the swarm.

In addition to working with HDOS’sbee program, Nelson coordinates withother beekeepers, environmentalgroups and local schools on theisland. He is an active member of theKauai Beekeeper Association and thelocal community college’s apiary

10 Currents summer 2016

LEFT: Queen bee surrounded by ring of attendant workers. This only happens when the queen is at rest.

ABOVE: Frame of brood comb with open and sealed brood present.John Nelson

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program. Some of the goals of theseconnections include:

� Advancing honey bee awarenessand advocacy on the island ofKauai.

� Improving collaboration on bee-related issues.

� Assisting, educating and sharingwith fellow beekeepers.

� Promoting beekeeping by creatinga positive image of honey bees,beekeeping, and bee products.

Nelson also believes making theseefforts is consistent with PMRF’scommitment to being a good neighboron Kauai and to implementing the fullspirit of Executive Order 13352, “Facili-tation of Cooperative Conservation.”

Looking forward, Nelson hopes toestablish a demonstration “bee yard.”This would provide a safe setting inwhich people could get close to thehives, learn more about the bees andbeekeeping. It is exciting for people to

pollinators, Navy environmentalmanagers who haven’t done soalready can anticipate adding polli-nator protection plans to their Inte-grated Natural ResourcesManagement Plans. In locations thatneed to respond to honey beeswarms, establishing swarm trapsand being prepared to capture andtransfer swarms into hives is a win-win for the installation and for thehoney bees. Managing honey beesthis way provides a unique channelfor public outreach. This is one moreway the Navy can demonstrate itsstewardship of the land and naturalresources on installation.

While Nelson might be an entomolo-gist, he is quick to note, “This is notrocket science. With a little research,anyone can take up beekeeping.” �John NelsonPacific Missile Range Facility808-335-4064DSN: [email protected]

The Basics About Honey Bees There are over 20,000 types of bees world-wide. The most commonly known is the Europeanor western honey bees are Apis mellifera (Apis: bee; mellifera: honey-bearing ). They are socialand establish colonies that include a queen, a limited number of male drones and female

workers, each with specific responsibilities within the colony. The queenis the only bee within the colony that can lay eggs. She only leaves thehive to mate with drones or to establish a new colony. Workers foragefor nectar and tend and build the hive.

Within the Apis mellifera species are various strains or subspecies withdifferent characteristics beekeepers sometimes consider when estab-lishing managed hives. There are German or “black” bees (A. m.mellifera), one of the first honey bees brought to the United States, are amore defensive strain; Italian honey bees (A. m. ligustica), are goodhoney producers and docile; Carniolan bee (A. m. carnica), are particu-

larly docile but quick to swarm; Caucasian bees (A. m. caucasica) from the Ural mountainfoothills are another more defensive strain.

The PMRF honey bees are from feral swarms and their genetics are not currently known.

John Nelson with asmoker preparing to inspect a hive.Randy Nakama

Rob Flynn

hold a frame of bees, see the eggs anddeveloping larvae, and see the queen. Ithelps to demystify the hive and makesthe bees a little less scary. EventuallyNelson hopes to expand the project toprovide more hands-on education onbase and to support environmentaleducation in nearby schools.

Nelson also would like to expand hisefforts to providing direct support forother pollinators, particularly nativepollinators. Hawaii’s only native bee(Hylaeus), commonly known as theyellow-faced bee, also has been indecline due in part to habitat lossThese are species of solitary bees(meaning they do not establishcolonies like the honey bee) andimportant pollinators for nativeHawaiian plants. Planting nativespecies on base could support theseand other native pollinators, includingbutterflies and birds.

ConclusionsWith the increasing attention to theplight of honey bees and other

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THE LATEST ROUND of LivingMarine Resources (LMR) programprojects continue to support theNavy’s efforts to reduce potentialimpacts to marine mammals whilemeeting its at-sea training and testingrequirements.

which of those should be expandedinto full proposals. Full proposalsreceive similar scrutiny. Followingapproval from the LMR program’sresource sponsor, the Chief of NavalOperations Energy and Environ-mental Readiness Division (OPNAV

N45), selected proposals are identi-fied for funding.

LMR Investment Areas & NeedsThe annual needs identificationprocess is organized within fivedefined investment areas. (See oursidebar “The Basics About the LMRProgram” for more details.) Anyonewithin the Navy may submit needsfor consideration by the program. Theneeds must fall within the definedinvestment areas and meet one ormore of the following conditions:

� Addresses research challenges beingfaced by the Navy community

� Identifies an existing gap inknowledge, technology and/orcapability

� Is associated with an environ-mental constraint or regulatorydriver.

Submitted needs are validated andranked by the LMRAC, and thenrecommendations are made to

12 Currents summer 2016

LMR Program Launches New Project InitiativesEfforts Continue to Expand the Navy’s Knowledge of Marine Mammals

Results will ensure better estimates of potential disturbance and harassmentfor future naval training and environmental impact statement assessments.

OPNAV N45. (A guide for submittingneeds is available at “Needs.”)

For FY15 funding, the BAA requestedpre-proposals to address the followingthree needs:

1. N-0077-15: Population DensityEstimation from Passive AcousticMonitoring Data

2. N-0088-15: Marine Species Moni-toring Data Collection ToolkitDevelopment

3. N-0096-15: Hearing Measure-ments in a Broad Range of MarineMammal Species

The program received 63 pre-proposals, of which 19 were devel-oped into full proposals. Of those 19,

The LMR program is responsible forapplied research and works both toaddress the Navy’s key researchneeds and to transition the resultsand technologies for use within theNavy’s at-sea environmental compli-ance and permitting processes.

The newly started fiscal year (FY)2015 projects were selected througha carefully considered process thatthe program undertakes each year.This process begins with identifyingkey Navy needs followed by issuinga Broad Agency Announcement(BAA) to solicit pre-proposals toaddress those needs. The program’sadvisory committee, the LivingMarine Resources AdvisoryCommittee (LMRAC), reviews thepre-proposals and recommends

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eight “new start” projects wereselected for the FY15 funding cycle.

NEED: Population DensityEstimation from Passive AcousticMonitoring DataThe Navy uses passive acousticmonitoring (PAM) for a number ofenvironmental monitoring needs,including detecting the presence ofmarine mammals and classifyingwhat species are present. PAM alsooffers the Navy a potentiallypowerful and beneficial tool to esti-mate the density (i.e., number ofindividuals) for species of concern insituations where other methods(e.g., visual observation) are infea-sible or prohibitively expensive. Esti-mating the number of animalspresent using PAM data requires alevel of data collection planning,metadata collection, and externalcalibration of detection rates that is not necessarilyrequired for other PAM applications.

From 24 pre-proposals received, three were selected forFY15 funding and are now underway.

Passive Acoustic Density Estimation of Baleen Whales: Using Sonobuoys to Estimate Call-RateCorrection Factors

Project number: 16Principal Investigator: Shannon Rankin, Southwest Fisheries Science Center

This project will work to improve animal density estimatesof baleen whales in the California Current and the Navy’sSouthern California Offshore Range (SCORE) bycombining sonobuoy data with visual sightings to estimatethe correction factor needed to convert call density data towhale density data. (Note: The California current is asouthward flowing offshore current that traverses the westcoast of North America from Canada to Baja California.)The sonobuoys used are equipped with signal processingtechnology that works in conjunction with PAMGuard, awidely used marine mammal passive acoustic processingprogram. The density of whales will be compared over theentire study area using visual line-transect survey methods

during daylight hours and acoustic point-transect surveymethods during night hours.

Sonobuoys offer several benefits as a PAM method. Theyare used extensively by the Navy, and surplus sonobuoyshave proven valuable for detection and localization ofbaleen whales. Deployment of sonobuoys requiresminimal experience and can be conducted from avariety of platforms (airplanes, helicopters, ships ofvarious sizes), which allows for opportunistic monitoring.Data collection can be conducted in real-time, allowingfor a short turnaround between identifying a need andobtaining data and density estimates for baleen whalesin a given area.

Blue and Fin Whale Density Estimation in the SouthernCalifornia Offshore Range Using PAM Data

Project number: 17Principal Investigator: Ana Širovic, University of CaliforniaSan Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography

This project focuses on developing spatially and tempo-rally explicit density estimates for blue and fin whales inthe Southern California (SOCAL) range to provide the Navywith a realistic, quantitative assessment of levels of impactfrom Navy training activities.

Parts of a SSQ-Q53F sonobuoy after being removed from its housing.

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The project team is leveraging resultsfrom work completed under the Officeof Naval Research (ONR), utilizing datafrom acoustic tag deployments fromthe SOCAL Behavioral Response Study(BRS), and will also perform additionalacoustic tag data collection, using newlyavailable long-term tags. (For more onSOCAL-BRS, see our sidebar “TwoFoundational LMR Projects.”) This willallow researchers to evaluate the effect

of bias in call-rate estimation fromshort-term tag deployments, whichwere the norm during the earlier datacollection. The focus of tagging will beon fin whales where existing data aremore limited, but will also supplementavailable blue whale data. Results willensure better estimates of potentialdisturbance and harassment for futurenaval training and environmentalimpact statement assessments.

DECAF-TEA: DensityEstimation for Cetaceansfrom Acoustic Fixed Sensors in Testing andEvaluation Areas

Project number: 19Principal Investigator: Len Thomas, University of St. Andrews

Much of the PAM-baseddensity estimation work nowtaking place occurs on Navytesting ranges where thereare pre-existing arrays ofcabled hydrophones.However, because a largeamount of the Navy’s activitytakes place away from theseinstrumented ranges,methods applicable to suchnon-instrumented areas needto be fully developed, demon-strated and validated.

This project will demonstrateand validate a method forpassive acoustic density esti-mation that can be used acrossa range of species, environ-ments and temporal scales.The project team will deployretrievable, bottom-mounted

passive acoustic sensors adjacent to oroverlapping the Southern CaliforniaAnti-Submarine Warfare Range(SOAR). Data from these sensors, inconjunction with estimates of vocaliza-tion rates from existing and ongoingstudies, will be used to estimatedensity values and create animaldistribution maps for two case-studyspecies—the Cuvier’s beaked whaleand the fin whale. The project team

14 Currents summer 2016

Team deploying an acoustic and video tag on a blue whale. A. Allen, NMFS permit 14534

One of the earlier acoustic tags (BPROBE) deployed on a fin whale off Tanner-Cortez Bank in 2003 as part of past study of fin and blue whale calling.

It is important to understand the difference between an animal hearing a sound and that sound causing an effect.

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will leverage fin whale vocalization data obtained in theongoing SOCAL-BRS. The project is heavily reliant on theMarine Mammal Monitoring on Ranges (M3R) PAM systemdeveloped for the instrumented Navy ranges by personnelfrom the Navy Undersea Warfare Center Newport, RhodeIsland who are partners on this project.

The end products will bedensity estimates and associ-ated animal distributionmaps that combine datafrom both instrumented andnon-instrumented ranges.Density estimates will beadded to the Navy MarineSpecies Density Data archive.

NEED: Marine SpeciesMonitoring DataCollection ToolkitDevelopmentCurrent Navy-funded marinespecies surveys generatelarge quantities of data thatoften are collected usingvarying monitoring tech-niques. Data protocols,formats, standards, and

quality assurance and control procedures are items thatneed to be addressed in order to standardize data acrossthe Navy’s marine species monitoring program andensure consistency with generally accepted standardswithin the scientific community.

Cuvier’s beaked whale. Gregory S. Schorr, NMFS permit 16111

Overview of workflow. Raw acoustic signals. NOAA Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Environmental Research Division

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From 10 pre-proposals received, onewas selected for FY15 LMR programfunding and is now underway.

Acoustic Metadata Management forNavy Fleet Operations

Project number: LMR-15-18Principal Investigator: Marie Roch,San Diego State University

This project will expand develop-ment of Tethys, a passive acousticmonitoring metadata database spon-sored by National OceanographicPartnership Program. Tethys incorpo-rates the expertise of PAM personnelat NOAA Alaska, Northeast, PacificIslands, Southeast, and SouthwestFisheries Science Centers as well asPAM experts at the Scripps Institu-tion of Oceanography and San DiegoState University. The system providesa standard that can be implementedon any system, and there is broadinterest in transitioning what is

NEED: Hearing Measurements ina Broad Range of MarineMammal SpeciesFor the Navy to minimize the potentialadverse effects resulting from expo-sure to sound, a fundamental need isa more complete understanding ofhow marine mammals hear and areaffected by sound. There are multipleaspects of a sound source that mightaffect the hearing, behavior and physi-ology of marine mammals. Improvedknowledge of these aspects will helpin accurately estimating and predictingthe audibility of frequency-relatedharmonics and other secondaryfeatures of sonar signals to differentmarine mammal species, and thedistances at which such sounds can bedetected. This information will supportmore appropriate mitigation measuresto minimize the potential adverseeffects resulting from exposure tocomplex anthropogenic sounds.

16 Currents summer 2016

becoming a community standardinto an official one.

The project team will strengthen thecapabilities of Tethys to make itmore usable by the Navy. Specifictasks include providing additionaldata analysis and reporting facilities,identifying bottlenecks in perfor-mance as the existing databasescontinue to grow in size, and furtherdevelopment of the program’sschemata for localization. Theseefforts will improve its utility forlong-term Navy monitoring datamanagement and support Navy miti-gation efforts.

The project is a collaborative effortamong the Navy, NOAA, and BOEM.It builds upon work previously fundedby ONR, and portions of the projectare currently being funded by theLMR program while others are beingfunded by BOEM.

Bottlenose dolphin undergoing an Auditory Evoked Potential (AEP) hearing test.

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TWO OF THE earliest LMR projects are the Marine Mammal Monitoring on Ranges (M3R) project (no. LMR-12-01) and the Southern Cali-fornia Behavioral Response Study (SOCAL-BRS) (no. LMR-13-02). Several subsequent LMR projects draw from data and techniques devel-oped through these two multi-year projects. Additional details follow.

Marine Mammal Monitoring on RangesM3R utilizes existing hydrophone (underwater microphone) arrays on Navy ranges to expand the Navy’s knowledge about marine mammalpresence, abundance and behavior. The data collected via the hydrophones is combined with other passive acoustic monitoring data, visualobservation, biological sampling, and satellite tags. Marine mammal vocalizations are detected on individual hydrophones as an animal orgroup of animals moves across the range.

The goals of the M3R program are to:

� Develop automated passive acoustic marine mammal detection, localization, classification and display tools using existing Navyundersea hydrophone arrays and integrate visual and satellite monitoring methods to leverage the combination of the methods to studymarine mammals on Navy ranges.

� Study and measure animal responses to Navy activities, including mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS), with a focus on beaked whales.

� Provide scientifically defensible behavioral response metrics for sensitive species like beaked whales, which can be used to inform regu-latory risk criteria and provide insight into the cumulative effect of repeated sonar exposure.

� Provide baseline population density, abundance, and habitat usage data for Navy risk analyses and permit applications covering trainingand testing activities on the ranges.

M3R was initiated in 2000 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR). Core components of M3R program development were transitioned fromONR to LMR in 2009. Since then, prototype technologies have been extended and used to study animals on the ranges. M3R now is transi-tioning its monitoring and analysis tools so that they might be run and maintained by Navy range personnel. During FY15, the projectcompleted significant system updates at three Navy ranges, improved system stability and upgraded hardware, installed packet recorders toarchive raw acoustic data, and completed a user’s manual.

Southern California Behavioral Response StudySOCAL-BRS is designed to increase understanding of marine mammal reac-tions to sound and provide a more robust scientific basis for estimating theeffect of Navy MFAS on marine mammal behavior.

The project began in 2010 and completed its most recent field season in 2015.The overarching approach has included a number of research objectives:

� Tag a variety of species and obtain baseline behavioral data.

� Conduct Controlled Exposure Experiments (CEE) to obtain high-resolutionmeasurements of behavioral responses of marine mammals.

� Apply adaptive team configuration to support both simulated MFASsources and actual military MFAS sources.

� Obtain basic biological, behavioral, and foraging ecology data for marinemammals to support range monitoring efforts and/or habitat models.

SOCAL-BRS is providing the Navy with baseline data on movement and acoustic behavior of a variety of cetacean species as well as indi-vidual high-resolution measurements of behavioral changes during exposure. To date that has included baseline and CEE data on morethan 160 individuals of ten federally protected marine mammals, including two beaked whale species and four endangered species (blue,fin, humpback, and sperm whales). All of these data represent novel measurements for these species. Measurements are providing quantita-tive insights into the critical importance of exposure context (e.g., distance from source, depth, behavioral state at time of exposure, etc.) interms of the probability and type of behavioral response.

summer 2016 Currents 17

Two Foundational LMR Projects

Sperm whale.

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18 Currents summer 2016

From 29 pre-proposals received, four were selected forFY15 funding and are now underway.

Standardization of Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP)Audiometry Methods to Ensure Comparable DataInclusion in a National Marine Mammal AEP Database

Project number: 13Principal Investigator: Dorian Houser, National MarineMammal Foundation

To understand the natural or baseline hearing in marinemammals, researchers have measured hearing thresholdseither by studying behavioral response to sound or bytaking an electrophysiological approach. In the latter, theymeasure voltages produced by the brain in response to anacoustic stimulus. These voltages (AEPs) can be quicklymeasured in subjects with minimal subject cooperation.

However, different AEP methodologies can result inlarge differences in threshold estimates for the samespecies, or even the same individual. Differences mayvary on the order of tens of decibels, which has seriousramifications for determining the range of audibility forNavy acoustic sources, as well as for estimating impacts

within mid- to low-frequency ranges where varianceswill be the greatest.

This project standardizes hearing threshold measurementmethods used in toothed whales (odontocetes) andincreases species representation and sample sizes inhearing threshold estimates to reduce uncertainty inhearing range analyses used by Navy planners. Effortsinclude developing and promoting a standardized method-ology for the collection and reporting of audiometric infor-mation from odontocetes through AEP methods. Followingcompletion of the standard, the portable AEP systemcurrently in use, called the Evoked Response Study Tool(EVREST), will need to be reprogrammed according to theconsensus methodologies determined through the stan-dardization process.

Data collected from wild odontocetes with the AEPsystems, under standardized methods, will be incorpo-rated into the national AEP database and access forqueries to the database will be made available to Navyenvironmental planners.

