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  • National Passenger Transport Agenda |2006>

    >06 N

    ational P assenger Transport A

    genda |2 0

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  • General

    The ARA would like to thank L.E.K. Consulting

    for the preparation of this report. The provision

    of ideas, data and comments from State and

    Commonwealth Governments and Transport

    Operators is gratefully acknowledged.

    ARA Office

    Unit 17, Level 3, National Circuit,

    Barton ACT 2600

    PO Box 4864, Kingston ACT 2604, Australia

    Telephone 02 6270 4500

    Facsimile 02 6273 5581

    Website www.ara.net.au

    Published by the

    Australasian Railway Association Inc

    © 2006 All Rights Reserved

    Designed by GRi.D, Canberra

    Printed by Pirion

    Images on pages ii, viii, 34, 58, and 72

    provided by RailGallery

  • Intro Para National Passenger Transport Agenda |2006>

  • Australia is the only OECD country without a national ‘moving people’ strategy. Only 10% of daily city travel is undertaken by public transport. This trend has historically grown from policy settings that favour car users, whether at the city design level, in road-funding or tax incentives to the car industry and car users.

    NATIONAL PASSENGER TRANSPORT AGENDA > iii

    Message from the ARA Chairman

    There have been encouraging increases in public transport

    usage nationally over the past 12 months. Some of this is

    due to people re-considering their options with rising fuel

    costs, together with individual network improvements. Some

    State Governments are supporting the public transport

    system with better planning, integration and injections of

    much-needed funding. But there is still much to do.

    This is an industry that sees responsibility for its planning,

    policy-making and funding spread across a number of

    areas and levels of government. There is a need for a

    coordinated and focussed approach to best usage of the

    existing system. To date this has had its challenges.

    The irrefutable benefits of an effective public transport

    system go beyond economic considerations alone.

    Benefits for the community and the environment affect

    our very way of life.

    This report presents a clear analysis of the Australian

    Public Transport System to allow and promote informed

    debate. It also proposes actions for all levels of government,

    passenger transport operators and the business community

    to significantly improve and expand Australia’s public

    transport sector.

    This report underlines the vital need for action if we

    are to truly achieve a revitalisation of urban public

    transport in Australia. I urge you play your part in taking

    recommendations of this report forward.

