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  • NPS-5o-E9-018

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOLNMonterey, California

    PUBL14C ENTREPRENEURSHI:

    A TYPOLOGY

    By

    NANCY ROBERTS

    I&

    PAULA KT NG

    AUGUST 1989

    Appro-ved,- for public release; distribution unlimited

    Prem,- ,:r"Defense Pclic Office

    'irect-r, 1 et Assessmerit Nationa', Security Cucil StaffCr:eiveSreQie - ffice Washington, ,C 20506

    St' .t-,ic Plarnir- BranchC.'f ie cl the Secretar , cf ee s

    W' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ U2030#g yL

  • NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOLMONTEREY, CALIFORNIA

    Rear Admiral R.W. West, Jr. Harrison ShullSupeiintendent Provost

    The work reported herein was supported and funded by theDirector, Net Assessment, Research Council of the NavalPostgraduate School, Minnesota Research Program OrganizationalEffectiveness Research Program Office.

    Reproduction of all or part of this report is authorized.

    This report was prepared by:

    NANCYDPF'

    Associate Professor

    Reviewed by: Released by:

    THOMAS C. BRUNEAU KNEALE i. ,IARSHALL,Professor Dean of Information ndChairman Policy SciencesDepartment of NationalSecurity Affairs

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    4 PERFORMING ORGAN ZATION REPORT NUMBER(S> 5 MONITORING ORGANIZAtiON REPORT N.VBER S,

    NPS-56-89-018

    6a NAME OF PERFORMiNG ORGANIZATION 6o OFF;CE SYMBO, 7 a NAME Or MONTOR!NG ORGAVZAT7ONrDepartment of National (If applicable)Security Affairs Code 566c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 70 ADDRESS )City, State, and ZIP Code)Naval Postgraduate SchoolMonterey, CA 93943-5100

    Ba NAME OF FUNDING. SPONSORING Bo CCFICE SYMBO. 9 PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENT FCATON NUMBERORGANIZATION I t applicable)

    Director, Net Assessment OSD/NA MIPR DWAM 70105/80078/9005Bc ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10 SOURCE OF FUND:NG NUMBEzSOffice of the Secretary of defense PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNITWashington, DC 20301 ELEMENT NO I NO NO ACCESSION NO11 T;TLE (l'iclude Security Classification)

    PUBLIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A TYPOLOGY

    12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S,

    NANCY ROBERTS/PAULA KING13a TYPE OF REPORT 3b TME COVERED 14 DATE O r REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 'S PAGE COUN-

    FINAL ROM 1986 TO 1989 89 AUGUST 0116 SUPPLEMENTARv NOTATIO%Paper presented to the Public Sector Division of the Academy of Management and awardedBest Paper of the Public Sector Division, 1989.17 COSATi CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number)

    FIELD GROUP SuB-GROcY POLITICAL ENTREPRENEUR POLICY INTELLECTUAL

    EXECUTIV[ ENTREPRENEU< POLICY ENTREPRENEURBUREAUCRATIC ENTREPRENEUR

    19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number)

    Public entrepreneurship is the process of introducing innovation, the generation andimplementatinn of new ideas, in the public sector. Building on tnis definition and drawingfrom a logical tree, four types of public sector entrepreneurs are identified: policyentrepreneurs, bureaucratic entrepren .urs, executive entrepreneurs; and politicalentrepreneurs.

    Pnlicy Entrepreneurs, outside the formal positions of government, introduce andfacilitate the implementation of new ideas into the public sector. BureaucraticEntrepreneurs occupy nor-leadership positions in government and introduce and implement newideas from their particular vantage point in public organizations. Executive Entrepreneursfrom their leadership positions i- governmental agencies and departments, generate andimplement new ideas; and finally, Political Entrepreneur introduce and implement ne,. ideasas holders of elective office.

    * 2r0 D'STRIB,TON AVAi-AS C- 0- ASS-RAC A SRAC' SLC- R Q4 C- A (N0

    2 2a 11A V : O R E S O N S 2 -; % D, 1 v 'D - - 2 2 n 7 -C FP O V (In c lu d e A re a C o de ) i 2 c 0 ; ; C t ,V B O _

    NANCYk ROBERTS (408) 646-L'742 54Rc-

    DD FORM 1473, c; --- a, ne sec ex-a-s,-c C A C - q', "- 4 ,- _8 -"' "23'e c, e

  • 19. Urawing on this typology, implications for future research on and pratice ofpublic entrepreneurship are explored.

    Additional sponsors are: Research Foundation of the Naval Postgraduate School,Minnesota Research Program Organizational Effectiveness Research Program Office.

  • PUBLIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP:

    A TYPOLOGY

    Nancy Roberts Accession ForAssociate Professor

    Naval Postgraduate School NTIS CFA&!DTIC 1'.

    and

    Paula KingAssistant Professor

    St. John's University

    Please address correspondence to:

    Professor Nancy RobertsCode 54RC

    Naval Postgraduate SchoolMonterey, CA 93943

    (408) 646-2742

    August 1989

    Funding for this research during 1988-1989 come form OSD/NETAssessment, and during 1986-1988, from the Research Council of theNaval Postgraduate Schcol in Monterey California. From 1983 to1985, funds came from a grant to the Minnesota Research Programfrom the Organizational Effectiveness Research Program, Office ofNaval Research (Code 4220E), under Contract No. 00014-84-0016.

    We are indebted to Ray Bradley, Andy Van De Ven, Tim Mazzoni, JohnBryson, and Les Garner for their suggestions and help on our workon public entrerreneurship.

    Paper presented to the Public Sector Division of the Academy ofManagement and awarded Best Paper of the Public Sector Division,1989.

  • PUBLIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A TYPOLOGY

    ABSTRACT

    Public entrepreneurship is the process of introducing inno-

    vation, the generation and implementation of new ideas, in the

    public sector. Building on this definition and drawing from a

    logical tree, four types of public sector entrepreneurs are

    identified: policy entrepreneurs, bureaucratic earepreneurs,

    executive entrepreneurs; and political entrepreneurs.

    Policy Entrepreneurs, outside the formal positions of gov-

    ernment, introduce and facilitate the implementation of new ideas

    into the public sector. Bureaucratic Entrepreneurs occupy non-

    leadership positions in government and introduce and implement

    new ideas from their particular vantage point in public organiza-

    tions. Executive Entrepreneurs from their leadership positions

    in governmental agencies and departments, generate and implement

    new ideas; and finally, Political Entrepreneur introduce and

    implement new ideas as holders of elective office.

    Drawing on this typology, implications for future research

    on and practice of public entrepreneurship are explored.

  • PUBLIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A TYPOLOGY

    Introduction

    Economic historian, Joseph Schumpeter, credited the

    eighteenth cpntury French economist, Richard Cantillon, with

    introducing the term "entrepreneur," and defining him/her as "an

    agent who purchases the means of pioauction for combination into

    new, marketable products" (Palmer, 1971).

    Schumpeter, referred to as the "father of modern

    entrepreneurial thought" builds on this earlier conceptualization

    to emphasize the significance of innovation in the

    entrepreneurial process. For Schumpeter, the entrepreneur's

    ultimate task was innovation -- finding and utilizing new ideas

    and "carrying out new combinations" of material and forces to

    jostle the economy out of its otherwise repetitive cycles of

    activities. Entrepreneurship, according to Schumpeter, provides

    an "indispensable" driving force that powers capitalistic

    economic growth (1934: 182).

    Writing in Entrepreneurial Man, Collins and associates

    underscore the importance of innovation, referring to the entre-

    preneur as the "catalytic agent in society which (sic) sets into

    motion new enterpreises, new combinations of production and

    exchange" (Collins, Moore, Unwalla, 1964:17). They define the

    entrepreneur as one who inovates and develops "an ongoing busi-

    ness activity where none existed before" (p.20).

    Since the 1960s the terms "entrepreneur" and "entrepreneur-

    ship" have been appearing with increasing frequency in the public

    policy and management literatures (King, 1988). With efforts to

    1

  • privatize the public sector, manage rescurce scarcity, and inno-

    vate and renew our public organizations, we seem to be witnessing

    a period of qrowing interest in a phenomena that was once re-

    served for the private sector.

    Despite this interest, or perhaps because of it, we find

    multiple interpretations of what it means to be a public sector

    entrepreneur. We read references about public entrepreneurs

    who develop and nurture their own agencies (e.g. David Lilenthal

    and the TVA), sponsor innovative technolgy in their organizations

    (e.g. Admiral Rickover and the U.S Navy), work toward organiza-

    tion reform (e.g. Elmer Staats at GAO), and lobby Congress to

    introduce innovative legislation (e.g. Ralph Nadar). These are

    just a few of the case studies on entrepreneurs that have been

    appearing with increasing frequency in the literature. (See Doig

    and Hargrove, (1987) for further examples).

    Although the case studies provide much needed documentation

    of entrepreneurship in government, they present some important

    challenges to the researcher. Just what is entrepreneurship in

    the public sector and who is the public sector entrepreneur? How

    does the concept of public sector entrepreneurship differ from

    business entrepreneurship, and how should it? And how do 1.e

    distinguish entrepreneurs from managers,