Behavioral Audiometry in Multiple Killer Whales

Project number: 14Principal Investigator: Brian Branstetter,National Marine Mammal Foundation

This project provides the first demo-graphic hearing data from killer whalesby measuring behavioral audiogramsfrom five to eight participants that vary inage and gender. Additional subjects maybecome available during the course of thestudy. Audiograms will be measuredusing well-established psychoacousticmethods that are regularly employed bythe National Marine Mammal Foundationfor the testing of hearing in dolphins.Psychophysical hearing tests are the“gold standard” of hearing tests, leadingto the most accurate audiometricmeasurements.

Data from this study will more than double the number of individual killer whales that have been tested,

as well as provide hearing data over a large age range of 12 to 49 years.

A killer whale positioned on a stationing device while participating in a psychophysical hearing test.

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Jawphone Simulations to Maximizethe Utility of Psychoacoustic andAuditory Evoked PotentialExperiments

Project number: 15Principal Investigators: Ted Cranford,San Diego State University; Petr Krysl,University of California, San Diego

Auditory evoked potential can bequickly measured in subjects withminimal subject cooperation. To date,however, basic hearing measures

(AEP or behavioral) have only beencompiled on a small number ofanimals, and interpreting AEP resultsmay be more complicated when adevice called a jawphone (suction cupcontaining a transducer) is used. Theplacement, frequency selection, andother parameters of the jawphone canaffect AEP testing results.

In preliminary simulation studies, itappears that jawphones can selec-tively excite hearing pathways that

Data from this study will more thandouble the number of individual killerwhales that have been tested, as wellas provide hearing data over a largeage range of 12 to 49 years. This willhelp to determine accurate mid-frequency cetacean composite audio-grams and weighting functions forNavy at-sea environmental compli-ance. This work is follow-up to a 2014cooperative project between SeaWorld San Antonio and U.S. FleetForces Command.

This modeling environment gives researchers the ability to conduct “virtual experiments” to investigate basic

mechanisms of hearing and sound production.

Common dolphin surface maps.

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20 Currents summer 2016

may be different from those used naturally by theanimals. Small changes in the placement of a simulatedjawphone can cause large amplitude differences (severaldecibels) by the time the sounds reach the ears.

This project uses a computational approach to identifythe mechanism(s) by which jawphones stimulate hearingwhen they are used to gather data on marine mammalauditory capabilities. The methodology is based on finiteelement modeling techniques, where high-resolutioncomputerized tomography scan data are combined withmeasurements of tissue properties and custom-builtcomputer programs to simulate sound propagation intoand out of the anatomic complexity of specimens. Modeloutputs will quantify the acoustic pathways between thejawphone and the ear, which will enable researchers tocompile sensitivity maps that identify the optimal loca-tions for jawphone placement in three dolphin species.These maps can be used to design and evaluate AEP-based hearing tests, guiding jawphone placement tominimize errors due to variable response sensitivity tothe location of the transducer on the animal’s skin.

This modeling environment gives researchers the abilityto conduct “virtual experiments” to investigate basicmechanisms of hearing and sound production, and tosimulate exposure levels at sound pressures that wouldbe impossible or unethical with live animals. These

results will be helpful in the design and evaluation ofpast and future AEP hearing tests, will significantlyreduce lifecycle costs of physical experimentation, andhave the potential to reduce environmental impacts.

Behavioral Dose-Response Relationship and TemporaryThreshold Shift in Harbor Porpoises

Project number: 20Principal Investigator: Ron Kastelein, Sea MammalResearch Company Inc.

A variety of Navy sonar sources are audible to harborporpoises (Phocoena phocoena), a small odontocete speciesthat has a wide distribution area, acute hearing, and func-tional hearing over a very wide frequency range.

It is important to understand the difference between ananimal hearing a sound and that sound causing aneffect—either a behavioral effect or a physiological effecton hearing, known as a temporary threshold shift (TTS) orpermanent threshold shift. Based on the presently avail-able information, neither TTS (especially for frequenciesabove 7 kilohertz (kHz)) nor behavioral responses can bepredicted for harbor porpoises due to exposure to specificsignals of U.S. Navy relevance.

This project consists of two study types: a behavioral dose-response study and a TTS study. The behavioral dose-response study consists of two phases:

Harbor porpoise at listening station. Dominic Dijkstra

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1. Establishing the dose-behavioralresponse relationship for play-backs of 53-C sonar sounds at twoduty cycles (2.6 and 90 percent) inquiet conditions.

2. Establishing the dose-behavioralresponse relationship for playbacksof 53-C sonar sounds at 2.6 percentduty cycle in three Sea State noiseconditions (Sea States 0, 4 and 6).

The TTS study also consists of twophases:

1. Establishing which hearingfrequency is most affected byseveral continuous pure tonesabove 8 kHz (i.e., shows thehighest TTS).

2. Establishing TTS growth curves(due to sound pressure level) for

operations. Increasing the under-standing of how marine mammalshear will inform the Navy aboutpotential effects of different soundsources. With this information, theNavy can employ better monitoringand mitigation techniques.

The LMR program continues to helpthe Navy meets its training require-ments while protecting the specieswith whom they share the oceans.Fact sheets with more information onthe FY15 projects can be found underthe “Project Highlights” tab on theLMR web site at �Mandy ShoemakerNaval Facilities Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center805-982-5872DSN: [email protected]

The Basics About the LMR Program

THE LMR PROGRAM seeks to develop, demonstrate, and assess data and technology solutions to protect living marine resources byminimizing the environmental risks of Navy at-sea training and testing activities while preserving core Navy readiness capabilities. Thismission is accomplished through the following five primary focus areas:

1. Providing science-based information to support Navy environmental effects assessments for at-sea training and testing.

2. Improving knowledge of the ecology and population dynamics of marine species of concern.

3. Developing the scientific basis for the criteria and thresholds to measure the biological effects of Navy-generated sound.

4. Improving understanding of underwater sound and sound field characterization unique to assessing the biological consequences ofunderwater sound (as opposed to tactical applications of underwater sound or propagation loss modelingfor military communications or tactical applications).

5. Developing technologies and methods to mitigate and monitor environmental conse-quences to living marine resources resulting from naval activities on at-sea training andtesting ranges.

The program is sponsored by OPNAV N45 and managed by the Naval Facilities EngineeringCommand out of the Naval Facilities Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center in PortHueneme, California.

For more information, visit the LMR program web site at or contact Anu Kumar,the LMR Program Manager at 805-982-4853, DSN: 551-4853 or [email protected].

each of the tested frequencies (1 hour exposures).

The results of the behavioral dose-response and TTS studies will beused to update the criteria andthresholds for harbor porpoises thatare used to estimate potential expo-sures from Navy training and testingactivities.

Refining Knowledge SupportsImproved Understanding &ProtectionEach of the FY15 new start projectswill help the Navy refine its knowl-edge of how marine mammals mightbe affected by anthropogenic sounds.Improved data collection, manage-ment and analysis are all critical tothe permitting process for Navy at-sea

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to help eliminate sources of pollutionto receiving waters such as the NeuseRiver, including implementingSurface Water Quality Standards viathe issuance of NPDES stormwaterpermits, establishing water qualitybenchmarks for the StormwaterPermitting Program, and developingTotal Maximum Daily Loads (TMDL)under Section 303 of the Clean Water

Act. A TMDL is a calculation of themaximum amount of a pollutant thata waterbody can receive and stillmeet water quality standards. ATMDL for total nitrogen has beenestablished for the Neuse RiverEstuary; however, MCAS Cherry Pointhas not been named as a contributorand has not received load allocationsfor stormwater. Personnel from the

22 Currents summer 2016

MCAS Cherry Point Implements InnovativeWater Quality Monitoring SystemSystem Reduces NPDES Manpower Requirements, Provides Real-Time Water Quality Data

Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point.Map data ©2015 Google

MARINE CORPS AIR Station(MCAS) Cherry Point’s implementa-tion of a state-of-the-art stormwatermonitoring system reduces themanpower requirements associatedwith their National PollutantDischarge Elimination System(NPDES) stormwater permit andprovides real-time water quality datato air station personnel.

IntroductionStormwater drainage system infra-structure at MCAS Cherry Pointcarries runoff from rain events toreceiving streams within the nutrient-sensitive Neuse River Basin in easternNorth Carolina. Water qualityconcerns with receiving waterbodiessuch as the Neuse River Estuary areassociated with discharges frommunicipalities, agriculture, commer-cial/industrial sites, and other pointand non-point sources of pollutionalong the water body.

The North Carolina Department ofEnvironmental Quality (NCDEQ),formerly the North Carolina Depart-ment of Environmental and NaturalResources, has developed measures

Neuse River

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MCAS Cherry Point EnvironmentalAffairs Department (EAD) havesuccessfully implemented a real-time,automated water quality and flowmonitoring system at five stormwateroutfalls at the MCAS Cherry Point. Inthe event that the State of NorthCarolina names MCAS Cherry Pointas a contributor for stormwater andthe air station receives a load alloca-tion, they will be well-equipped tocomply.

The environmental contracting teamselected URS Group, Inc. (nowAECOM) and its teaming partner YSIIntegrated Systems and Services, Inc.(YSI) to install compliant and cali-brated flow meters, automatic

samplers, and continuous waterquality monitoring probes (alsoreferred to as water quality sondes) atMCAS Cherry Point in 2013. Theobjective of the equipment installa-tion project was to provide MCASCherry Point with the means tocollect NPDES permit-requiredsamples, continuously monitor sevenadditional water quality parameters,monitor the flow rate through theoutfalls, and monitor rainfall at eachof the following outfall sites.

� Outfall 1: Schoolhouse Branch

� Outfall 2: Sandy Branch

� Outfall 3: Luke Rowe’s Gut

The stormwater program manager uses the laptop to track data trends and monitor the water quality results at each outfall.

Stormwater monitoring installation location overview.

� Outfall 4: Mill Creek

� Outfall 5: Jack’s Branch

A stand-alone laptop computer wasconfigured to remotely connect to themonitoring systems allowing the EADstormwater program manager toconveniently collect and analyze datawithout visiting each site regularly. Thestormwater program manager uses thelaptop to track data trends and monitorthe water quality results at each outfallto stay on top of water quality issuesassociated with MCAS Cherry Point’sindustrial corridor. A case study fromOutfall 1, Schoolhouse Branch, will beexamined further in subsequentsections of this article.

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Monitoring System Setup &MaintenanceEach of the five sites selected formonitoring receive flow fromdrainage basins associated with theindustrial corridor of the base. Thefollowing equipment was installed ateach outfall monitoring station:

� Multiparameter YSI EXO2 waterquality probes with temperature,conductivity, salinity, pH, turbidity,total dissolved solids (TDS), andoptical dissolved oxygen (DO)monitoring capability

� Site-specific SonTek IQ flowmeters at four outfalls and aSonTek Argonaut SL-3000 flowmeter at Outfall 2 (Sandy Branch)

� Portable ISCO 3700 multiple bottleautosamplers

� Tipping bucket rain gaugesequipped with an 8-inch orificeand a mechanism to regulatemeasurement during intensedownpours to improve accuracy

� Integrated datalogger/controlsystems utilizing CSI CR1000 data-

loggers to measure and recordparameters, and to actuate theautosamplers based on predeter-mined trigger events

� Airlink Raven XT cellular modemsand peripherals for remote 2-waycommunication and control

� Fiberglass enclosures to housebatteries, electronics, andautosamplers

� 60-watt solar charging systemswith 75-ampere hour batteries

The flow meters installed at eachoutfall were calibrated in the field byYSI as part of the installation. Measure-ments of the culverts were collected aspart of the calibration effort and inputinto the SonTek IQ: Intelligent Flowprogram in order to complete the flowcalculation formulas. In addition, theflow meters had an initial pressure cali-bration. The time period between cali-brations is tracked and the user isprompted by the IQ program forsubsequent calibrations.

Each monitoring system location isequipped with an ISCO 3700

multiple bottle autosampler. Theseportable units are programmed tocollect NPDES-permit required waterquality samples based on one of twotriggers—preset readings from theflow meter or remotely by thestormwater program manager usingthe laptop and data relayed from themonitoring systems. The geographi-cally separated outfalls make it chal-lenging for EAD staff to collectNPDES permit-required water qualitysamples by hand and within thepermit established timeframe. Use ofthe autosamplers allows EAD staff tofocus their effort on performing fieldmeasurements for pH and tempera-ture readings and retrieving thesamples for preparation and ship-ment to a contracted laboratory foranalysis. MCAS Cherry Point’sNPDES permit-required analyticalparameters and measurementsinclude the following:

� Acute Toxicity

� Ammonia (NH3 as N)

� Arsenic (total)

� Biochemical Oxygen Demand

24 Currents summer 2016

Sandy Branch Outfall

OUTFALL 2 (SANDY BRANCH) is an open channel, asopposed to culverts or pipes similar to the other outfalls. Theflow meter that was installed at this location (SonTek ArgonautSL-3000) projects beams across the open channel to calculateflow rates. Due to the site location and determination that thechannel for Outfall 2 was an irregular shape, an open channelsurvey was performed to determine the parameters for flowcalculations. The river surveying unit shown in the figure atright was deployed at the outfall location to verify streamdimensions and flow data.

The river surveying unit measuring the Sandy Branch outfall stream dimensions.

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reported to the datalogger whenqueried. Water quality parametersfrom the EXO2 probe are also loggedinternally in 15-minute increments.When queried by the datalogger, theEXO2 probe transfers the recordeddata to the datalogger. Flow ismeasured and stored with the SonTekflow meter in five-minute intervals. Inaddition to water quality parameters,the systems also record diagnosticdata (i.e., battery voltage, dataloggertemperature, and current set points)on an hourly basis.

During a rain event, specific event datasuch as flow, samples taken, dischargevolume since the last sample, and thetime since the start of the event arestored in five-minute intervals for theduration of an event. These data areparticularly important with regards tocompliance with MCAS Cherry Point’sstormwater NPDES permit. As part ofthe required sampling, the air stationmust report the total flow and event

quality monitoring equipment,autosampler, datalogger, and the laptopis illustrated in the figure above.

The CSI CR1000 datalogger is themain device controlling thestormwater monitoring system ateach of the five outfalls. The data-logger records measurements fromeach sensor, stores the data, directssampling during events, and sendsout alerts via email. A customCRBasic program that runs inside thedatalogger and defines its operationwas developed by YSI and imple-mented at each monitoring system.The program can be viewed andmodified using LoggerNet software,which has been installed on the stand-alone laptop. Rain gauge, waterquality, and flow meter parametersare measured at specific intervalscontrolled by the datalogger.

Rain gauge parameters are accumu-lated in 15-minute increments and

Stormwater monitoring system configuration.

� Cadmium (total)

� Chemical Oxygen Demand

� Chromium (total)

� Conductivity

� Cyanide

� Ethylene Glycol

� Event Duration

� Fecal Coliform

� Fluoride

� Lead (total)

� Methylene Blue Active Substances(Detergents)

� Naphthalene

� Nickel (total)

� Nitrate + Nitrite

� Oil and Grease

� Pesticides

� pH

� Silver (total)

� Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen

� Total Flow

� Total Organic Carbon

� Total Rainfall

� Total Suspended Solids (TSS)

The data collected via the integrateddatalogger/control system is transferredto the stand-alone laptop by cellulardata communications utilizing theAirlink Raven CT cellular modem andassociated peripherals (i.e., antennae).Communication between the water

As part of the required sampling, the air station must report the total flow and event duration on its discharge monitoring report.

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duration on its discharge monitoring report (DMR) thataccompanies the annual report submitted for each permityear. These systems allow for these data to be easilycaptured and reported to NCDEQ for permit compliance.The five monitoring system installation configurations areshown in the figure bleow.

The monitoring systems require regular operation andmaintenance (O&M) to remain functional and continue to

Monitoring system installation areas.

Representative Storm Event

A REPRESENTATIVE STORM event is defined as an event withtotal rainfall that measures greater than 0.1 inches. To qualify as arepresentative storm event that MCAS Cherry Point can utilize forrequired sampling and NPDES Permit Report purposes, the timebetween the current storm event and the previous storm eventmeasuring greater than 0.1 inches must be at least 72 hours. Inaddition, a single storm event may have a period of no precipita-tion of up to 10 hours. For example, if the rain stops beforeproducing any collectable discharge, a sample may be collected ifthe next rain producing a discharge begins within 10 hours.

26 Currents summer 2016

collect water quality and flow data and stormwatersamples remotely. Monthly O&M includes calibration ofthe EXO2 probe, inspection and cleaning of the raingauge, datalogger inspection (e.g., desiccant inspectionand regeneration based on moisture collection), andremoval of debris from the flow meter. AECOM and YSIhave assisted MCAS Cherry Point with major annual main-tenance at each outfall since installation.

Water Quality Event Notification, Data Review & Trend AnalysisThe stand-alone laptop is designed to function as the basestation for the monitoring systems. The data recorded ateach site are automatically collected and stored by thebase station via the LoggerNet software while the modemis active and LoggerNet is running. The alerts sent fromthe sites run independently of the laptop data collectionand are sent regardless of whether the laptop is running.

The stormwater program manager is able to identifyrepresentative storm events using the rain gauge and flowmeter measurements at the outfalls thus providing infor-mation needed to trigger sampling. The CRBasic programqueries the flow meters every five minutes to enable quickevent detection; with the goal to capture the first watersample within 30 minutes of the beginning of an event.Once a representative storm event is verified, thestormwater program manager is notified via email.

In addition to data collection, the LoggerNet softwareallows the stormwater program manager to complete thefollowing tasks:

� Plot historical data for analysis

� View the latest data at a site remotely

� Adjust certain variables related to the event trigger

� Remotely activate the autosampler

The water quality monitoring systems have been in usesince April 2013. Data collected using these systems areanalyzed for trends by the stormwater program manager.

