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  • 15 30 - 2555 . 167

    : Fault Tree Analysis: Hazard Identification Techniques

    for Preventing Work Accidents

    *

    *

    (fault tree analysis : FTA)

    (basic event)

    Boolean

    4

    (top event)

    (cut sets)

    FTA

    failure modes and effects

    analysis(FMEA)hazardandoperabilityanalysis(HAZOP)

    :

  • . 15 30 - 2555 168

    Abstract

    Accidentinvestigationisanactivityofadvancedsafetymanagementwhichhelps

    us know only some causes of accidents. The use Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) technique

    couldsearch forcausesofaccidentsorsystemfailures indetailsand leadustoknow

    basic event. FTA presents failure logic using Boolean logic model to find out rational

    causes of problems or failures which comprises of 4 processes as follows: setting or

    selecting top event, constructing Fault Trees diagram, finding the route through a tree

    betweenaneventandaninitiatorinthetreecalledacutsetandsettingpriorityofbasic

    eventsforconsideringtosolveproblemsonthenextstep.Byusingthistechnique, the

    analysis team should have knowledge and well understand in the entire processes

    relatingproblemsor failures.OnlyFTA technique, thismightnotbesufficient, it should

    combinewith other techniques for analysis such as failuremodes and effects analysis

    (FMEA)andhazardandoperabilityanalysis(HAZOP)etc.

    Keywords:Faulttreeanalysis(FTA),hazardidentification,workaccident

    2..2549-2551

    (

    . 2549)

  • 15 30 - 2555 . 169

    ( .

    2551)

    fault tree analysis (FTA)

    12 (.

    2543)

    FTA Bel l

    TelephoneLaboratories..1962

    US Air Force

    minuteman

    Boeing

    Witkin Stephen (Rel iaSoft

    Corporation. 2000, W.E.Vesely and etc.

    1981)FTA

    hazard and operability

    study (HAZOP) failure modes and

    effects analysis (FMEA)

    /

    FTA

    5 (pilot

    plant operation)

    (detailed engineering)

    (routineoperation)

    (expan-

    sion modification)

    / (incident investigation)

    (.2549:1-12)

    FaultTreeAnalysis

    Fault Tree Analysis

    Fault tree analysis

    (top-downdiagram)

    (top event)

    (intermediate event)

    (basicevent)

    Boolean

    AND gates OR gates

    FTA

    (topevent)

    /

  • . 15 30 - 2555 170

    (cutsets)

    (minimal cut set; mcs)

    (1)

    And Gate

    (output)

    (

    ) (

    )

    (

    .2552:87-141)2

    ORGate

    4

    2

    INHIBIT Gate

    (condition)

    (restriction)

    (polyurethane)

    280

    2

    DELAYGate

    2

    TRANSFER Event

  • 15 30 - 2555 . 171

    UNDEVELOPED Event

    BASIC Event

    /

    (human

    error)

    3

    (.

    2552:87-141)2

    EXTERNAL Event

    ANDGate

    OR

    Gate

    INHIBIT

    Gate

    DELAY

    Gate

    TRANSFER

    Event

    UNDEVELOPE

    DEvent

    BASIC

    Event

    EXTERNAL

    Event

    1FTA

  • . 15 30 - 2555 172

    FTA (.2550 ;

    .2545;.2546;

    Americaninstituteofchemicalengineering.

    1992Reliability engineering resource.

    2000)

    1

    280C

    /

    2ANDgate,ORgate,INHIBITgateBASICevent

    /

    3

    (what) (where) (when)

    FTA

    .......whatifanalysis

  • 15 30 - 2555 . 173

    2

    (fault event)

    Boolean

    (OR)

    (AND)

    ,

    2

    / (state of equipment

    fault)

    (state of system fault)

    (3)

    3

    matrixforresolvinggates4

    1. ( A, B, C.)

    gate gate

    ( 1, 2, 3 ......)

    4

  • . 15 30 - 2555 174

    /

    (TopEvent)

    3

    4

    Boolean

    /

    /

    //

    3

    :~525

    ~1,200

    A

    BC

    1

    4

    3

    ()

    2

    D

    6

    5

  • 15 30 - 2555 . 175

    2. matrix

    (matrixforresolvinggate)

    (gate)(A)

    (A)

    matrix

    ANDgate

    OR

    gate

    5

    3. matrix

    5

    4

    3.1

    (polystyrene)

    /

    ~272

    3.2

    /

    3.3

    272

    3.4

    4.

  • . 15 30 - 2555 176

    4.1

    4.2

    (human error)

    /

    (activeequipment failure)

    /

    Fault

    TreeAnalysis

    matrix

    /

    FMEA HAZOP

    matrix

  • 15 30 - 2555 . 177

    matrix:gateA

    A

    gateAgateB,CD

    AB C D

    gateBevent12gateCD

    AB1 C D 2

    gateCevent34gateD,event12

    event4gateC

    AB1 C3 D 2

    1 4 D 2

    gateDevent56event1,32

    event6gateD

    AB1 C3 D5 2

    1 4 D 2

    1 3 6 2

    gateDevent56event1,42

    event6gateD

    AB1 C3 D5 2

    1 4 D5 2

    1 3 6 2

    1 4 6 2

    event

    AB1 C3 D5 2=1235

    1 4 D5 2=1245

    1 3 6 2=1236

    1 4 6 2=1246

    5matrix/

  • . 15 30 - 2555 178

    (topevent)

    (intermediate event)

    (basic event) gate

    2

    /

    matrix

    (human error)

    /

    (active equipment failure)

    /

  • 15 30 - 2555 . 179

    .(2543)

    . :

    .

    . (2552) 3

    .

    , . 87-141. :

    .

    . (2549)

    . 1-12. :

    .

    . (2549) Sa 01/F01 /; 3

    2549.:.

    .(2551)SHE004;102551.

    :.

    . (23 2552)

    .

    [Online] Available http://www.eit.or.th/content.php?&option=content&id=317 (18

    2553)

    . (2550) Industrial Safety Technology.

    :.

    .(2545).:

    .

    . (2546) 3.

    [Online]Availablehttp://www.thaifactory.com/TM/risk3.pdf(182553)

  • . 15 30 - 2555 180

    American Institute of Chemical Engineering. (1992) Selecting Hazard Evaluation

    TechniquesGuidelinesforHazardEvaluationProcedure.2nded.NewYork:

    CenterforChemicalProcessSafety.

    American Institute of Chemical Engineering. (1992) Overview of Hazard Evaluation

    TechniquesGuidelinesforHazardEvaluationProcedure.2nded.NewYork

    :CenterforChemicalProcessSafety.

    AmericanInstituteofChemicalEngineering.(1992)UsingHazardEvaluationTechniques

    GuidelinesforHazardEvaluationProcedure.2nded.NewYork:Centerfor

    ChemicalProcessSafety.

    Reliability engineering resource. (2000) Fault Tree Analysis. Tucson :ReliaSoft

    Corporation. [Online]Available:http://www.weibull.com/basics/fault-tree/index.htm.

    (182553)

    W.E. Vesely, F.F. Goldberg and N.H. Roberts. (1981) Fault Tree Handbook. 1st ed.

    Washington,DC:U.S.NuclearRegulatoryCommission.