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  • NPS Form 10-900-b OMB No. 1024-0018 (June 1991) United States Department of the Interior National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Multiple Property Documentation Form This form is used for documenting multiple property groups relating to one or several historic contexts. See instruction in How to Complete the Multiple Property Documentation Form (National Register Bulletin 16B). Complete each item by entering the requested information. For additional space, use continuation sheets (Form 10-900-a). Use a typewriter, word processor, or computer to complete all items. X New Submission Amended Submission A. Name of Multiple Property Listing Historic Resources of the Cooper River, ca. 1670-ca. 1950 B. Associated Historic Contexts (Name each associated historic context, identifying theme, geographical area, and chronological period for each.) Historic and Archaeological Resources of the Cooper River, ca. 1670-ca. 1950 C. Form Prepared by Andrew W. Chandler, Architectural Historian; Valerie Marcil, Archaeologist; J. Tracy Power, Historian; and Stephen W. Skelton, Preservation Programs Supervisor South Carolina State Historic Preservation Office South Carolina Department of Archives and History 8301 Parklane Road Columbia, S.C. 29223 (803) 896-6178 Katherine Saunders, Preservation Planning Coordinator, and Jonathan H. Poston, Director of Preservation Historic Charleston Foundation 40 East Bay Street Charleston, S.C. 29401 (843) 724-8486 Carl Steen and Ellen Shlasko, Archaeologists Diachronic Research Foundation P.O. Box 50394 Columbia, S.C. 29250 (803) 929-0294 D. Certification As the designated authority under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1986, as amended, I hereby certify that this documentation form meets the National Register documentation standards and sets forth requirements for the listing of related properties consistent with the National Register criteria. The submission meets the procedural and professional requirements set forth in 36 CFR Part 60 and the Secretary of the Interiors Standards and Guidelines for Archeology and Historic Preservation. ( See continuation sheet for additional comments.) Signature and title of certifying official Date Mary W. Edmonds, Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer, S.C. Dept. of Archives and History, Columbia, S.C. State or Federal agency and bureau I hereby certify that this multiple property documentation form has been approved by the National Register as a basis for evaluating related properties for listing in the National Register. Signature of the Keeper Date of Action

  • Historic Resources of the Cooper River, ca. 1670-ca. 1950 South Carolina Name of Multiple Property Listing State Table of Contents for Written Narrative Provide the following information on continuation sheets. Cite the letter and the title before each section of the narrative. Assign page numbers according to the instructions for continuation sheets in How to Complete the Multiple Property Documentation Form (National Register Bulletin 16B). Fill in page numbers for each section in the space below. Page Numbers E. Statement of Historic Contexts 3-22 (If more than one historic context is documented, present them in sequential order). F. Associated Property Types 23-41 (Provide description, significance, and registration requirements.) G. Geographical Data 42 H. Summary of Identification and Evaluation Methods 42-43 (Discuss the methods used in developing the multiple property listing.) I. Major Bibliographical References 44-49 (List major written works and primary location of additional documentation: State Historic Preservation Office, other State agency, Federal agency, local government, university, or other, specifying repository.) Paperwork Reduction Act Statement: This information is being collected for applications to the National Register of Historic Places to nominate properties for listing or determine eligibility for listing, to list properties, and to amend existing listings. Response to this request is required to obtain a benefit in accordance with the National Historic Preservation Act, as amended (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.). Estimated Burden Statement: Public reporting burden for this form is estimated to average 18.1 hours per response including the time for reviewing instructions, gathering and maintaining data, and completing and reviewing the form. Direct comments regarding this burden estimate or any aspect of this form to the Chief, Administrative Services Division, National Park Service, P.0. Box 37127, Washington, DC 20013-7127; and the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reductions Project (1024-0018), Washington, DC 20503.

  • NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 (8-86) United States Department of the Interior National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number E Page 3 Historic Resources of the Cooper River, ca. 1670-ca. 1950 Name of Multiple Property Listing Berkeley County, South Carolina County and State Statement of Historic Context The permanent European settlement of colonial South Carolina and its subsequent economic, political, and social development was tied so closely to the rivers of the lowcountry that the historic, archaeological, landscape, and other cultural resources located on or associated with those rivers are among the most significant places in the state, region, and nation. From the time the Carolina colony was founded at Charles Town in 1670near the confluence of the Ashley and Cooper Riversthe Cooper River was not only a major transportation route but was also one of the foundations on which the Carolina plantation society grew and flourished. After the abolition of slavery and the decline of the plantation system the society tied to the Cooper and other lowcountry rivers lost a great deal of its former influence, status, and wealth but continued to have a significant, if diminished, impact on the state and region through the end of the twentieth century. Surviving resources located on or associated with the Cooper River in Berkeley County document the continuing occupation and use of the area from the late seventeenth century through the mid- twentieth century and are related to several broad themes of American history. Such themes include the creation, growth, development, and decline of the Southern plantation society and its association with significant persons and events in state, regional, and national history; the range and diversity of its historic architecture and designed landscapes; and the changing face of the lowcountry over a period of almost three hundred years, including the ways in which it was shaped by the demands imposed on it by agriculture, industry, conservation, and tourism. The Early Colonial Period: European Settlement The European settlement of Carolina began in 1670 near present-day Charleston. Established by eight Lords Proprietors who received their charter from King Charles II, the region was envisioned as a province based upon a local hereditary nobility and the permanent ownership of land.1 This plan, set forth in the Fundamental Constitutions, was to be accomplished through the creation of signiories (reserved for Lords Proprietors only) and baronies (to be occupied by landgraves, cassiques, and barons). Three baroniesFairlawn, Cypress, and Wadboo, each consisting of twelve thousand acreswere established in the Cooper River region. Although this baronial system never fully developed, the relatively small number of large plantation tracts still located on and near the river reflects their origins in these baronies.2

    1 Henry A.M. Smith, The Historical Writings of Henry A.M. Smith: Articles from The South Carolina Historical (and Genealogical) Magazine, Volume 1: The Baronies of South Carolina ( Spartanburg: The Reprint Company for the South Carolina Historical Society, 1988). 2 Ibid.

  • NPS Form 10-900-a OMB No. 1024-0018 (8-86) United States Department of the Interior National Park Service National Register of Historic Places Continuation Sheet Section number E Page 4 Historic Resources of the Cooper River, ca. 1670-ca. 1950 Name of Multiple Property Listing Berkeley County, South Carolina County and State The first settlers were largely English, some coming through Barbados or other English possessions in the Caribbean but many directly from Great Britain. These Anglicans took up the earliest grants, particularly south of the Tee of the Cooper on its tributaries of Goose Creek, from 1672 to 1680. After that date French Huguenots first came to South Carolina and in the succeeding decade established themselves in the area, particularly at French Quarter Creek. Their settlement, encouraged by pamphlets distributed in Protestant areas of France, was often called Poitevin after the chief organizer of the colonists there, Antoine Poitevin.3 The Huguenots were soon followed by groups from Holland, Scotland, England, northern Ireland, and Germany, many of them encouraged to settle in the Carolina colony by the promise of religious tolerat