Case Study: Outfall 1 (Schoolhouse Branch) Water Quality Monitoring & Data AnalysisThe drainage basin associated with Outfall 1, School-house Branch, has a total area of approximately 646acres. Typical activities that are performed in the

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Comparing the precipitation history for March 7, 2014, asshown in the table below and the precipitation chartincluded in the figure on the following page, to the flowrates at Outfall 1, also shown in the same figure, there is acorrelation to the elevated flow rates. The precipitationpeaks at approximately 5 a.m., with the flow at the outfall


Time (EST) Temperature Precipitation Events Conditions

12:54 a.m. 48.9 °F 0.09 inches Rain Rain1:54 a.m. 50.0 °F 0.15 inches Rain Rain2:54 a.m. 50.0 °F 0.20 inches Rain Rain3:54 a.m. 50.0 °F 0.20 inches Rain Rain4:54 a.m. 50.0 °F 0.30 inches Rain Heavy Rain5:54 a.m. 46.9 °F 0.28 inches Rain Heavy Rain6:47 a.m. 46.9 °F 0.12 inches Rain Light Rain6:54 a.m. 46.9 °F 0.12 inches Rain Light Rain7:42 a.m. 48.9 °F 0.00 inches None Overcast7:54 a.m. 50.0 °F 0.00 inches None Overcast8:54 a.m. 52.0 °F N/A None Overcast9:54 a.m. 52.0 °F N/A None Overcast10:54 a.m. 52.0 °F 0.01 inches Rain Light Rain11:34 a.m. 52.0 °F 0.03 inches Rain Light Rain11:54 a.m. 52.0 °F 0.04 inches Rain Light Rain12:54 p.m. 52.0 °F 0.02 inches Rain Light Rain1:54 p.m. 50.0 °F 0.02 inches Rain Light Rain2:01 p.m. 50.0 °F 0.00 inches Rain Light Rain2:54 p.m. 46.9 °F 0.01 inches Rain Light Rain

drainage basin include industrialactivities (e.g., aircraft and vehiclemaintenance) as well as open areasand general flight line activities, suchas take-offs and landings.

North Carolina receives rainfallthroughout the year allowing formany potential storm events, bothrepresentative and non-representa-tive, that can be used for examiningthe time-series based on the data thateach of the water quality monitoringsystems collects. Below is a discus-sion of trend analysis during a 1.61-inch rain event on March 7, 2014 atOutfall 1 (Schoolhouse Branch). Rain-fall data relayed from the KNKTweather station located on the MCASCherry Point flightline, and obtainedfrom, showthat rainfall peaked between 4 a.m.and 5 p.m. with an hourly rainfall accumulation of 0.30inches, followed by continuous rainfall until approximately7 a.m. Light rain continued at irregular intervalsthroughout the remainder of the day. A snapshot of thehourly rainfall accrual for the beginning hours of the stormevent is presented in the table below.

Stormwater Outfall 1: Schoolhouse Branch stormwater monitoring system overview.

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peaking at approximately 6 a.m. Thedelay in peaks can be expected as thestormwater runoff throughout thedrainage basin makes its way throughthe conveyance system prior to beingdischarged at the outfall.

When evaluating stormwater qualitydata, turbidity can be directly relatedto flow. Turbidity, as defined by theU.S. Environmental Protection Agency(EPA), is a measure of water claritybased on how much the materialsuspended in water decreases thepassage of light through the water.When the turbidity measurementsplotted in the figure below arecompared to the corresponding flowrates associated with the rain event,

extended time for turbidity levels toreturn to normal can be expected asparticles slowly settle out.

While the correlation of turbidity toflow rates and precipitation arediscernible, additional correlationbetween turbidity and the other waterquality parameters may also beanalyzed as shown in the figure below.High turbidity levels at outfalls canincrease the water temperature due tothe suspended particles absorbingmore heat. The increased temperaturecan further result in the reduction ofDO levels because warmer watershold less DO than cooler waters. Asshown in the figure above, there is adelay between the increase in turbidity

28 Currents summer 2016

Flow rate, precipitation and turbidity comparison.

there is a direct correlation betweenthe increase in flows during the rain-fall event and the increase in turbidityof the water at the outfall. There is adelay in the increase of turbiditylevels compared to the rainfallamounts and flow at the outfall;however, the increases and decreasefollows the approximate trajectorywith peaks and valleys of the rainevent. Further review indicates thatthe turbidity levels take longer tosubside after the rain event haspassed. It is expected that as theflows increase at the outfall, theturbidity would increase due to thehigher flows causing increased agita-tion of the channel bed, resulting inincreased erosion. Furthermore, the

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and the increase in temperature, which canbe attributed to the long duration of the rainevent and the cloud cover. In addition, theaverage temperature for March 7, 2014 was46.4 degrees Fahrenheit, which can beconsidered a limiting factor in the ability ofthe water temperature to increase.

ConclusionsThe water quality monitoring systems havebeen operating at the five outfalls along theindustrial corridor of MCAS Cherry Point forapproximately two and a half years. Theability to track the flow rates and precipita-tion at these locations have made it easierfor MCAS Cherry Point to maintain compli-ance with their stormwater NPDES permitsampling requirements and to track waterquality parameters at these locations. Thestormwater program manager can nowmonitor the outfalls remotely and triggersampling without having to be at the outfall.This allows for the samples to be collectedwithin the 30-minute time period after thebeginning of an event. The added efficiencycan also allow the stormwater programmanager to devote additional time to otherareas of the program.

In addition, the monitoring systems provideEAD with real-time water quality data thatcan be used to identify potential impacts tothe streams on MCAS Cherry Point (e.g., lowDO levels that may affect aquatic life). Thesedata can help MCAS Cherry Point target loca-tions on the air station that can benefit fromnew best management practice implementa-tion. In the event that the State of NorthCarolina develops TMDLs for the Neuse RiverEstuary and MCAS Cherry Point receives aload allocation, the air station will be well-equipped to demonstrate whether or not it isa contributor of the targeted pollutant(s). �

Judah EmoryMarine Corps Air Station Cherry Point252-466-4843DSN: [email protected]

Dissolved oxygen, temperature and turbidity comparison.

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ALTHOUGH SYNTHETIC UNDERWATER sensorshave improved in target detection over the last twodecades, dolphins still outperform them when it comes tomine detection and classification. A project led by bioa-coustic research scientist Dr. James Finneran at the Spaceand Naval Warfare Systems Center (SSC) Pacific isattempting to rectify this by improving our understandingof dolphin auditory physiology.

Dolphins utilize echolocation, a high-frequency, naturalsonar system, to detect and classify targets in “noisy”environments. In the ocean, this translates to near-shoreenvironments, where there is a high level of ambientnoise from ships and from wave action against piers and

the shore. Put simply, the animal emits a series of soundpulses and compares each to its corresponding returningecho to determine location and identity of an object.

Attempts have been made to improve manmade sonarsystems by emulating the dolphin’s transmit and receivesignals, but these efforts have produced limited successwith target recognition. Instead of simply mimicking thedolphin’s own signals, this project team is attempting toreplicate the manner in which a dolphin forms mentalrepresentations of a target.

Dolphins & the NavyThe U.S. Navy has been training dolphins to performvarious tasks since the early 1960s. Researchers foundthat dolphins and sea lions are highly reliable, easilytrainable animals that excelled at delivering objects todivers, performing underwater surveillance, and locatingunderwater targets such as mines. Though it may soundlike dangerous work, mines are made so that theycannot be set off easily by wave action or marineanimals touching or bumping into them. When a dolphinfinds an underwater mine, it marks the location of theobject so it can be avoided by Navy vessels or investi-gated by Navy divers.

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SSC Pacific Scientists Study Marine Mammalsto Build a Better SonarNew Research Focuses on How Sounds are Processed

The animal emits a series of sound pulses and compares each to itscorresponding returning echo to determine location and identity of an object.

In the future, undersea mines will be hunted byUnmanned Undersea Vehicles (UUV). These vehicles arebeing developed to patrol for mines in areas where theyare suspected to occur.

The performance of a UUV sensor is critically linked to itsautomatic target recognition (ATR) system. ATR systemsuse sonar and various image processing techniques toidentify and classify unknown objects. While ATR systemshave improved in recent years, dolphins still outperformthem when it comes to correctly identifying underwatertargets.

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How Echolocation WorksDolphins echolocate by emitting short-durationsound pulses (called “clicks”) and listening tothe echoes that return from underwater objects.The time delay between the dolphin’s emittedclick and its returning echo reveals the targetrange, while fine-scale differences between theclick and echo reveal more specific detailsabout a target’s shape and composition. Assound travels from a source it is naturally atten-uated—this means that the echoes from under-water objects get smaller as the distance to theobject increases. To help compensate for thisnatural change in echo strength with targetrange, dolphins have evolved several mecha-nisms, collectively referred to as “automaticgain control”—similar to the time-varying gainemployed with hardware sonars. Based ondolphins’ performance in echoic discriminationtasks (reporting minute differences in returningechoes), it seems likely that they perceive thesize and shape of targets in geometric terms.

In new research sponsored by the Office ofNaval Research (Mine Countermeasures,Acoustics Phenomenology & Modeling Group),Dr. Finneran and his team are combiningacoustical, psychophysical, and electrophysio-logical measurements to understand howdolphins form biological sonar (biosonar) repre-sentations. While previous research has beenaimed at imitating the acoustic characteristicsof dolphin echolocation clicks, this work isdirected toward capturing a dolphin’s ownmental representation of its emitted clickpatterns and echo delay responses and learninghow this information is used by the dolphin to make deci-sions during echolocation tasks.

Three experiments will be conducted to increase under-standing of the characteristics of biosonar representationsformed by dolphins:

� Investigating the internal neural representation of thedolphin’s own emitted click.

� Determining the limits of echo-delay resolution.

� Examining the feasibility of a signal processing tech-nique called “Independent Component Analysis (ICA)”

to isolate neural components associated with echoicsignal processing.

Auditory Evoked PotentialsThe first step will attempt to determine whether dolphinsmay have the same ability as bats to perceive objects inclose proximity to each other. Many bats emit aFrequency Modulated (FM) signal, a broadband, tonalsignal which enables them to hone in precisely on prey incluttered environments. Dolphins emit very short-dura-tion, broadband, impulsive sounds that are muchdifferent than the longer-duration echolocation soundsused by FM bats.

A dolphin rests on a foam mat and wears noninvasive surface electrodes during an AEP measurement. Having the dolphin out of the water makes the AEPs easier to measure and allows precise placement of the electrodes. For in-airmeasurements, jawphones are used to present the sound stimuli to the dolphins. Surface electrodes measure the brain’s responses. Randall Dear

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Dr. Finneran’s team has much priorexperience measuring the responseof the dolphin auditory nervoussystem to sounds. This techniqueuses non-invasive surface electrodesto measure small voltages (calledauditory evoked potentials (AEP))generated by the brain and auditorynervous system when an animalhears a sound. In the currentresearch effort, AEPs would bemeasured and used to determine thefrequency content and timing of thedolphin’s “self-heard” click at thelevel of the cochlea. While dolphinsdo not emit FM signals, frequency-

dependent time delays within thecochlea may effectively convert theneurological representations of clicksto FM signals. The AEP method willdetermine the FM nature of thedolphin’s “self-heard” click, which inturn will give researchers an ideaabout how they might compare tothe bat’s echolocation process.

Phantom EchoesNext, an experiment that mirrors a1990 study with big brown bats willbe undertaken. The bat study, headedby J.A. Simmons, utilized complexsignals to determine how a bat deter-

mines distance to a target and thegeometric features of the target.

In this task, a phantom echo gener-ator will be used to simulate echoesfrom physical targets. The phantomecho generator captures the dolphin’semitted echolocation pulse, createsan electronic echo waveform simu-lating the echo from a specific target,then broadcasts a delayed, scaledecho back to the dolphin using anunderwater speaker. Echoes will be“jittered” or manipulated by alter-nating echo delays in an attempt todetermine how fine the echo delayresolution is in dolphins. The amount

32 Currents summer 2016

The phantom echo generator captures the dolphin’s emitted echolocation pulse, creates an electronic echo waveform simulating the echo from a specific target, then broadcasts a delayed, scaled echo back to the dolphin using an underwater speaker.

The performance of a UUV sensor is critically linked to its automatic target recognition system.

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Schematic of a dolphin participating in a phantom echo detection task while wearing surfaceelectrodes embedded in suction cups for AEP measurements. The hoop station ensures that thedolphin’s position is consistent between trials relative to the sound projector and hydrophone. James Finneran

A dolphin wears electrodes in preparationfor an underwater AEP hearing test. James Finneran

of time by which the echoes arejittered would be varied to determinethe animal’s threshold for deter-mining whether the echoes representone object or multiple objects. Thisexperiment is intended to determinejust how detailed the mental repre-sentation is when the dolphinperforms an echolocation task. If theanimal is able to perceive twodistinct, closely placed objects, it’s anindication that the dolphin’s mentalresolution is very small (detailed).

Independent ComponentAnalysisNext, AEPs will be measured using amulti-electrode array while dolphinsperform an echolocation task. The AEPdata from the multi-electrode array willthen be analyzed using the ICA signalprocessing technology. ICA technologyseparates a signal into individualcomponents, which will helpresearchers identify the spatial loca-tions in the dolphin’s brain wherevarious components of the AEP aregenerated. Identifying these specific

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anatomical sites within the brain will help researchers betterunderstand echolocation signal processing. Testing willinitially begin with the dolphin out of water—the dolphins’outgoing clicks will be recorded using a contact hydrophoneplaced on the head, and phantom echoes returned to thedolphins using contact transmitters (“jawphones”) placed onthe lower jaw. This out-of-water experimentation allows forprecise and consistent placement of a relatively large elec-trode array, high signal-to-noise ratios for physiologicalrecordings, and minimization of extraneous noise fromsubject movement. Further sessions would focus onrepeating measurements with an electrode array while thedolphins perform the task under water.

In order for Navy ATR systems to achieve the same perfor-mance in complex acoustic environments exhibited bydolphins, their design may need to be re-imagined alongbiological terms, rather than emulating biosonar usingconventional methods. This requires a much greaterunderstanding of how dolphins form biosonar representa-tions and make decisions regarding echoic discriminationand classification. This effort hopes to provide directiontoward that goal. �James FinneranSpace and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific619-767-4098DSN: [email protected]

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The Basics About the Navy Marine Mammal Program

BEGINNING IN 1959, the Navy began to study the hydrodynamics of the dolphin, with the goal of improving torpedo, ship andsubmarine designs. Soon the Navy realized that dolphins had other attributes that would make them valuable assistants to Navydivers. Unlike human divers, dolphins are capable of making repeated deep diveswithout experiencing decompression sickness. They also found that dolphins and sealions are highly reliable, adaptable and trainable marine animals that could be condi-tioned to search for, detect and mark the location of objects in the water. Bothspecies are used today to search for lost equipment or vessels on the ocean floor,and to locate and mark sea mines. Over the years, Navy scientists have also studieddolphin behavior and physiology to help learn more about how dolphins are able toswim so fast, dive so deeply, and hone in on underwater objects so precisely.

Today, the Navy cares for, trains, and relies on two species: the bottlenose dolphinand the California sea lion. Both of these species are known for their trainability,adaptability, and heartiness in the marine environment.

For more about the Navy MMP, visit

TOP: A dolphin looks at the camera as he enters the hoop station inpreparation for an echolocation trial.

BOTTOM: A dolphin positioned in the hoop station during anecholocation trial. Diana Samuelson

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OFTEN WHEN YOU see a group of kids huddled aroundan electronic device, they’re viewing selfies or watchingvideo clips—but kids gathered around a tablet at the NationalAeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) WallopsFlight Facility in Virginia are listening to a variety of distinctwhistles, clicks, and rumbling noises. These are sounds ofthe sea that visitors can listen to as part of the United States

Fleet Forces (USFF) Command’s “Stewards of the Sea:Defending Freedom, Protecting the Environment” travelingexhibit. The exhibit helps visitors learn to distinguishbetween differing whale, dolphin and seal species as well assounds like earthquakes, ice calving, and boat engines.

The exhibit, which focuses on Navy environmental steward-ship, kicked off its two-year traveling tour on March 17, 2016.

Navy’s Environmental Stewardship ExhibitOpens at Wallops Flight FacilityTraveling Exhibit Educates While it Entertains

The “Stewards of the Sea: Defending Freedom, Protecting the Environment”exhibit at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Visitors Center.

Ted Brown

The folks coming will get a glimpse of the Navy outside of how they typically think of them as protecting our country.

—William Wrobel

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Nothing can replace actual training in a realistic marine environment… this exhibit will help us to tell that great story.

—Rear Admiral Chris Sadler

“The folks coming will get a glimpse of the Navy outside ofhow they typically think of them as protecting our country.It adds a new sidebar that they are protectors of the envi-ronment and the U.S.,” said Wallops Flight Facility DirectorWilliam Wrobel.

The Stewards of the Sea traveling exhibit is a scaled-downversion of the permanent exhibit on display at theHampton Roads Naval Museum at Nauticus, the NationalMaritime Center in downtown Norfolk. After two successfulyears at the museum, the environmental outreach programexpanded to include the traveling exhibit.

“Our environmental outreach mission is to raise awareness ofthe Navy’s need to train, and provide a better understandingof the protective measures the Navy takes while training,”said Tracy Riker, USFF environmental readiness and planningsection head. “The end state is an increased public awarenessand confidence of the Navy’s environmental stewardshipefforts while accomplishing our mission.”

Part of the Navy’s process of conducting training andtesting activities is maintaining environmental readinessthrough compliance with environmental laws. Thisincludes analyzing potential impacts of training andtesting activities on resource areas, including sedimentsand water quality, air quality, marine habitats, marineanimals and vegetation, as well as cultural resources,socioeconomics, and public health and safety.

“It [the exhibit] explains the mitigation measures that wetake before and during our exercises at sea including activ-ities that involve active sonar and munitions in order tominimize any chance of our actions negatively impactingmarine species,” said Rear Admiral Chris Sadler, USFFreserve deputy director of maritime operations, who spokeat the exhibit’s opening. “Nothing can replace actualtraining in a realistic marine environment… this exhibitwill help us to tell that great story.”

The sounds of the sea audio gallery provides visitorsinsight into the challenges sonar technicians face whiletrying to detect ultra-quiet submarines, as they have to beable to identify and correctly differentiate between marinemammals, natural sounds, and man-made noise.

Fire Controlman 1st Class Jason Mosher discusses how the Navycompresses plastic waste with a child at the “Stewards of the Sea”

exhibit. The Navy uses plastic waste processors to compress and melt shipboard-generated plastic waste into

dense disks suitable for long-term storage. Lt. Bobbie A. Camp

Laura Busch, a natural resources specialist assigned to USFF Command,plays a video for Dave Mergan and his two daughters at the “Stewards

of the Sea: Defending Freedom, Protecting the Environment” exhibit. Todd Kraft

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“The ocean is generally noisier incoastal areas where about 80 percentof ocean life and many human activi-ties occur, which is typically wheremost nations’ submarines operatetoday,” said Joe Atangan, a scienceadvisor from USFF. “Many nations andpotential adversaries have ultra-quietsubmarines with long range missilesand torpedoes that can directlythreaten our homeland and navalforces, as well as the world’s merchantshipping which carry 90 percent of allinternational trade by volume.”

Like the permanent exhibit, the trav-eling exhibit also highlights steps theNavy takes to protect marine lifethrough shipboard plastic wastemanagement.

“You’d be surprised at how shockedvisitors are to find out that we evenrecycle,” said Yeoman 1st ClassAgileo Bello, USFF administrationdepartment lead petty officer, whovolunteers at local outreach events.“It’s been a great experience toeducate the next generation about

the Navy in general and our environ-mental programs.”

Looking through giant “Big Eye” binoc-ulars available at the exhibit, a visitorcan be a virtual Sailor and scan thehorizon, simulating standing lookoutduty on a ship that is underway. Visi-tors may spot a whale pod, a flock ofsea birds, or even some seals. Thissimulation allows visitors to “report”their sightings to the captain just as aNavy lookout would, enabling the shipto operate safely and avoid causingharm to the marine mammals.

The exhibit also explores the scienceof sound and the accompanyingresearch the Navy conducts to betterunderstand the effects of manmadesound, like sonar, on marine animals.

The Stewards of the Sea travelingexhibit will begin to rotate to locationsin Washington, D.C. after Labor Day.Over the next two years, it willcontinue touring at a variety ofmuseums throughout the country.

“For 2017, we’re targeting scienceand maritime museums in Chicago,Florida, North Carolina and New Yorkto try to reach the public outside offleet concentration areas to informthem about the Navy’s environmentalstewardship efforts,” said Riker.

The permanent exhibit at theHampton Roads Naval Museum willexpand to feature the Navy’s energyinitiatives within the next couple ofyears. For more information about theStewards of the Sea program �Ted BrownU.S. Fleet Forces Command757-836-4427DSN: [email protected]

A visitor looks through the “Big Eyes” interactive during the grand opening of the “Stewards of the Sea” exhibit. Lt. Bobbie A. Camp

Evelyn Shotwell, executive director of the Chincoteague Chamber of Commerce, reads about the science of sonar during the grand opening of the “Stewards of the Sea” exhibit. Lt. Bobbie A. Camp

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Q: WHAT’S IT LIKE WORKING ON USS MAKIN ISLAND?When I joined the Navy, I wasn’t quite sure what I was getting into. I had no idea that I was going to beworking on a ship with such advanced technology. So, when I first came on board Makin Island, I was reallyexcited. I felt like I was going to be one of the few who would actually be able to experience this ship. I feltlike it was some kind of a future ship, like Star Wars or something. As an electrician on board Makin Island,I work on the ship’s electrical distribution system, the generators, the 400 hertz system, and the degauss-ing (demagnetizing) equipment. Not many people can say they work on a ship with hybrid propulsion; thisis something I take great pride in. I felt blessed that I was able to get a ship like this for my first ship.

Q: WHAT WOULD YOU TELL OTHER SAILORS ABOUT WORKING ON A SHIP WITH AHYBRID DRIVE?I would tell others Sailors that it’s something to be excited about. It’s a little bit different and can be compli-cated at times. If a problem arises, we often have to go through a lot of trial and error to solve it. There isn’talways someone who can answer your questions since it’s still kind of new to all of us. But once you’vetaken the time to figure it out, then you’ll be the person people always go to for help and you’ll be able tosay, “Oh yeah, I had that problem once. Let me help!”


“Did you know that by using hybrid electric propulsion systems 50 percent of the time,we can increase time on station by as much as two-and-a-half days? These systemscan also increase the time between refuelings. This means extra time on station orgreater endurance when the ship’s Captain and crew may need it the most.”





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Q: WHY IS BEING ENERGY EFFICIENT IMPORTANT FOR THE NAVY?Being energy efficient is important not only because it allows the Navy to save money but also because weare trying to keep this environment as clean as possible for future generations. Leadership talks a lot aboutgoing green but sometimes we ignore it. But who doesn’t want to refuel less often? If you can save money,help our environment, and refuel less often, why not be energy efficient?

Q: HOW DO ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES SUCH AS HYBRID PROPULSIONBENEFIT THE NAVY?The hybrid drive allows us to stay on station longer. Because the hybrid system consumes less fuel at slow-er speeds, drawing energy from the ship’s generators rather than the gas turbines, we are able to stay outat sea for a longer period of time. At one point, the only reason we had to come back to replenish wasbecause we had to get food. Other ships normally have to get fuel before food but because we have thistechnology on board, we often had to get food before fuel. While this can be a bit stressful at times, it doesallow us to better accomplish our mission.

Q: WHAT ARE YOU MOST PROUD OF?I most proud of the way my lifestyle has changed. I was a completely different person when I was a civilian.I never expected myself to be out in the middle of the sea—working here. I was just one of those kids whohad other goals in life. Working with the hybrid drive and all the new equipment on board is exciting—I never stop learning.

Q: WHAT’S THE BEST PART OF WORKING ON MAKIN ISLAND?It’s so cool to be working on Makin Island. The hybrid drive makes it a unique ship—it’s great. But, the bestthing about it is the people I work with. People say we are co-workers but we’re more like a family, espe-cially while on deployment. We have a love -hate relationship—one day you won’t talk to them, the nextyou’re like brothers and sisters.

Q: WHAT MOTIVATED YOU TO JOIN THE NAVY?I really felt like I wasn’t doing enough for myself and that I could be doing more. My mother has been tak-ing care of my brothers and me all by herself our entire lives. I wanted to make her proud, so she couldbrag about her son.

Q: IS SHE BRAGGING?Yes. She is definitely bragging now.

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A NEW SOFTWARE platform, created from existingtechnologies, is poised to provide the Navy’s first trulycomplete picture of how energy is being used by shipsand ultimately, how it can be conserved.

Every day, U.S. Navy ships consume approximately80,000 barrels of oil worldwide as they train and performtheir missions. Depending on the type of ship and themission profile, conventionally-powered ships are oftenrefueled every four to five days at sea.

The day-to-day decisions of operational commanders, aswell as highly variable environmental and mission factors,can have a large impact onthis energy consumption. Asan example, a ship that ismaintaining position within aspecific latitude and longituderange offshore for ballisticmissile defense purposesduring calm seas may be ableto safely secure engines anduse drift operations at certaintimes to save fuel. However, aship doing the same missionwith high sea states, stormsand strong currents typicallycannot use drift operations,and will use much more fuelto stay in position.

To better understand howthese many factors influencefuel use and draw applicable

conclusions, it became apparent that disparate pieces ofdata would have to be combined from multiple systems.This would require an unprecedented level of cooperationamong various commands. The Naval Systems Engi-neering Directorate, Technology Office at the Naval SeaSystems Command (NAVSEA 05T) with help from CDI Inc.leveraged existing technology from United States FleetForces (USFF) and Commander, U.S. Pacific Fleet(COMPACFLT) to create the Global Energy InformationSystem (GENISYS). Built upon several existing technolo-gies, GENISYS is designed to establish a clear link betweenfuel use data and mission/environmental data.

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Naval Sea Systems Command Launches GameChanging Technology for Fuel ConservationGENISYS Software has the Potential to Enhance Warfighting Capability

The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Truxtun (DDG 103) conducts a replenishment-at-sea.Truxtun successfully participated in a GENISYS eLogBook trial in December 2015.

MCS2 Tony D. Curtis

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Funding for this project was providedby the Chief of Naval OperationsEnergy and Environmental ReadinessDivision, Energy Coordination Office(OPNAV N45E).

The Evolution of GENISYSGENISYS effectively links threeexisting technologies to help provide aclear picture of the factors that affectfuel consumption.

1. The Integrated ConditionAssessment System

The Integrated Condition AssessmentSystem (ICAS) was created to improvemaintenance and increase operationalefficiency onboard Navy ships.Approximately 16 years ago, engi-neers at Naval Surface Warfare CenterPhiladelphia Division (NSWC PD)installed sensors on shipboardengines and equipment on selectships. These sensors transmit real-time data to NSWC PD, and is used toaddress performance and mainte-nance needs and to identify potentialclass-wide problems.

In 2009, NAVSEA realized that theycould tap into the ICAS signal toprovide direct feedback to the shipregarding how fuel and electricalenergy was being used onboard inreal time. “We could track the fuelbeing burned to navigate the ship aswell as how much fuel was beingburned to make or create energy byvarious ship components—theHeating Ventilation and Air Condi-tioning (HVAC) system for example,”said Michael Essig, Maritime EnergyManager at NAVSEA.

impacts of environmental elements,mission requirements and mainte-nance. The formula informed the shipof how energy was truly being usedonboard while taking into account allthe other external variables.

3. The Fleet Energy ConservationDashboard

Meanwhile, COMPACFLT was trying tobetter analyze shore energy use andways to decrease the Navy’s carbonfootprint. Newly-hired energymanagers monitored and studied howshore power and energy were beingused to create the Fleet EnergyConservation Dashboard (FECD). Thisweb-based graphical interfaceprovides an on-line view of energyinformation and enables users toidentify trends and problem areas.Once deployed, FECD will be used toidentify and cut energy costs forhomeport ships. In-service engi-neering agents supporting the Fleet

Using the information gathered byICAS, the Shipboard Energy Dash-board was created in 2010. Thissystem provides the Sailor with real-time situational awareness of theenergy generation and demand asso-ciated with equipment lineups andefficiencies. Since 2012, NAVSEAinstalled Shipboard Energy Dash-boards onboard 18 ships.

2. The Energy Figure of Merit

Under a separate effort, USFF waslooking for a way to better train andevaluate ship’s crews regarding theeffects that a ship’s environment(waves, wind, currents, etc.) andmission requirements had on fuel andenergy efficiency—for example, howto differentiate the efficiencies of twoships performing different missions indifferent environmental conditions.USFF developed a new formulaknown as the Energy Figure of Merit,which helped ships analyze the

FECD is a web-based graphical user interface that provides an online view of energy information,enabling users to make informed decisions. The user has the ability to drill down and roll up cost and energy data by date, time, fleet, ship type, class, flight, homeport, system, equipment type, equipment, as well as other criteria.

GENISYS will be utilized at the earliest stages of energy conservation—the design of more energy-efficient ships.

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will use the FECD to evaluate and compare performanceof various systems and equipment.

Achieving A Real-time Energy PictureAs the NAVSEA team studied the potential for combiningthese systems, the first problem they encountered was thefact that none of these systems was able to communicatewith each other.

However, before integrating each part, some changes had tobe made to the planned “backbone” of the system—theShipboard Energy Dashboard. The dashboard, as it existed,allowed some capability for users to input a limited numberof mission codes. However, these codes were insufficient forcapturing the myriad real-life scenarios that encompass amission activity.

The GENISYS team realized that achieving an accuratereal-time energy picture would mean inputting data fromthe ship’s log.

eLogBookA ship’s log is a daily chronology of a ship’s location,movements, and selected other data. Information hasalways been entered into these logs by hand. In order tocapture the data needed to create GENISYS, withoutcreating more work for Sailors, the best solution was todigitize these logs at the point of collection.

Created in 2014 with the assistance of Beacon InteractiveSystems, eLogBook is an electronic tool that allows Sailorsto enter information into a database instead of writing it

out by hand. To save time and improve accuracy, this soft-ware platform includes templates pre-populated withsome generic data. eLogBook also digitizes and integratesvarious shipboard operational data logs, so that everyoneonboard ship has instant access to real-time data onmission parameters, operations, combat systems, anddaily fuel, oil, and water usage.

The eLogBook tool has the additional advantage of elimi-nating the problems associated with the archiving of phys-ical log books.

Jim Haley, Director of Energy & Maintenance Analytics at BeaconInteractive Solutions instructs crew of USS TRUXTUN during the

GENISYS eLogBook trial in December 2015.

Quartermaster 3rd Class Brandon Shannon writes an entryinto the ship’s deck log during a quartermaster watch. MCS3 Betsy Knapper The eLogBook mobile tablet.

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Putting it All TogetherTo merge the eLogbook with ship-board sensor data (provided by ICAS),the Shipboard Energy Dashboard wasredesigned into an agile yet cyber-secure interface that manages ship-board energy and providesrecommendations for actions toimprove energy efficiency—the Ship-board Energy Assessment System(SEAS). Finally, all captured data willbe sent electronically to the shore-based FECD (now new and improvedby Frontier Technologies Inc.), whereit is aggregated into a centralized datawarehouse and analyzed to supportvarious stakeholder needs. The overar-ching system encompassing SEAS,eLogbook, and FECD was formed andnamed GENISYS.

The numerous advantages GENISYSprovides to the Navy cannot beunderstated. In addition to providingdirect feedback and real-time recom-mendations to a ship’s CommandingOfficer so that he/she can makeadjustments to improve efficiency,range, time-on-station and opera-tional flexibility, GENISYS alsocreates a one-stop shop housed inthe FECD. This resource allows users,via protected web access bothashore and at-sea, to view a varietyof metrics, statistics and planningapplications in real time, in a search-able, easy-to-access format.

In addition to the energy gains thatGENISYS could provide, the systemalso exemplifies an innovative Navy inaction. Instead of creating a systemfrom scratch, the GENISYS teamfocused on integrating systemsalready in use, and uses traditionalNavy log-keeping in a modern way.

Down the road, GENISYS’s creatorsenvision that the system will beutilized at the earliest stages ofenergy conservation—the design ofmore energy-efficient ships. Essigsums up the future of GENISYS whenhe says, “Being able to have the real-time data captured by GENISYS andcompare it to other ships within theNavy allows the Navy to build anaccurate, Navy-wide assessment ofhow operations are done and deter-mine ways to improve them. TheNavy has collected operational andengineering data for ages. Withpowerful processors and agile datamanagement we can finally put allthat data together to create a truepicture of energy use. We believethat that picture will tell us a lot.” �Michael Essig Naval Sea Systems Command202-781-3171DSN: [email protected]

“If I have a condition,” says Essig,“and I have a desired outcome, then[with GENISYS] I can fill in the blank.”This ability to program simulationsusing actual operational performancedata will also add value to Navytraining. The training environmentallows for “what if” scenariospredicting energy outcomes ofchanges in equipment and speedusing a library of real operationaldata. This potentially shortens thelength of trainings, eliminates excesswaste, and educates the warfightingforce more effectively.

The Future of GENISYS NAVSEA will test the GENISYS soft-ware onboard eight Great Green Fleetships toward the end of 2016. Thegoal is to monitor how the GreatGreen Fleet is operating, and confirmthat the GENISYS models work asexpected. Following the conclusion ofthe Great Green Fleet test, GENISYSwill be rolled out for use Fleet-widewith enterprise Remote Monitoring(eRM) which is the follow-on equip-ment sensor and monitoring systemthat will replace ICAS. GENISYS willbe added to the existing systemonboard USS Arleigh Burke (DDG 51)-class destroyers in 2019. Navycruisers and other classes will follow.

Energy from Alternative Sources

IN KEEPING WITH the energy goals set by Secretaryof the Navy Ray Mabus, the Department of Navy isseeking to lessen its dependence on fossil fuel andto provide 50 percent of overall energy from alterna-tive sources by 2020.

The SEAS dashboard display.

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THE NAVY HAS announced the 29 winners of the fiscalyear (FY) 2015 Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Environ-mental Awards. The annual awards program recognizesships, installations, and individuals for their exemplaryenvironmental achievements.

The competition categories for the FY 2015 competitionincluded natural resources management (small installationand individual/team), environmental quality (non-industrialinstallation and individual/team), sustainability (industrialinstallation), environmental restoration (installation andindividual/team), cultural resources management (largeinstallation), environmental excellence in weapon systemacquisition (large program), and afloat (includes fivecompetitive sub-categories).

Subject matter experts from the Navy and other non-governmental organizations judged the individual nomina-tions on accomplishments during the 1 October 2013through 30 September 2015 eligibility period. Chief ofNaval Operations Admiral John Richardson recognized the29 award winners during a video teleconference ceremonyheld 30 June 2016 at the Pentagon in Washington, D.C.

Accomplishments of the winners are highlighted below.

Natural ResourcesThis award recognizes efforts to promote the conservationof natural resources, including the identification, protec-tion, and restoration of biological resources and habitats;the sound long-term management and use of the land andits resources; and the promotion of a conservation ethic.

Small Installation

Commander Fleet Activities, Yokosuka, Japan

Commander Fleet Activities (COMFLEACT), Yokosuka isworking to preserve natural resources found on the instal-lation through environmental stewardship and communityoutreach. To optimize their effectiveness, COMFLEACTYokosuka has cultivated partnerships with technicalexperts specializing in Japanese environmental require-ments and local governments, including the cities of Yoko-suka, Zushi, and Yokohama.

The firefly is both a living cultural Japanese icon andecologically significant. The Natural Resources Program(NRP) at Yokosuka focused tremendous efforts to protectthe firefly habitat. Staff reduced artificial lighting, createdvegetationbuffer zones,modified grasscutting areas,and limited theuse of harmfulsoap anddetergentswithin thefirefly’s habitat.Additionally,NRP’s management success-fully bred over800 fireflies in2015.

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Chief of Naval Operations EnvironmentalAward Winners Recognized Accomplishments Exemplify Navy’s Commitment to Environmental Stewardship

SEABEES construct educational signage at Ikego Camp Grounds as part of efforts to

protect the area’s natural features. The pond in background is prime firefly habitat

and foraging area for migratory birds. Ryouko Arak

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Yokosuka allocated funding to conduct studies to determinecurrent land and marine natural resource levels, includingbird populations. These projects are the first of their kind andwill assist developers and builders in avoiding developmentin areas deemed essential habitats for threatened species.

Naval Air Facility, Atsugi, Japan

The environmental team at Naval Air Facility (NAF)Atsugi has implemented innovative methods to preservenatural resources, working alongside localfarmers and government officials. Oneexample of this work is the relocation ofhundreds of honey bees by NAF Atsugi staffand local beekeepers. Bees are a dwindlingspecies in the local agricultural areas wvhereAtsugi is located. Relocating the beesprovided a great opportunity for thoseworking at NAF Atsugi to strengthen theirrelationship with both the surroundingvcommunity and the environment.

The NAF Atsugi Environmental Division isusing tracking tools and technology to ensurethat natural resources are protected duringthe lifecycle of a project, which encompassesconstruction, repair and maintenance work.These efforts ensure that natural resources areavailable for all to enjoy for generations.

Pacific Missile Range Facility Barking Sands, Hawaii

Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF)Barking Sands is the world’s leadingmulti-dimensional integrated test andtraining range. Bordered by thePacific Ocean, the facility is home toan abundance of natural and nativeresources including protected species.PMRF has made the protection ofnative wildlife a priority. The baseprovides patrolled beachfront to safe-guard and monitor green turtles, athreatened species in Hawaii, so thatthe turtles can successfully nest. In2015, a documented 499 eggs werelaid with 468 successfully hatching.PMRF is also home to endangeredHawaiian monk seals. At the base theseals are provided with a safe habitatand available for academic research.

Staff implemented a base-wide Dark Sky Initiative atPMRF to protect endangered avian species such as theNewell’s Shearwater, the Hawaiian Petrel, and the Band-rumped Storm-Petrel. They are most vulnerable during thefall season which is a critical developmental stage whenfirst learning to fly. Light pollution has been known toadversely affect the birds during this important period oftheir lifecycle. The Dark Sky Initiative helps to minimizethe “fallout” of artificial evening light.

NAF Atsugi promotes environmental stewardship across the base.

Survey and trapping of aquatic wildlife at Ikego ponds. Surveys of wildlife both native and non-native are being conducted along with the elimination of exotic species. Hisako Mawatari

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Ian Trefry and NAVFAC MIDLANT biologist Chris Petersen document vernal pool habitats at the Great Pond Outdoor Adventure Center. The results of this survey facilitated updates to the installation Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan, assisted with facility planning, and aided in community outreach activities. Ian Trefry

Individual or TeamIan Trefry of Portsmouth NavalShipyard, Maine

Mr. Ian Trefry works at PortsmouthNaval Shipyard, in Kittery, Maine asthe Natural Resources Manager forNaval Facilities EngineeringCommand Mid-Atlantic (NAVFACMIDLANT) Public Works Department-Maine Environmental Division. Hiswork has tremendously impactedenvironmental sustainability, as hisarea of responsibility includes 19Navy installations and reservecenters, a staff of over 7,000, andover 16,000 acres of land spanningsix states throughout the Northeast.The land he has sought to preservesupports over 100 species that arevulnerable to extinction and morethan 5,000 acres of wetlands.

Over his years of service Mr. Trefryhas created partnerships with other

Dr. Eric VanderWerf and Robby Kohley hand feed a Laysan albatross chick recently transferred to its protected outdoor enclosure. John Nelson

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governmental agencies and non-governmental agencies tosupport environmental research that is estimated to havesaved the Navy tens of thousands of dollars. Mr. Trefry wasalso a key player in the Readiness and EnvironmentalProtection Integration Program that provided conservationeasements for approximately 10,000 acres of landbordering the Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and EscapeSchool East Training Facility (SERE EAST). This protectedland not only preserves New England’s wilderness but italso provides realistic training for SERE EAST and buffersthe installation from encroachments.

Naval Air Station Oceana and Naval Support ActivityHampton Roads Northwest Annex Natural ResourcesSupport Team, Virginia

A dedicated group of individuals are assigned to provideenvironmental services at Naval Air Station Oceana(NASO) and have assignments at Naval Support ActivityHampton Roads Northwest Annex (NSAHR NWA). Theirwork covers over 15,000 acres of land that the Navy ownsor leases, plus an additional 140,500 acres of easementsand nearshore environment. The group is supported by avast network of individuals, including 19 members of thenatural resources team from NASO and NSAHR NWA.

The team works collaboratively with in-house support,contractors, co-operators, regulatory agencies, lessees,and volunteers. The projects that have been executed bythe team have provided information on land manage-ment, vegetation, and wildlife habitat, so that educateddecisions can be made to both accomplish the military

mission requirements and maintain natural resourcecompliance. This collaborative approach has saved theNavy hundreds of thousands of dollars, as well as manynatural resources.

Southwest Marine Biology Team of Navy Region Southwestand NAVFAC Southwest, California

On 8 December 2014, a carcass of a 2,000-pound whalewas discovered in San Diego Bay near Naval Air StationNorth Island. The specimen was originally thought to be aminke whale, one of the most plentiful whale species inthe world, but upon further inspection it was determinedto be a juvenile Bryde’s whale. Bryde’s whales arecommon in tropical waters, but sightings are uncommonin California. Scientific studies indicate that Bryde’swhales are becoming more common in the waters offSouthern California. This stranding could be indicative ofthe population’s growth.

Two days after the discovery of the whale carcass, a groupof scientists from the Navy’s Southwest Marine ResourceManagement Team, the National Marine Fisheries Service(NMFS), the Southwest Fisheries Science Centers, and theSan Diego Museum of Natural History worked to preservethe whale for the museum’s collection and to investigatethe creature’s cause of death. The whale will be availablefor the public to view and for academics to study, as theonly complete specimen of a Bryde’s whale in a museumon the west coast.

An installation conservation law enforcement officer gets assistancefrom NASO utilities crew and equipment to rescue a juvenile ospreyfrom a nest located on a utility pole at NASO Dam Neck Annex that caught fire earlier in the day after a storm event.

The baleen array pulled from the carcass. Recovery of this specimenwith a fully intact baleen array was one of the highlights of preservingthis specimen of Bryde’s whale. It is now the only complete skeleton ofBryde’s whale with a full baleen array in a research collection in the U.S. Walt Wilson

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Environmental QualityThese awards recognize efforts to ensuremission accomplishment and protection ofhuman health in the areas of environmentalplanning, waste management, and environ-mental law and regulation compliance. Meetingor exceeding all environmental requirements notonly enhances the protection of our environ-mental assets, but also sustains the Departmentof Defense’s (DoD) ability to effectively train andmaintain readiness.

Non-industrial Installation

Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, Virginia

Naval Medical Center Portsmouth and itsoutlying clinics provide quality patient-centeredhealthcare to over 420,000 active-duty and retired servicemembers and their families. As the Navy’s oldest continu-ously operating hospital, it maintains its “First and Finest”tradition by successfully integrating its environmentalmanagement system program into all aspects of health-care delivery. Through environmental stewardship over600,000 pounds of plastics, cardboard, and privacycurtains were diverted from entering landfills in FY15.Additionally, an aerobic digester enabled the diversion ofover 200,000 pounds of food waste. The center was ableto reduce medical waste in FY15 by 36 percent whencompared to FY14 levels.

The center also purchased and installed waterless mopsfor housekeeping to use throughout the clinics in March of2015. These mops have zero discharge to the sanitarysewer and help to eliminate cross contamination.

Hospital Corpsman providing vaccine to patient.

The excavation and bottom drain for a 600 by 200 foot bioretention area forreducing pollution in stormwater runoff. Best management practices implemented

during the award period such as this one will reduce stormwater runoff of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids by over 11 tons per year.

Naval Support Activity Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania

Naval Support Activity Mechanicsburg (NSA-M), whichincludes its namesake, Naval Support Activity Philadelphiaand the Philadelphia Naval Yard Annex, collectivelyemploys approximately 12,000 people. NSA-M achievedmany major environmental accomplishments in FY15.NSA-M reduced their energy consumption by 9.5 percentcompared to the previous fiscal year; this resulted in over$4 million in savings. The key to meeting these energyreductions has been the establishment of a building moni-toring and energy audit program.

Looking ahead, NSA-M has been awarded $3.1 million tofund projects that will reduce stormwater pollution runoffof nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended solids by over 11tons. The projects will allow NSA-M to meet ChesapeakeBay pollutant reduction permit requirements with the useof roof-disconnect planter boxes, dry and vegetatedswales, rain gardens and bioretention facilities.

Navy Region Center, Singapore

Navy Region Center Singapore’s (NRCS) environmentalteam plays an important role in maintaining compliancewith U.S. environmental guidance and applicable locallaws and regulations, and the facility’s quality of life. Staffreduced solid waste disposal by 44 percent despite a 22percent increase in population from FY13. A major factorthat contributed to this reduction was a 128 percentincrease in recycled waste from FY13 to FY15. Theinstallation also trimmed energy consumption by 36percent when compared to the 2003 baseline number;this equals a savings of $70,000 a year, despite thesignificant population growth.

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Through the excellent environmental quality program,managed by the environmental team, the command hasprospered in cost savings and improved readiness. A keyfacet of NRCS’s environmental success is providing asense of personal contribution, ensuring that programswill be maintained and successfully transitioned throughchanges of command and personnel.

Individual or Team

Commander Fleet Activities Yokosuka Public WorksDepartment Environmental Management Division Team,Japan

A staff of over 30 engineers, environmental specialists,program managers, program analysts, and techniciansmake up Commander Fleet Actives (FLEACT) Yokosuka’sEnvironmental Division. The team works vigorously toimplement environmentally sound measures in accor-dance with Japan Environmental Governing Standards andapplicable Japanese and U.S. regulations, laws, policies,and requirements.

At Yokosuka waste diversion continues to be a staple ingre-dient in its environmental success through an ever-evolvingrecycling program. By revamping and simplifying awareness

training, participation in the environ-mental management program hasimproved, despite the installation’stypically high personnel turnover.

The diversion rate for constructionand demolition debris at Yokosuka isan impressive 66 percent, due in largepart to improvements to an environ-mental Statement of Work templatethat is used for all new contracts,which now requires participation inthe recycling program and a betteraccounting of recyclable materials.

Yokosuka’s Qualified Recyclingprogram has generated approxi-mately $1.7 million in income. Thesefunds have been reinvested intosafety programs, pollution preventioninitiatives and Morale, Welfare andRecreation support.

Naval Station Norfolk EnvironmentalCompliance Team, Virginia

The Naval Station Norfolk environ-mental compliance team provides technical, permitmanagement, and spill management support to NavalStation Norfolk. The efforts of the team contributed toimprovements to the installation’s stormwater system.These modifications allowed the installation to surpass

Representatives from United Kingdom Defense Fuels Group Singapore, PSA Corporation,Singapore Civil Defense, Interagency Auxiliary Police Force, and NRCS participate in the joint spill response exercise conducted in FY15. The exercise provided heightened awareness and significantly increased the spill response capability of all parties. Teo Kok Sing

A member of the environmental team collects a drinking water samplefrom a water faucet. This activity is one of many sampling events theEnvironmental Division conducted between FY14 and FY15. Yoshiaki Kanazawa

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The team has also created a partner-ship with the Virginia Industries forthe Blind to form a free fire extin-guisher recycling initiative. NavalStation Norfolk currently has over2,000 extinguishers stockpiled. Byrecycling the fire extinguishers, 500man hours and $80,000 will be saved.

NAVFAC Northwest EnvironmentalManagement System Team, Washington

The NAVFAC Northwest Environ-mental Management System (EMS)team works to provide environ-mental support to several installa-tions that cover over 91,000 acres ofland in 11 states.

At Naval Magazine Indian Island, theteam exceeded its goal of reducingenergy consumption by 30 percentin FY15 by achieving a 60 percentreduction in energy intensitycompared to the established 2003baseline. Two major projects werecompleted in FY14 and FY15 that

led to the significantreduction in energyconsumption: the installa-tion of modern IndustrialControl Systems thatcreated an annual energysavings of 1,846 millionBritish Thermal Units(BTU) per hour and thereplacement of street andexterior building lightingthat saves 1,334 millionBTUs annually.

The stormwater at NavalBase Kitsap (NBK)discharges into the PugetSound, a protected bodyof water that requiresspecial attention. In orderto prevent copper andzinc contained in dust

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2018 pollutant reduction goals forthe Chesapeake Bay region, threeyears earlier than required. Thedevelopment of construction siteinspections, which ensure that sedi-ment is not discharged to stormdrains and subsequent waterways,and incorporation of best manage-ment practices to filter out pollutantscontributed to this achievement.

Navy Region Northwest biologists conduct sampling ofshellfish species within the intertidal zones at

NBK Bremerton. The study was conducted to determine the appropriate biologically active zone for shellfish

within the intertidal portion of the remedial action area.

kicked up by trucks from enteringinto Puget Sound, staffers installed astormwater rain garden, withsupport from the EMS team, to filterout contaminants.

SustainabilityThese awards recognize efforts toprevent or eliminate pollution at thesource, including practices thatincrease efficiency and sustainabilityin the use of raw materials, energy,water, or other resources. Sustainablepractices ensure that DoD protectsvaluable resources that are critical tomission success.

Industrial Installation

Fleet Readiness Center Southeast,Florida

Fleet Readiness Center Southeast(FRCSE) provides maintenance andrepair services including in-depth modi-fications and overhauls of naval aircraft,engines, weapons systems and compo-nents. The command is dedicated tomeeting environmental, energy, andeconomic performance goals.

FRCSE recycled 160 tons of used oiland reclaimed eight tons of turbineblades for rhenium extraction in FY14and FY15. The command alsoexpanded its metals reclamationprogram to include 49 tons of F404,F414, and TF34 engine components.Two AE-6B Prowler aircrafts werereclaimed at the command in FY15,recycling 19 tons of aircraft materialand recovering aircraft parts for a costavoidance of $14.5 million.

The FRCSE environmental officeestablished goals to develop environ-mental knowledge down to the individual shop level. These effortsinvolved training each artisan,coaching the shops, scoring perfor-mance, and reviewing and correcting

Environmental services personnel clean up aspill pierside. Through periodic shipboard

spill training, working with Type Commands to evaluate root cause, and other outreach,

Naval Station Norfolk has exceeded its EMS targets in spill reduction.

Ricky Cambridge

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procedures. These efforts increased shop awareness andadherence to environmental compliance requirements andresulted in an 80 percent reduction in the number of non-conformities found during reviews.

Fleet Readiness Center Southwest, California

Fleet Readiness Center Southwest delivers responsivemaintenance, repair, and overhaul products and servicesin support of naval aviation and national defense objec-tives. In FY15 the facility delivered 164 aircraft, 38,500aviation components, 99 aircraft engines and 22 marinegas engines to the Fleet.

Waste prevention is practiced at the facility by recyclingall feasible waste streams. The recycling program recy-cled 75 percent of all non-hazardous solid waste and 100percent of all surplus electronics in FY15. Examples ofhazardous waste recycling include 109,000 pounds ofspent oil and petroleum products and 18,000 pounds ofmachine coolant.

Projects to reduce energy consumption included nighttimesetbacks for foundries, removal of a data center, andsequencing air handlers with nighttime and weekendsetbacks to more efficiently regulate temperatures. Resultsshowed an electricity savings of 824 megawatt hours, anatural gas savings of 1,605 million BTUs, and a green-house gas reduction of 885,111 pounds, for a cost savingsof nearly $1 million.

NAVSUP Fleet Logistics Center San Diego, California

The Naval Supply Systems Command (NAVSUP) Fleet Logis-tics Center (FLC) San Diego provides combat capabilitythrough logistics support to 86 home-ported ships,submarines, transient vessels, and 11 over-the-horizonregional naval bases and air stations in California and Nevada.

Through significant research, the team at FLC developedan effective solution for chemical pretreating andprocessing 750,000 gallons of water contaminated withhydrogen sulfide at its fuel oil reclamation plant.

The fuel oil recovery system at FLC San Diego is a criticalcost savings resource for the Navy. Approximately 1.5

million gallons of fuel are reclaimed bythe system annually, generating over $1million in revenue. The recovered oilprimarily comes from Navy vesselsentering shipyards for maintenance.Without the fuel oil recovery system, oilywater from the vessels would be treatedas a costly hazardous waste, since theclosest disposal facility is located in theLos Angeles Basin. The Navy achievesover $14 million annually in cost avoid-ance through this successful program.

Environmental Restoration This award recognizes efforts to protecthuman health and the environment bycleaning up identified sites in a timely,cost-efficient, and responsive manner.Restoring these sites impacted by

Charles Miller, an FRCSE material identifier, washes a bin of aluminumscraps collected through the manufacturing process. Washing thescraps removes oil residue and dust so the metal can be taken toDefense Logistics Agency Disposition Services for resale.Clifford Davis

The F/A-18 assembly/disassembly hangar was repainted with non-toxic paint to sustain health and safety compliance. The newly painted facility also improves natural lighting, reducing electricity consumption.

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historic defense practices protects military personnel and the public frompotential environmental health and safety hazards.


Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story, Virginia

The environmental program at Joint Expeditionary Base Little Creek-Fort Story(JEBLCFS) has collaborated with various governmental agencies to balance thechallenges of restoring environmental sites and protecting human health and the

environment with the facility’s limitedspace, continued growth and missionneed for usable land. The efforts atJEBLCFS have resulted in significantcost savings and made approximately31 acres available for reuse.

Staff actively treated sites on the basevia enhanced reduction dechlorination,with the use of “green” remedial tech-nologies. This was achieved byinjecting emulsified vegetable oil intothe groundwater to promote the degra-dation of contaminants, from historicalwaste management practices.

Another environmental innovation atJEBLCFS was designating a portion ofa landfill for beneficial reuse. The landwas converted into an equipmentstorage area while maintaining theintegrity of the existing soil cover,freeing up land for other constructiveuses or conservation.

Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Maine

Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (PNSY) isa 216-year-old facility with a longnaval history, situated at the mouth ofthe Piscataqua River. Today, it servesas a nuclear-powered submarinemaintenance facility. Throughout itshistory, many of the hazardous mate-rials at the facility had been managedin accordance with outdated proce-dures which resulted in contamina-tion at the shipyard.

The environmental program at PNSYis pursuing an aggressive schedule forcleanup. Notably successful remedialactions were executed at three sepa-rate sites, resulting in the excavationand proper disposal of over 24,300tons of contaminated soils and sedi-ments in FY14 and FY15.

The environmental team at PNSY iscontinually considering smarter,greener ways of conducting environ-mental remediation. For example, the

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NAVSUP Fleet Logistics Center San Diego’s Defense Fuel Support Point facility located on Naval Base Point Loma.

Divers were used at JEBLCFS ‘s Solid Waste Management Unit 3 site to distribute powderedactivated carbon across the sediment surface to reduce the bioavailability of contaminants in the upper biologically active zone. The use of amendments to actively sequester contaminants in sediment was less energy-intensive, less expensive, and less disruptive than conventional remediation technologies. Louie McTall

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Upon completion of theFY14-15 dredging activities, a bathymetric surveyconfirmed appropriateremoval of contaminatedsediments that posedunacceptable risk toecological benthic receptors. The remedialaction considered theprotection of the eelgrassbed located at one of thedredging locations and was completed within thefederally and state approvedin-water work windowintended to protect thethreatened and endangeredspecies, Atlantic andshortnose sturgeon.Frederick Matthew Thyng

team collaborated with the U.S. Envi-ronmental Protection Agency (EPA) andthe Maine Department of Environ-mental Protection to design and imple-ment an innovative method of usingPortland cement to stabilize almost9,000 tons of lead-contaminated soil torender it non-hazardous for handle anddisposal. PNSY utilized this technique afew months later to address 107 tons oflead-contaminated soil that requiredtreatment after dredging. This processsaved over $3 million in hazardouswaste transport and disposal costs.

Individual or Team

Naval Base Ventura County Environmental RestorationTeam, California

Naval Base Ventura County (NBVC), which is made up ofmultiple facilities in Southern California, provides airfield,seaport, and base support services to fleet operating forcesand shore activities. The Environmental Restoration Team(ERT) at NBVC provides all aspects of Installation Restora-tion and Munitions Response Program oversight at NBVC.To date, a total of 72 of the 135 sites where restorationactivities have been performed at NBVC are considered tobe response complete. Thirteen of those sites achieved aresponse complete status during FY14 and FY15.

Through innovative partnerships and techniques, the teamis not only able to achieve response complete status, butthey are also able to find cost-effective solutions andreclaim land. By partnering with the Calleguas CreekWatershed Committee, the NBVC ERT was able to save$10.2 million on the remediation of the Mugu Lagoon. Atthe Fort Hunter Leggett facility, an expeditious removal ofmunitions and explosives of concern was performed,which resulted in the reopening of seven acres of facilitiescritical for Navy mission use. Using a one-of-a-kindsystem, originally designed to separate pistachio shellsfrom pistachio nuts, 25,000 pounds of lead shot and 918tons of target debris were separated from sand at thePoint Mugu Trap & Skeet Range Site. This innovativeprocess led to a cost savings of $500,000.

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St. Juliens Creek Annex EnvironmentalRestoration Program Partnering Team,Virginia

The primary mission of St. JuliensCreek Annex (SJCA) is to provide aradar-testing range, as well as admin-istrative and warehousing facilities fornearby Norfolk Naval Shipyard andother local naval activities. In July of2000, SJCA was added to the NationalPriorities List as a result of formeroperations conducted at the facilitythat resulted in environmentalimpacts. The SJCA EnvironmentalRestoration Program Partnering Teamwas created to streamline the closureof the Environmental RestorationProgram sites by using consensus-based site management strategiesfollowing the Comprehensive Environ-mental Response, Compensation, andLiability Act process. This team is apartnership between NAVFAC, theEPA, and the Virginia Department ofEnvironmental Quality.

The team reduced the environmentalimpact of the remediation actions attwo sites at SJCA through the utiliza-

tion of several green and sustainableremediation techniques. Permanentinjection wells were installed, whichgreatly reduced the amount of wastegenerated when compared to usingtemporary injection points. Emulsi-fied vegetable oil, an innocuoussubstance, was also used to reme-diate the sites, reducing the risk ofcross-contamination.

Vieques Environmental RestorationProgram Team, Puerto Rico

Between the mid-1940s until 2003,more than 300,000 munition itemswere fired at the former Vieques navalinstallation during military training. Alarge portion of Vieques and thesurrounding waters were placed onthe National Priorities List in 2005.

The remediation project faces uniquechallenges, such as unexplodedordnances and their associated cont-aminants, across thousands of acresof land and sea floor. To meet thesechallenges and successfully imple-ment environmental restoration,representatives from NAVFACAtlantic, the EPA, the Common-wealth of Puerto Rico Environmental

Quality Board and Department ofNatural and EnvironmentalResources, the NMFS, the NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Adminis-tration, the Department of Interior,and the U.S. Fish and WildlifeService (USFWS) work collaborativelyas the Vieques EnvironmentalRestoration Program Team.

In FY14 and FY15 over 560 acreswere cleared of munitions at Vieques,resulting in the removal of over 7,000munitions and over one millionpounds of scrap metal being sent to arecycling facility. During the cleanup,divers recovered munitions across200 acres of seafloor adjacent to thesite, while ensuring threatened andendangered corals and other sensitivespecies/habitats were protected.

Cleanup has been accelerated usinginnovative strategies and ground-breaking technologies, such as aremotely operated long-reach exca-vator, used to remove highlydangerous munitions within heavilyvegetated areas on roads andbeaches. This technology is estimatedto save the project over $11 million.

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Dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) was discovered as wells were being installedfor substrate injection to addresscontamination in the shallow aquifergroundwater. The team developed anapproach to remove the DNAPL, resulting in immediate contaminant mass reduction. Bonnie Roberts

Munitions response divers search the ocean floor for munitions to accelerate opening a planned public recreational area at the adjacent former Vieques

open burn/open detonation site at the request of USFWS.

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Cultural Resources Management These awards recognize efforts topromote cultural resources steward-ship by highlighting outstanding exam-ples of Cultural ResourcesManagement (CRM). Awards aredesigned to showcase extensivecultural resources including archaeo-logical sites, the historic built environ-ment, and cultural landscapes. Desiredinitiatives include partnering withexternal stakeholders such as NativeAmericans, state historic preservationofficers, and local communities, andthose working with internal stake-holders, such as master planning,public works, and range management.Through cultural resources manage-ment programs, Navy and DoD iden-tify areas likely to contain historicalassets and work to protect theseresources for future generations in partnership with NativeAmerican tribes and historic preservation authorities.

Large Installation

Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada

Naval Air Station (NAS) Fallon is a 241,000-acre stationwhose primary mission is to provide integrated airtraining events in support of carrier air wings, marine airgroups, and joint and multination exercises. Located inthe heart of ancient Lake Lahonton, the Fallon areaincludes archaeological sites that date back more than10,000 years. Prehistoric burials have been found in caveand dune sites throughout the Lahontan Valley, includingon NAS Fallon.

During FY14 and FY15, an archeological inventory wastaken of over 14,000 acres, resulting in the discovery ofnearly 500 archaeological sites. Other achievementsincluded performing National Register of Historic Placesevaluations for 66 archeological sites, and completing amaintenance plan for NAS Fallon’s last remaining WorldWar II-era hangar.

Volunteers from the University of Nevada, Reno and localarchaeological community donated over 300 hours ofservices to the natural resources management program,illustrating the collaborative nature of NAS Fallon and thelocal community.

Naval Support Activity Crane, Indiana

Occupying 62,000 acres, Naval Support Activity (NSA)Crane’s mission is to enable and sustain fleet, fighter andfamily readiness through consistent, standardized, andreliable shore support to tenant commands. The culturalresources program at NSA Crane encourages all of the NSACrane family to become intimately connected to thehistory of southern Indiana and the Navy’s installation toencourage the community’s responsive behavior andstewardship for its resources.

An archaeologist excavates a prehistoric cooking hearth on NAS Fallon bombing range B-16.During FY14 and FY15, 66 archaeological sites on NAS Fallon bombing ranges were evaluated for their National Register of Historic Places eligibility.

Holt Rock Shelter is one of 78 known archaeological sites on NSA Crane.

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ment Plan to foster a balancebetween resource protection andoperational requirements. Currently,the station is conducting investiga-tions on four prehistoric sites.Through a cooperative agreement, theCollege of William & Mary has beenevaluating archaeological deposits atYorktown since 2011, which depictsan American Indian village dating tothe period between AD 900 and1623. This investigation has led to alarge recovery of artifacts enhancingunderstanding of the historic village.

Environmental Excellence inWeapon System AcquisitionThis award recognizes efforts to incor-porate environmental, safety, andoccupational health requirements intothe system engineering, contracting,and decision-making processes of alarge (Acquisition Category I) weaponsystem acquisition program. Adheringto these principles enhances DoD’sacquisition process by ensuring thatweapon system programs keep thesafety of personnel and protection ofthe environment as a priority.

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NSA Crane surveyed over 230 acresfor archaeological resources. Effortson 112 of those acres were proactive,thereby clearing an entire area forfuture development without the costor delay of just-in-time survey work.Additionally, various cemetery ground-penetrating radar surveys wereconducted to define and map theboundaries of 28 pioneer era ceme-teries, thereby protecting themagainst future development.

Naval Weapons Station Yorktown,Virginia

Naval Weapons Station (WPNSTA)Yorktown and its areas of responsi-bility contain 426 identified archaeo-logical sites. The sites provide aunique look into the past, allowing aglimpse into the lives of AmericanIndians and early Colonial settlersduring the Revolutionary and CivilWar eras, and onwards through the18th, 19th and 20th centuries.

Over the past two years, WPNSTAYorktown enhanced its commitmentto cultural resources managementthrough the implementation of itsIntegrated Cultural Resources Manage-

Excavation of a ditch, fence, and hearth feature at the Kiskiak American Indian site on WPNSTA Yorktown, identified by the College of William & Mary Archaeological Field School.

Large Program

P-8A Environmental, Safety, and Occu-pational Health (ESOH) Team,Patuxent River, Maryland

The P-8A acquisition program iscommitted to integrating environ-mental practices into the lifecyclemanagement of its aircraft systems;this includes addressing issues suchas engine air emissions, communitynoise, and hazardous materials use.The team working on the program isdedicated to ensuring timely deploy-ments of P-8A aircraft that arecompliant with federal, state, andlocal environmental laws and regula-tions. Strategic planning and execu-tion by the team ensures thatsystem-related environmentalhazards are identified early in the life-cycle of the program and that bestmanagement practices are estab-lished and implemented throughoutthe lifecycle of the weapon system.By collaborating with JacksonvilleFleet Support Team, Naval AirSystems Command logisticspersonnel, and the manufacturer tooptimize the P-8A Hazardous MaterialAuthorized Use List (HMAUL), theyreduced total HMAUL line items by35 percent and decreased total itemsby 67 percent.

AfloatThe Afloat awards recognizeoutstanding contributions to fleet readi-ness, increased morale, and efficient,economical use of resources to promoteenvironmental protection at sea.

Large Deck Combatant Category

USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70)

USS Carl Vinson and her crew of3,100 Sailors operate in times of waras the cornerstone of joint/alliedmaritime expeditionary forces,supporting aircraft attacks on

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enemies, protecting friendly forces,and engaging in sustained indepen-dent operations.

USS Carl Vinson has a reputation forbeing the “greenest carrier in theNavy.” To prevent any inadvertentdischarges of untreated sewageduring transfer off the ship, the repairdivision completed 632 preventativeand 54 corrective maintenancechecks in FY15. When moored,discharge hoses to the pier weremonitored hourly during shore trans-fers to enable duty personnel tosecure pumping at a moment’snotice. This allowed for the transferof 4.5 million gallons of sewagewithout any spills.

After returning from a ten monthdeployment in 2015, the vesselcompleted a tremendous amount ofrehabilitation and maintenance workwithout any reportable environ-mental incidents. Daily inspectionswere conducted on equipment, andlocal experts were engaged to ensure

resulting in a 17 percent reduction inrefrigerant releases to the atmosphere.

Littoral or Amphibious WarfareCategory

USS Sentry (MCM 3)

USS Sentry is a mine countermea-sures ship with approximately 80crewmembers, forward deployed inManama, Bahrain. In FY15, Sentrysupported Operation Decisive Stormon only 72 hours’ notice. During the60-day task, Sentry had many chal-lenges surrounding the disposal ofrefuse. MCM class ships, unlike largercombatants, are not equipped withwaste processing systems such asmetal and glass shredders or plasticwaste processing units. The Sentry’sculinary specialist devised methods tosort trash and garbage that allowedthe crew to more easily dispose ofbiodegradable items, while holdingplastics and paper waste until theycould be properly disposed of duringport visits.

air pollution was minimized duringwork. One of the green improve-ments made was replacing 22 valvesof the air conditioning and refrigera-tion center on refrigeration systems,

Aviation Ordnancemen assigned to Patrol Squadron (VP) 16, prepare to load a MK-54 torpedoonto a P-8A Poseidon aircraft in Jacksonville, Florida. PMA-290 testing activities involve the use ofunderwater sound/explosives in the marine environment, including systems under development. Eric A. Pastor

Aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70) transits the Pacific Ocean. MCS3 Eric Coffer

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During FY15, Sentry operated with the minimum numberof engines necessary to support the ship’s mission inorder to minimize pollution and fuel consumption.

Military Sealift Command Category

USS Emory S. Land (AS 39)

USS Emory S. Land is a forward-deployed submarinetender whose primary mission is to provide intermediatemaintenance repair to submarines and ships. Emory S.Land is manned by a crew of approximately 250 Sailorsand 150 civilian mariners. The vessel is homeported atDiego Garcia, located in the British Indian Ocean Territory.In FY15, the submarine was underway for 64 days, andconducted six port calls.

Simply based on herassigned mission, EmoryS. Land has a larger asso-ciated hazardous wastestream than most equiva-lently sized ships. Theship off-loaded as muchas 40,000 pounds ofhazardous materialwithout any spills duringport visits. The supplydepartment took anaggressive approach byremoving roughly 40,000pounds of hazardousmaterial to minimize its

use. Additionally, Freon was substituted with a moreenvironmentally friendly refrigerant in compressors andair conditioning units.

The vessel’s chaplain and 48 Sailors went the extra mile inFY15 by volunteering over 200 hours at several environ-mental community service events in Guam, the Philip-pines, and Oregon.

Surface Combatant

USS Chafee (DDG 90)

USS Chafee is homeported in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, andhouses 317 crew members and 30 Sailors. Chafee’spolicy is to always use the most fuel-efficient plantconfiguration to achieve operational requirements. The vessel made effective use of “drift ops” in order toreduce engine hours, fuel consumption and air pollution.

The Awards Process

THE ANNUAL CNO Environmental Awards program recognizesthe environmental stewardship of installations, individuals,teams, and Navy ships. The CNO competition is the first leveland all winners advance to the second Secretary of the Navy(SECNAV) level of competition along with U.S. Marine Corpssubmissions. Eligible SECNAV winners are selected to competein the final Secretary of Defense level of competition among allthe branches, with the exception of the afloat categories whichare unique to the Navy levels of competition.

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The mine countermeasures ship USS Sentry(MCM 3) gets underway in Bahrain. Martin L. Carey

The submarine tender USS Emory S. Land (AS 39) shortly after arrival to Fleet Activities Sasebo, Japan.

Michael Doan

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in environmentalstewardship with anintense environ-mental trainingprogram. The crewcompleted over1,500 man-hours ofenvironmentalawareness trainingin FY14 and FY15.Over the same timeperiod, Tennesseeran 21 oil andhazardous materialspill drills, ensuringall emergencyresponse teams wereproperly trained tohandle any acci-

dental discharges, and thatTennessee was able to load over24,000 gallons of F-76 and lube oilwithout any incidents.

Aboard Tennessee, minimizing wasteand hazardous materials is a priority.The use of disposable material iskept to a minimum. When dispos-ables are needed, biodegradableproducts are utilized wheneverpossible. Most laundry detergentsand cleaning chemicals on board are“green.” Additionally personnel use afirst in/first out program in order toensure that products are utilizedbefore they expire, thereforereducing the volume of materialsentering into the waste stream.

Congratulations again to all 29 of theFY 2015 CNO Environmental Awardwinners for their steadfast commit-ment to environmental excellence. �Madeline JoyceChief of Naval Operations Energy and Environmental Readiness Division703-695-5073DSN: [email protected]

operational commitments and safetyof navigation.

Submarine Category

USS Tennessee (SSBN 734)

USS Tennessee, a ballistic missilesubmarine, is homeported in KingsBay, Georgia, with a crew of 246personnel. Tennessee leads the way

During a 7-month deployment andmultiple pre-deployment underwaydays, the crew found ways to securemain engines for 48 hours, savingover 100,000 gallons of fuel andreducing air pollution. Through judi-cious use of “drift ops” Chafee haslimited her air emissions as much as possible, taking into account

The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Chafee (DDG 90) transits the Philippine Sea. Ricardo R. Guzman

The Ohio-class ballistic missile submarine USS Tennessee (SSBN 734) returns to Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay.

James Kimber

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CNO Environmental Research &Development Programs ReleaseAnnual Reports

LMR Program Report & NESDI Year In ReviewReport Now Available

THE LIVING MARINE RESOURCES (LMR) programand the Navy Environmental Sustainability Developmentto Integration (NESDI) program have released their annualreports to highlight each program’s accomplishments infiscal year 2015 (FY15).

The LMR program addresses the Navy’s key researchneeds and transitions the results and technologies for usewithin the Navy’s at-sea environmental compliance andpermitting processes. Its goals include improving marinespecies impact analysis (including marine mammal take

estimates), mitigation measures and monitoring capabili-ties. The FY15 report is the second for the relatively newprogram (formed in 2012) and includes a summary of theprogram’s history, along with its mission statement, anexplanation of the program structure and relative responsi-bilities of Navy research and monitoring programs, and anoverview of how the LMR process works. The reportprovides brief updates on ongoing projects and partner-ships, introduces new projects that were funded in FY15and summarizes a project that was completed during thefiscal year. It also provides a list of 2015 publications thatresulted from research either partially or fully funded bythe LMR program.

The LMR new start projects introduced in the FY15report are:

� Project 13: Standardization of Auditory Evokes Poten-tial (AEP) Audiometry Methods to Ensure ComparableData Inclusion in a National Marine Mammal AEPDatabase

Standardize hearing threshold measurement methodsused in odontocetes (toothed whales) and increasespecies representation and sample sizes in hearingthreshold estimates to reduce uncertainty in hearingrange analyses used by Navy planners.

� Project 14: Behavioral Audiometry in Multiple KillerWhales

Collect the first demographic hearing data from killerwhales to understand how potential acoustic impacts

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The LMR program and the NESDI program have released their

annual reports to highlight each program’s accomplishments

in fiscal year 2015.

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might vary within a mixed population of animals(across age and gender). Data from the study will helpto determine mid-frequency cetacean compositeaudiograms and weighting functions for Navy at-seaenvironmental compliance.

� Project 15: Jawphone Simulations to Maximize theUtility of Psychoacoustic and Auditory Evoked Poten-tial Experiments

Use a computational approach to identify the mecha-nism(s) by which jawphones (a suction cup containinga transducer) stimulate hearing when they are used togather data on toothed whale auditory capabilities andformulate sensitivity maps as guidance for optimalplacement of the jawphones to maximize their utilityin gathering hearing data for a variety of animals.

� Project 16: Passive Acoustic Density Estimation ofBaleen Whales: Using Sonobuoys to Estimate Call-Rate Correction Factors

Estimate baleen whale density in the California Currentand the Navy’s Southern California Offshore Range(SCORE) range by combining sonobuoy data with visualsightings to estimate the correction factor needed toconvert call density data to whale density data.

� Project 17: Blue and Fin Whale Density Estimation inthe U.S. Pacific Fleet Southern California OffshoreRange Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring Data

Develop spatially and temporally explicit density esti-mates for blue and fin whales in the Southern Cali-fornia (SOCAL) range to provide the Navy with arealistic, quantitative assessment of levels of impact.Results will ensure better estimates of potential distur-bance and harassment for future naval training andenvironmental impact statement (EIS) assessments.

� Project 18: Acoustic Metadata Management for NavyFleet Operations

Expand development of Tethys, a passive acousticmonitoring metadata database, to improve its utility forlong-term Navy monitoring data management andsupport Navy mitigation efforts.

� Project 19: DECAF-TEA: Density Estimation forCetaceans from Acoustic Fixed Sensors in Testing andEvaluation Areas

Demonstrate and validate a method for passiveacoustic density estimation that can be used across arange of species, environments and temporal scales.

Density estimates will be added to the Navy MarineSpecies Density Database.

� Project 20: Behavioral Dose-Response Relationshipand Temporary Threshold Shifts in Harbor Porpoises

Establish a dose-behavior response relationship anddetermine sound exposure levels associated withtemporary threshold shifts (TTS) and hearing recoveryunder varying sound exposures and conditions. Resultswill be used to update the criteria and thresholds forharbor porpoises

The NESDI program’s mission is to demonstrate, validate,and integrate innovative technologies, processes, andmaterials; and fill knowledge gaps to minimize operationalenvironmental risks, constraints and costs while ensuringFleet readiness. The program seeks to accomplish thismission through the evaluation of cost-effective technolo-gies, processes, and materials and knowledge thatenhance environmental readiness of naval shore activitiesand ensure they can be integrated into weapons systemacquisition programs.

The NESDI report profiles “new starts” for FY15 anddiscusses projects that were particularly successful overthe course of the year in demonstrating the use of aninnovative technology or integrating critical information tostakeholders across the Navy. Some notable accomplish-ments in FY15 include:

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For More Information

FOR MORE DETAILS on the LMR program’s FY15 investments,read our story “LMR Program Announces FY15 New Projects “in this issue of Currents.

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� Project 465: Demonstration of Passive Samplers forAssessing Environmentally Realistic Concentrations ofMunitions Constituents at Underwater UXO Sites

Develop a passive sampler that detects ultra-low levelsof constituents of concern with greater accuracy thanany previous system.

� Project 476: A Quantitative Decision Framework forAssessing Navy Vapor Intrusion Sites

Develop a decision framework to help the Navy eval-uate risk and remediation options at sites with vapor-phase contamination.

� Project 485: Demonstrate and Validate Alternatives toMethylene Chloride-based Chemical Paint Strippers

Demonstrate an environmentally friendly thixotropicpaint stripper. A draft military specification is underway.

� Project 492: Capacitive Deionization (CDI) Water Treat-ment System

Develop a prototype system for treating drinking waterat small facilities.

� Project 495: Radioactive Material Permit Generation,Management, and Tracking System

Develop a database that streamlines RadiologicalAffairs Support Office (RASO) operations and ensurescompliance with environmental rules and regulations.

� Project 506: Evaluation and Implementation ofCompliance Options for NPDES Cooling Water IntakeStructures at Existing Facilities

Reduce the accidental intake of fish eggs and larvaeinto shipyard cooling water intake structures via astructural design modification that was accepted by theU.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

� Project 509: Enterprise NAVFAC Hazardous WasteApplication

Develop a secure, web-enabled hazardous waste appli-cation that can be used by Naval Facilities EngineeringCommand installations worldwide.

Both the LMR and NESDI programs are sponsored by the Chief of Naval Operations Energy and Environ-mental Readiness Division and managed by the Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Electronic (pdf)versions of the LMR and NESDI reports can be down-loaded from and To obtain a hardcopy of either report,contact Lorraine Wass at 207-384-5249 [email protected]. �Mandy Shoemaker (LMR Program)Naval Facilities Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center805-982-5872DSN: [email protected]

Ken Kaempffe (NESDI program)Naval Facilities Engineering and Expeditionary Warfare Center805-982-4893 DSN: [email protected]

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NAVFAC Marianas DemonstratesGood Environmental Stewardship

Earth Month Events Contribute to Resiliency Ashore

IN CELEBRATION OF Earth Day in April 2016, NavalFacilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Marianaspromoted resiliency ashore and demonstrated the Navy’scommitment to improving the ecological health of theisland of Guam through a variety of activities and month-long events.

During the week of April 11–15, NAVFAC Marianas leader-ship and personnel participated in the 7th Annual Center forIsland Sustainability Conference hosted by the University of

Guam. Some took on speaking engagements, includingCommanding Officer Captain Stephanie Jones, who was apanel speaker during the Western Pacific Subsection Waterand Wastewater Conference. Others served as judges in theGreen Dream Home Competition, a sustainable homedesign contest for local high school students.

NAVFAC Marianas also organized three Earth Monthcleanup events on the island. Each event demonstratedthe Navy’s commitment to good environmental steward-ship ashore by holding steadfast to sustainability and theprotection and preservation of endangered species andfederal properties.

“The Navy cares for thousands of acres of federal proper-ties on Guam, and the way we do that is through an envi-

ronmental management plan,” said MarkBonsavage, NAVFAC Marianas EnvironmentalBusiness Line Coordinator and Joint RegionMarianas Environmental Program Manager.This environmental management plan detailsall of the programs in place that protectendangered species, the forest, and theecosystem. According to NAVFAC MarianasRegional Environmental Coordinator MarkCruz, this includes efforts to preserve animals,plants, cultural and archeological resources.“We do quite a few archeological, plant andanimal surveys,” said Cruz. “Once we identifythose specific resources, we manage thoseareas by keeping the forests in good shapeand managing the type of activities within theforest, around the beach or in the ocean.”

The cleanups throughout April are designedto help improve Guam’s ecological health, butenvironmental stewardship continues yearround. “We take our responsibility to theenvironment seriously,” said Carlo Unpingco,NAVFAC Marianas Earth Month Cleanup Activ-ities Coordinator. “Our outreach supports theOne Guam partnership; it’s good for thewildlife. Besides, this is our home and thehome of future generations.” �Catherine Cruz Norton Naval Facilities Engineering Command Marianas671-349-4053DSN: [email protected]

Sailors and volunteers pick up trash during an Earth Month Cleanup on April 23 at Tanguisson Beach Park in Dededo. NAVFAC Marianas hosted the cleanup to protect the environment and demonstrate the Navy’s commitment to a One Guam and a Green Guam.Leah Eclavea

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Building a Bridge to the Future

STEM Outreach at NAVFAC Northwest

PERSONNEL FROM THE Naval Facilities EngineeringCommand (NAVFAC) Northwest partner with local schoolsand participate in Science, Technology, Engineering, andMathematics (STEM) outreach initiatives with an eyetoward long-range sustainability.

Sustainability is core to the culture across the PacificNorthwest. NAVFAC Northwest’s facility management forNavy Region Northwest exceeded goals set by the EnergyIndependence and Security Act of 2007 at all locations.The legislation called for a 30 percent energy reductioncompared to a 2003 baseline and a 16 percent waterreduction compared to a 2007 baseline. Northwest Navyinstallations produced a collective 39 percent energyreduction (with most facilities posting much higher gains)and 47 percent water reduction.

Northwest engineers and technicians employed a widerange of methods to meet and exceed the legislatedsustainability goals. Just two examples:

1. Naval Station Everett installed smart meters whichresulted in a 15 percent reduction in energy use.

2. Naval Base Kitsap introduced a new ground sourceheat pump system in two base housing structures. Thesystem, combined with additional modernizationefforts, upgrades and sustainable design improve-ments, resulted in a utility savings of over $191,000 infiscal year 2015.

On March 31, NAVFAC Northwest Sailors and energy, envi-ronmental, engineering, and environmental civiliansparticipated in a science fair at Brownsville Elementary, aSTEM-focused school in the local community. Studentswho gravitate to this line of study hold the promise tofuture improvements in the way the Navy manages itsfacilities. Many of the children at Brownsville Elementaryhave parents that work in science and engineering fieldsat local Navy commands.

School officials invite professionals from the communityto participate in the annual science fair to give thestudents an opportunity to explain their projects topeople they don’t know, build upon their presentationskills, and encourage further development of theprojects they presented. Navy representatives scoredfifth and sixth grade science projects that werepresented on electronic devices that save the students’work in “the cloud.” Students were graded on how wellthey followed the scientific method and demonstrated afirm understanding of their subject matter. They werealso evaluated on imbedded videos and other aspects oftheir presentation.

Topics of the science projects show that many studentshave an interest in subjects related to energy and the envi-ronment. One student conducted experiments to deter-mine whether potatoes generate more sustained electricitywhen cooked, refrigerated, or left at room temperature.Another student lowered dry batteries that he constructedfrom aluminum foil and paper towels into various liquids tosee which combination would generate the most electricity.

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Sierra used ‘golf ball aerodynamics’ to test the distance attained by a grape versus a raisin of the same weight. Shown with her is Mike Capuano, NAVFAC Northwest energy engineer. Leslie Yuenger

Tabitha Pierzchala, Installation Energy Manager, viewed Cooper’sproject, a study of the ‘play-ability’ of a football with

various pounds per square inch inflation.Leslie Yuenger

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Another tested the effect of different liquids on the timerequired to sprout plant seeds.

This year Brownsville Elementary also hosted a STEM openhouse. Navy representatives provided and manned anenergy table at the event, where they educated children andparents about Navy accomplishments in energy and watermanagement, and provided energy and water saving tips.

Attracting the next generation of scientists and engineersto apply their young technical minds to Navy goals is vitalto future operations. NAVFAC Northwest engineers arereaching out to local schools, showing potential scientistsand engineers of the future what the Navy is doing todayto enhance sustainability.

NAVFAC Northwest is responsible for maintaining andmodernizing more than 15 million square feet of facilitiesat naval installations in the Pacific Northwest. The installa-tions, all located in Washington State, are: Naval BaseKitsap, which has sites in Bremerton (including PugetSound Naval Shipyard & Intermediate MaintenanceFacility), Bangor, Keyport, Manchester Fuel Depot, andNaval Magazine Indian Island; Naval Air Station WhidbeyIsland; and Naval Station Everett. �Leslie Yuenger Naval Facilities Engineering Command Northwest360-396-6387DSN: [email protected]

trends of the environment

Have some good news about your energy or environmental program?Want to share it with others? Currents is the place to do it. Currents, theNavy’s official energy and environmental magazine, has won first place inthe Navy’s Chief of Information (CHINFO) Merit awards competition threetimes. Most recently, the magazine snagged an honorable mention in thelast CHINFO competition. Its people like you and the stories you submitthat make Currents the best magazine in the Navy.

So if you have a story that you’d like us to promote in our winter 2016-17issue, submit your text and images by Friday, October 21, 2016. Any sub -missions received after this date will be considered for our spring 2017 issue.

You can get a copy of the Currents article template by sending an email toBruce McCaffrey, our Managing Editor, at [email protected] template has proven to be a tremendous asset in helping us edit andtrack your article submissions. Bruce is also available at 773-376-6200 ifyou have any questions or would like to discuss your story ideas. Anddon’t worry. If writing isn’t one of your strengths, we’ll handle all of theediting necessary to get your submission into publishable form.

As a reminder, your Public Affairs Officer must approve yourarticle before we can consider it for inclusion in the magazine.

Don’t forget to “like” us on Facebook at www.facebook/navycurrents. Currents’ Facebook page helps expand the reachof the magazine and spread the news about all the great workyou’re doing as the Navy’s energy and environmental guardians

Winter 2016-17 Issue: Friday, October 21, 2016Spring 2017 Issue: Friday, January 20, 2017Summer 2017 Issue: Friday, April 21, 2017Fall 2017 Issue: Friday, July 21, 2017

You can also refer to your Currents calendar forreminders about these deadlines.

2014 Russell Egnor Navy Media Award Honorable mention in “Funded News Publication” category

2011 CHINFO Merit Award First place medal (“Best magazine in the Navy”)

2008 CHINFO Merit Award First place medal (“Best magazine in the Navy”)

2004 CHINFO Merit Award First place medal (“Best magazine in the Navy”)

2004 Department of Defense Thomas Jefferson Award First place medal (“Best magazine in the Department of Defense”)

2003 CHINFO Merit Award Second place medal

2001 CHINFO Merit Award Third place medal

Tell Your Story in Currents •Deadline for Winter 2016-17 Issue is October 21, 2016

Currents Deadlines

Currents Magazine’s History of Awards

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A RECENT SUMMIT in Newport,Rhode Island provided an opportunityfor Navy energy storage professionalsto discuss the future of affordableenergy storage in the Navy.

From May 24–26, 2016, the NavalUndersea Warfare Center (NUWC)Newport hosted the third NavalEnergy Storage Summit. Attendeesincluded various Navy and Depart-ment of Energy personnel along withindustry experts specializing in energystorage technology.

NUWC Newport’s Technical DirectorMary Wohlgemuth introduced theguest speakers.

Presenters included Mr. JosephBryan, Deputy Assistant Secretary ofthe Navy (DASN) Energy; Dr. EdwardAmmeen, Director of Marine Engi-neering, Naval Sea SystemsCommand (NAVSEA); Dr. TimArcano, Technical Director, NavalSurface Warfare Center (NSWC)

Carderock; and Joseph Vignali,NAVSEA Marine Engineering.

The goal of the summit was toprovide an opportunity for the Navy’senergy subject matter experts todiscuss the future of energy storageaffordability in the Navy. “It’s all aboutcommonality and making energystorage safe, reliable, and affordable,”said Wohlgemuth.

The Navy needs advanced energystorage devices to enable a widerange of capabilities in the air, at sea,and on land. Unmanned systems,including those intended to ensureU.S. Navy underwater dominance,encompass a large number of theseapplications. Energy storage is anenabling capability for many ship-board systems as well.

Mr. Joseph Bryan, the Secretariat focalpoint for all matters pertaining to theDepartment of Navy (DON) energyinitiatives, gave the first presentation,

“Energy Storage Commonality andPerceived Cost Benefits.” Bryan spokeabout the Great Green Fleet and alter-native energy sources as well as thesafety and commonality issues oflithium ion batteries.

“We spend a lot of time thinkingabout the challenges of energystorage,” said Bryan. “We need toidentify opportunities to improvesafety and reduce costs.”

Dr. Ammeen’s presentation wasfocused on systems safety from theNAVSEA perspective. “NAVSEA isresponsible for lithium ion batterysafety across the Navy,” saidAmmeen. “We have to start early withsafety certification planning for testingand assessments. There are morehigh energy power systems comingonline. We need to develop a strategicand comprehensive process toaddress the growing need foradvanced energy storage systems.”

66 Currents summer 2016

Warfare Centers, Industry Meet for High Energy Storage ConferenceProfessionals Focus on Safe, Affordable Batteries & Other Energy Sources

We spend a lot of time thinking about the challenges of energy storage. We need to identify opportunities to improve safety and reduce costs.

—Mr. Joseph Bryan

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With one of the key focus areas of Safe Common Afford-able Power & Energy Storage (SCAPES), Dr. Arcano’spresentation addressed the issues of commonality. Henoted some of the challenges facing NAVSEA in regard toenergy storage: the greater need for higher energy density,the proliferation of unique battery solutions, and the costand time associated with certification.

“DASN (RDT&E) and DASN (Energy) called for the develop-ment of a plan to create a family of common lithiumbatteries to reduce acquisition, schedule, and cost,” said Arcano.

As the signing authority of NAVSEA’s safety certificationmemos, Mr. Vignali focused his brief on the safety chal-lenges of high-energy storage systems. A single high-energy powered system (such as an unmanned underseavehicle) is likely to require multiple certifications to covervarying users and host/platform environments. Vignali andhis colleagues are working with the Systems Commandsto ensure safe operations on all naval platforms.

For more than a decade, NUWC Newport has beenresearching fuel cells—both solid oxide fuel cells andproton exchange membrane fuel cells—both of which canproduce an electric current directly from a chemical reac-tion. These fuel cells can be used to power vehicles suchas underwater vehicles used for data collection. NAVSEAMarine Engineering recently started drafting technicalinstructions and requirements for their use in the Fleet.

“We’re doing a lot of energy research at NUWC Newportso it was a good fit for us to host this summit. It gives usan opportunity to align what we’re doing with the needsof the Navy,” said Dr. Joseph Fontaine, head of theUndersea Vehicles Propulsion and Energy Branch atNUWC Newport. “Having many of the stakeholderstogether over several days also keeps us connected andmaintains the working relationships necessary for gettingproducts out to the Fleet.” �Joseph FontaineNaval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport 401-832-2887DSN: [email protected]

John Woodhouse Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport401-832-4256DSN: [email protected]

Joseph Bryan, DASN Energy, kicked off the summit.Richard Allen

Dr. Tim Arcano, Technical Director, NSWC Carderock.Richard Allen

Dr. Joseph Fontaine, Undersea Vehicles Propulsion and Energy Branch Chief, NUWC Newport (left) and Joseph Vignali, NAVSEA Marine Engineering (right).Richard Allen

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THE STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL Research andDevelopment Program (SERDP) and the EnvironmentalSecurity Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) haveselected nine Projects of the Year in recognition ofoutstanding research and technology developments thatwill benefit the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Theseefforts are helping DoD enhance its mission capabilities,improve its environmental performance, and reduce costs.The following are recipients of this honor and descriptionsof their award winning projects. Addi-tional information is available

Energy and WaterESTCP Project of the YearDynamic Exterior Lighting forEnergy and Cost Savings in DoDInstallations

Dr. Satyen Mukherjee Philips Research, a division ofPhilips Electronics North AmericaCorporation

Exterior lighting accounts for nearlyten percent of the electricityconsumed at DoD military installa-tions. Many of the existing exteriorlighting systems use inefficient highpressure sodium or metal halide lightsthat are controlled with photosensors,which turn lights on regardless of

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SERDP & ESTCP Announce 2015 Projects of the YearNotable Efforts Include Research on Lighting Controls That Save Energy & Reduce Costs

Dynamic lighting controls have the potential to reduce DoD’s energy usage and provide significant cost savings.

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summer 2016 Currents 69

usage patterns. Dr. Satyen Mukherjee of Philips Researchand his team demonstrated that military installations canachieve significant electricity savings, by implementing effi-cient light emitting diode (LED) lighting sources and smartlighting controls.

The project evaluated three exterior lighting applications atU.S. Army Base Fort Sill, Oklahoma:

1. Dynadimmer for parking lots

2. Starsense for street lighting

3. Lighting on Demand for maintenance areas

Dynadimmer is a standalone fixture-by-fixture controlarchitecture that uses a preprogrammed dimming profileintegrated in the LED driver to reduce the light levelsduring periods of low occupancy. Starsense is a radiofrequency mesh-networked system in which each lightfixture is controlled independently using an outdoorlighting controller added to each LED fixture. The Lightingon Demand system couples the Starsense mesh networkwith motion detection sensors, allowing dynamic adaptivecontrol of the light levels in each fixture.

Advanced controls with LED light sources reduced energyconsumption for exterior lights by 60 to 90 percentdepending on the application. These energy savings wereachieved while also improving the quality of light in termsof color rendering and brightness. In all three systems, thelighting levels measured in the demonstrations exceededIlluminating Engineering Society of North America illumi-nance requirements.

The DoD could use efficient LED lighting sources andsmart controls to achieve significant energy savings andimprove illumination in exterior lighting applications attheir military installations across the country.

Environmental Restoration ESTCP Project of the YearDevelopment and Validation of a QuantitativeFramework and Management Expectation Tool for theSelection of Bioremediation Approaches at ChlorinatedSolvent Contaminated Sites

Ms. Carmen A. Lebrón, Private Consultant(formerly of the Naval Facilities Engineering andExpeditionary Warfare Center)

Chlorinated solvents are the most prevalent groundwatercontaminants, with an estimated 15,000 to 25,000 conta-

BioPIC provides an approach for determining the most appropriateremediation strategy based on a site’s specific conditions.

minated sites in the United States. Naturally-occurringbiological and abiotic processes contribute to contaminantattenuation in most hydrogeological systems, includingcontaminated aquifers. Over the years, monitored naturalattenuation (MNA) and enhanced bioremediation havebecome common remedial approaches. At sites wherenatural processes alone are sufficient to meet site-specificremediation goals, MNA is implemented as the most cost-effective remedy. At sites where MNA is not sufficient tomeet remediation goals, it may be necessary to enhancebiological and/or abiotic degradation processes to jumpstart natural attenuation.

Ms. Carmen Lebrón and her team developed BioPIC, asystematic approach and management expectation toolfor determining if MNA, biostimulation, and/or bioaug-mentation will be the most appropriate remedy, based onsite-specific conditions at contaminated groundwatersites. BioPIC uses the quantitative relationships amongbiotic and abiotic parameters that contribute to the degra-dation of chlorinated ethenes to assist a user in deter-mining the best pathway to selectively enhancedegradation. The tool allows the user to confirm degrada-tion and subsequently aid in the determination of therelevant degradation pathway(s) based on the assessmentof specific analytical parameters.

This pragmatic approach will generate comprehensive anddefensible remediation strategies, as well as reduce bothcapital and operation and maintenance costs for ground-water remediation. It can also minimize potential environ-

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mental impacts of more invasive biore-mediation treatment options. Overall,BioPIC will aid remediation projectmanagers in evaluating and selectingthe most appropriate biologically-medi-ated remediation strategy for a givenchlorinated-solvent contaminated site.

Resource Conservation andClimate ChangeESTCP Project of the YearAerial Application ofAcetaminophen-Treated Baits forControl of Brown Tree Snakes

Dr. Brian S. DorrU.S. Department of Agriculture’s(USDA) National Wildlife ResearchCenter

Infestations of the brown tree snake(Bioga irregularis) have led to the extir-pation of all but two of the 12 nativeforest birds on the island of Guam. Inaddition, the snakes have causedmillions of dollars in damage to theisland’s electrical power distributionsystem. An anticipated increase in theU.S. military presence on Guam willincrease the flow of outbound cargothat could overtax the present opera-tional control methods, such as trap-ping, hand capture, and canineinspection of outbound cargo; whichdeter the spread of snakes from Guamto other locations that are conducive tothe snake’s habitat, including Hawaii.

An ESTCP-funded project led by Dr.Brian Dorr from the USDA’s NationalWildlife Research Center demonstratedan aerial control method deployingdead neonatal mice baits treated withacetaminophen, which is toxic to thesnakes, in order to reduce snake popu-lations in forested sites on Guam. Thetreated mice were individually attachedto four-foot-long paper flag streamersand deployed by hand from heli-copters. The baits entangle the treated

70 Currents summer 2016

An ESTCP-funded project has developed a methodology to combat the brown tree snake infestation on the island of Guam.

USDA Wildlife Services

mice in vegetation above ground level,where they can be consumed bybrown tree snakes. Some of the micewere implanted with a radio trans-mitter for tracking purposes.

This demonstration resulted in asignificant and sustained reduction inthe indices of snake numbers at thedemonstration sites. The team is nowworking to develop an automated baitdelivery system, which will providefor rapid bait release and reduceoverall delivery costs.

Weapons Systems and PlatformsESTCP Project of the YearDemonstration/Validation of Zinc-Nickel as Replacement forCadmium/Cyanide Plating Processfor Air Force Landing Gears

Mr. David Frederick417th Supply Chain ManagementSquadron (SCMS),U. S. Air Force(USAF) Landing Gear Team

Replacement of cadmium plating inaircraft landing gear manufacturingand maintenance is a high priority for

the DoD. Military aircraft maintenancedepots use cadmium plating exten-sively to apply corrosion resistant coat-ings to various high-strength steelaircraft components during manufac-ture, repair, and overhaul. Wastesgenerated from these plating opera-tions must abide by strict U.S. Envi-ronmental Protection Agency (EPA)emissions standards and OccupationalSafety and Health Administrationpermissible exposure limits. The oper-ational costs to comply with theserules and the increased turnaroundtimes for processing of componentsrequire DoD to find an environmen-tally benign alternative to cadmium.

Mr. David Frederick of the 417thSCMS, USAF Landing Gear Team, andhis team demonstrated the use of lowhydrogen embrittlement (LHE) zinc-nickel (Zn-Ni) for a wide variety ofapplications. The LHE Zn-Ni meets orexceeds all acceptance criteria forcoating quality, adhesion, fatigue,corrosion, and hydrogen embrittle-ment. Based on test results and in-field performance tracking, LHE Zn-Ni

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has been implemented within the Air Force overhaulfacility and is being adopted by industry as an alternativeto cadmium plating. Under the ESTCP-funded project, HillAir Force Base has processed more than 1,000 landinggear components using LHE Zn-Ni. Some of these compo-nents have been flying on aircraft for the past three years.Numerous commercial entities have tested and acceptedLHE Zn-Ni, and installed LHE Zn-Ni plating lines followingthe USAF lead. In addition, several DoD maintenancedepots are exploring the utility of Zn-Ni plating based onthe success of this project.

The LHE Zn-Ni coatings for military aircraft landing gearthat were successfully demonstrated and transitioned bythis project will help eliminate environmental and workersafety concerns associated with cadmium used in DoDplating operations.

Environmental RestorationSERDP Project of the Year Lead and Antimony Speciation in Shooting Range Soils:Molecular Scale Analysis, Temporal Trends, and Mobility

Dr. Thomas TrainorUniversity of Alaska Fairbanks

Soil contamination is a concern at many firearms trainingfacilities. Lead is the primary metal of concern, as it makesup approximately 90 percent, by mass, of a typical bullet

and is a common constituent in rockets, mortars, grenades,and Howitzer rounds. In addition to lead, a number ofother potentially toxic trace metals and metalloids are ofconcern. Bullet alloys generally include antimony, arsenic,bismuth, and silver; copper or nickel jacket commonlyform bullet casings. Fragments of bullets and other muni-tions debris are highly susceptible to oxidation and weath-ering processes in soil systems, leading to the release ofaqueous metal or metalloid species into soils. The potentialfor metals or metalloids stored in soils to migrate fromranges into surface or subsurface aquatic systems is a

human health and environmental concern.

Dr. Thomas Trainor of the University ofAlaska Fairbanks and his team haveconducted an in-depth analysis of thechanges in lead and antimony speciationthat occur over time in range soils. Theyconstructed shooting range impact berms toobserve the progression of metal oxidationand track the evolution of mobile species thatform as a result of fragment weatheringprocesses, under field conditions. Throughthis effort, they determined the efficacy ofsoil amendments to reduce metal and metal-loid mobility and developed surface-specificanalytical tools to complement traditionalgeochemical analytical methods. The team isnow completing studies that will further theunderstanding of the factors that control themobility and speciation of lead and anti-mony in soils, that enhance the use ofpassive sensors and surface-specific specia-

tion methods, and that test promising remediation scenarios,based on cost-effective chemical amendments to the soils.

The results of this study have improved the understandingof lead and antimony mobility through range soils. Thiscomprehensive understanding of the processes controllingmobilization versus retention of species, associated withbullet fragment weathering in small arms training rangesoils, is essential for assessing long-term environmentalrisk, for understanding the efficacy of remediationscenarios, and for identifying what materials to incorpo-rate into future training range or impact area designs. Thiswork will lead to technical guidance for remediationprogram managers and regulators to monitor geochemicalconditions pertinent to weathering of munitionsconstituents in soils and surrounding environments.

This ESTCP project demonstrated the use of LHE Zn-Ni coatings as viable alternatives

to electroplated cadmium.

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Munitions ResponseSERDP Project of the YearContinuous Monitoring of Mobility, Burial, and Re-Exposure of Underwater Munitions in Energetic Near-Shore Environments

Dr. Peter TraykovskiWoods Hole Oceanographic Institution

Long Time Series Measurements of Munitions Mobilityin the Wave-Current Boundary Layer

Dr. Joseph CalantoniNaval Research Laboratory

Assessing and predicting the burial, mobility, and re-expo-sure of underwater munitions is an important componentof the management and potential remediation of under-water munitions sites. Munitions from former or activeDoD installations may migrate underwater or to the near-shore environment and become re-exposed, which would

pose human safety concerns. Multiple DoD researchefforts are working to improve understanding of the hydro-dynamic mechanisms that drive munitions burial andmobility, and current research aims to quantify theseforces within parameterized models.

Dr. Traykovski and his team at Woods Hole OceanographicInstitution approached this problem by collecting fieldmeasurements on munitions in the highly energetic,sandy, near-shore environment of Long Point, Massachu-setts. Continuous measurements were obtained using in-situ rotary sidescan sonar and an ultra-short baselineacoustic tracking system. They found that the migration ofmunitions was highly dependent on sandwave migration,munitions density, and storm event strength. By collectinghigh quality data sets and developing foundational models,Dr. Traykovski has provided a baseline for understandingthe factors that influence munitions migration and set thestandard for future research.

Dr. Calantoni and his team at the Naval Research Laboratorydeployed equipment to record in-situ time-series measure-ments of boundary layer processes responsible for munitionsmobility while simultaneously monitoring the mobility ofsurrogate munitions. They obtained sector scanning sonarimagery measurements within a highly energetic, sandyenvironment at Duck, North Carolina, and Panama CityBeach, Florida. The project team observed munitions burialat multiple water depths (6 meters (m) and 8 m) and incor-porated these observations into analyses of horizontal andlateral munitions mobility. These datasets provide informa-tion that will be used to verify and validate existing mobilitymodels and develop new conceptual models for fate andtransport of munitions. The data collected for this study high-light the role of hydrodynamics, near-shore bathymetry, andmunition density in determining the mobility of munitions.

Resource Conservation and Climate Change SERDP Project of the YearHydroecology of Intermittent and Ephemeral Streams:Will Landscape Connectivity Sustain Aquatic Organismsin a Changing Climate?

Dr. Julian D. OldenUniversity of Washington

Dr. David A. LytleOregon State University

Intermittent and ephemeral streams play a significantrole in supporting the ecological diversity in the south-

72 Currents summer 2016

Dr. Calantoni and his team deployed their equipment to record in-situ time-series measurements of boundary layer

processes responsible for munitions mobility.

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summer 2016 Currents 73

western United States. Long-term use of military installa-tions and ranges in this region is, in part, dependent onthe ability to maintain the continued ecological func-tioning of the land base in this region, where drylandstreams provide critical habitat and population connec-tivity for obligatory aquatic species. Improvements in thefundamental understanding of the links between hydro-logic and ecological processes in arid and semi-arid envi-ronments will aid resource managers in the proactiveconservation of species at risk and their habitats on andaround DoD installations.

A SERDP-funded project led by Dr. Julian Olden of theUniversity of Washington and Dr. David Lytle of OregonState University examined how hydrology, hydrologicconnectivity, and other riverine characteristics influencethe community structure and population genetics ofamphibian and aquatic insect species on Fort Huachuca,

Arizona, and in the surrounding Sky Island mountainranges. By employing field studies, quantitative modelingin relation to hydrology, riparian vegetation, geomor-phology, and innovative molecular genetics, the projectteam quantified stream characteristics at multiple spatialscales and showed how aquatic species with different life-history strategies respond to dryland stream ecosystemsin the Southwest.

This project provided key ecological information onephemeral and intermittent stream ecosystems thatcontain most of the biodiversity in the southwesternUnited States and for which DoD has significant manage-ment responsibility. These results will not only help DoDmanagers better conserve this biodiversity today, but alsoin the future under a changing climate.

Weapons Systems and PlatformsSERDP Project of the YearNovel Coatings Systems for Use as High PerformanceChemical Agent Resistant Powder Topcoats

Mr. Mark J. WytiazThe Sherwin-Williams Company

Chemical Agent Resistant Coatings (CARC) are used byDoD for the protection of military assets. Currentsolvent-borne and water-dispersible CARC topcoatscontribute approximately 2.3 million pounds of volatileorganic compounds (VOC) and hazardous air pollutantsto the environment each year. For decades, DoD hasrecognized the need to develop powder coatings, whichcontain no solvents, as a means to greatly reduce theseemissions. The key challenges to developing powdercoatings for CARC topcoats are achieving chemicalwarfare agent resistance, extremely low gloss, and supe-rior exterior durability.

Mr. Mark Wytiaz of Sherwin-Williams and his team estab-lished a fundamental understanding of coatings materialsand their interactions, which led to the successful develop-ment of a CARC powder topcoat technology. Theyproduced topcoats in Tan 686, Green 383, and Black37030, which together represent nearly 95 percent of themilitary’s needs. The new CARC coatings use blends ofincompatible resins, formulated with low loadings ofhighly efficient fillers and pigments that are key tomeeting the low-gloss requirement.

The three CARC powder topcoats have been or are beingqualified against the military specification requirements for

The ecological information on ephemeral and intermittent streamecosystems obtained by this project will help DoD managers

better conserve the biodiversity in this region.

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listing on the Qualified Products Data-base. Field trials verified coatingperformance and validated thesuccess of the project. Coatings prod-ucts are currently in transition to orig-inal equipment manufacturers,maintenance depots, and the DefenseLogistics Agency.

These innovative powder coatingsoffer the benefits of a technologythat is absent of solvent, emitsnearly zero VOCs, can be recycled,and is compatible with existingCARC systems. In addition, testingto-date proves that the exterior dura-bility of this coating is superior toany liquid CARC system, supportingDoD’s initiative for corrosion preven-tion and mitigation.

About SERDP & ESTCPSERDP and ESTCP are DoD’s envi-ronmental research programs,harnessing the latest science andtechnology to improve DoD’s envi-ronmental performance, reducecosts, and enhance and sustain

executed in partnership with theDepartment of Energy and the EPA,with participation by numerous otherFederal and non-Federal organizations.The program focuses on cross-servicerequirements and pursues solutions tothe Department’s environmental chal-lenges while enhancing and sustainingmilitary readiness.

ESTCP is DoD’s environmental tech-nology demonstration and validationprogram. Project researchers conductformal demonstrations at DoD facili-ties and sites in operational settings todocument and validate improvedperformance and cost savings.Demonstration results are subject torigorous technical reviews to ensurethat the conclusions are accurate andwell supported by data.

For more information, �

Jeffrey HouffSERDP and ESTCP Support [email protected]

74 Currents summer 2016

This micrograph shows the novel resins used to formulate new chemical agent resistant powder coatings.

mission capabilities. SERDP andESTCP respond to environmentaltechnology requirements common toall of the military Services, comple-menting the Services own researchprograms. The programs promotepartnerships and collaborationamong academia, industry, the mili-tary Services, and other Federal agen-cies. Investments are managed in fiveprogram areas:

1. Energy and Water

2. Environmental Restoration

3. Munitions Response

4. Resource Conservation andClimate Change

5. Weapons Systems and Platforms

SERDP and ESTCP are independentprograms managed from a joint officeto coordinate the full spectrum ofefforts, from basic and applied researchto field demonstration and validation.

SERDP is DoD’s environmental scienceand technology program, planned and

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For the latest Currents calendar, we have expanded the formatto 24 months to encompass the great work by winners in a fullsuite of Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV) Environmental andEnergy and Water Management award categories. We alsoadded Earth Day history and highlights.

Your new calendar begins in July 2016 with the Marine CorpsExpeditionary Unit category of the Energy and Water Manage-ment awards. The team at Twenty-nine Palms has trained tensof thousands of Marines in energy efficiency procedures andhas reduced petroleum use.

The calendar presents a different award category each month,alternating between the Environmental and Energy and Wateraward programs. Two aviation categories—Naval Air ForceAtlantic and Naval Air Force Pacific—were recently added tothe Energy and Water awards and we have them covered.Examples of topics in other months include:

� August 2016: Two winners of the SECNAV Environmentalaward for Cultural Resources Management (small installa-tion): Portsmouth Naval Shipyard (Maine) and MarineCorps Base Hawaii

� February 2017: Large ship category of the Energy and Waterawards was won by USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD 6)

� April 2017: Senator Gaylord Nelson’s role in Earth Day history

As the Navy’s official energy and environmental magazine,Currents has the privilege to share the many ways the Navy’senergy and environmental personnel, Sailors and Marines workto find and implement the best techniques to achieve their goals.Currents provides a forum in which all of you can share yourknowledge and successes with your colleagues.

If you subscribe to Currents magazine you should have receivedyour 2016–2018 calendar by now. If not, please contact LorraineWass, our distribution manager, at [email protected] to receiveyour own copy. You will also be able to find the calendar, andissues of the magazine, online at

Currents 2016–2018 CalendarIs Bigger & Better Than Ever24-Month Calendar Has You Covered with 22 Awards & Earth Day Highlights

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Kenneth HessCNO Energy and Environmental Readiness Division (Code N45)2000 Navy Pentagon, Room 2E258 Washington, DC 20350-2000