    Bob Scheuber

    ARA Chairman

  • iv < AUSTRALASIAN RAILWAY ASSOCIATION

    Table of Contents

    Executive Summary ix

    Main Report x

    Chapter One—Australia’s Public Transport System—Issues and Challenges 1

    1.1 Social and Demographic Trends 3

    1.1.1 Employment Trends 3

    1.1.2 Changing Travel Patterns 7

    1.1.3 More Affordable Cars with Better Features 7

    1.1.4 Ageing Population 7

    1.2 City Design Issues 11

    1.3 Operational and Funding Issues 11

    1.3.1 Peak Period Capacity Constraints 14

    1.3.2 Poor Capacity Utilisation (off peak) 18

    1.3.3 Inadequate Service Coverage in the Outer Suburbs 18

    1.3.4 Passenger and Freight Rail Interaction 19

    1.3.5 Historical Public Transport Under-Funding 20

    1.3.6 Impact of Road Congestion (Bus, Tram) 20

    1.3.7 Low Cost Recoveries 20

    1.3.8 Ineffi cient Work Practices 24

    1.4 Policy and Governance Challenges 26

    1.4.1 Fragmented and Inconsistent Governance 26

    1.4.2 Unfavourable Tax System (Fringe Benefi ts Tax) 31

    1.4.3 Approaches of Other National Governments 31

    1.5 Concluding Remarks 32

    Chapter Two—The Case for Public Transport 35

    2.1 Congestion 37

    2.1.1 Drivers of Congestion 37

    2.1.2 Measures of Congestion 38

    2.1.3 Costs of Congestion 38

    2.1.4 Implications of Congestion 42

    2.1.5 Possible Solutions to Congestion 42

  • NATIONAL PASSENGER TRANSPORT AGENDA > v

    Table of Contents

    2.2 Fuel Use and Related Effects 48

    2.3 Environment and Health 48

    2.4 Social Exclusion 53

    2.5 Concluding Remarks 56

    Chapter Three—Proposed Actions for Stakeholders 59

    3.1 Commonwealth Government 63

    3.1.1 Establish a Mechanism for a Comprehensive, National Treatment of Public Transport Issues 63

    3.1.2 Provide Oversight and Monitoring of Operator Effi ciency 64

    3.1.3 Provide One-off Reform Payments 64

    3.1.4 Take Leadership on a Number of Specifi c Initiatives 64

    3.1.5 Align Taxes with Public Transport Policy 65

    3.1.6 Reduce Compliance Burdens 65

    3.1.7 Develop a Coordinated National Public Transport Plan 66

    3.1.8 Targeted Funding for Major Capital Works 66

    3.2 State Governments 66

    3.2.1 Improve the Approach to Planning 66

    3.2.2 Enhance the Public Transport Service Offering 67

    3.3 Local Government 68

    3.3.1 Planning 68

    3.3.2 Liveability 69

    3.3.3 Service Delivery 69

    3.4 The Business Community 70

    3.5 The Public Transport Operators 70

    Appendices 73

    Appendix A—Sources 75

    Appendix B—Rail Networks—Projects to 2020 78

    Appendix C—APTG Terms of Reference 81

  • vi < AUSTRALASIAN RAILWAY ASSOCIATION

    Exhibits List

    Exhibit 1 Total Public Transport Patronage 4

    Exhibit 2 Mode Share 4

    Exhibit 3 Public Transport Issues and Challenges 5

    Exhibit 4 Employment Trends 5

    Exhibit 5 Employment Within CBDs 6

    Exhibit 6 Passenger Vehicles and Car Ownership 6

    Exhibit 7 International Road Motor Vehicles 8

    Exhibit 8 Car Affordability and Disposable Income 8

    Exhibit 9 Relative Value Proposition of “Personal Car Space” 9

    Exhibit 10 Vehicle Kilometres Travelled 9

    Exhibit 11 Australia’s Ageing Population 10

    Exhibit 12 Population Density 10

    Exhibit 13 Transit Operating Cost Recovery in Global Cities 12

    Exhibit 14 Proportion of Wealth Spent on Passenger Transport in Global Cities 12

    Exhibit 15 Suburban Rail Networks 13

    Exhibit 16 Passenger Volumes by Time of Day 13

    Exhibit 17 Rail Capacity Constraints—Sydney and Melbourne 15

    Exhibit 18 Major Rail Capacity Enhancements 15

    Exhibit 19a Melbourne Rail Network 2020 16

    Exhibit 19b Sydney Rail Network 2020 16

    Exhibit 19c Brisbane Rail Network 2020 17

    Exhibit 20 Patronage Impact of Fuel Price Rises 17

    Exhibit 21 Service Level Benchmarks 18

    Exhibit 22 Rail Freight Enhancements—Sydney Metropolitan Area 19

    Exhibit 23 Length of Road Per Capita 21

    Exhibit 24 Major Rail Projects 21

    Exhibit 25 Average Age of Australian Metropolitan Rollingstock Fleet 22

    Exhibit 26 Total Operating Cost and Farebox for Public Transport 22

    Exhibit 27 Operating Cost Recovery 23

    Exhibit 28 Populations Entitled to Concession Fares 23

    Exhibit 29 Examples of Concession Discounts 25

    Exhibit 30 Farebox Revenue Foregone Due to Concession Policies 25

  • NATIONAL PASSENGER TRANSPORT AGENDA > vii

    Exhibits List

    Exhibit 31 Operating Cost Metrics 27

    Exhibit 32 Cost Comparison of Sydney Buses and Private Operator 27

    Exhibit 33 Responsibility for Transport 28

    Exhibit 34 National Forum for Transport 28

    Exhibit 35 Ministerial Responsibilities for Transport and Planning 30

    Exhibit 36 Customer Management Organisations 30

    Exhibit 37 Fringe Benefi ts Tax (Cars vs Public Transport) 32

    Exhibit 38 Road Use Trends 39

    Exhibit 39 Urban Road Freight 39

    Exhibit 40 Road Freight Activity by Vehicle Type 40

    Exhibit 41 Average Travel Speeds in Peak Hour 40

    Exhibit 42 Delay Times 41

    Exhibit 43 Cost of Congestion 41

    Exhibit 44 Australian Congestion Costs 43

    Exhibit 45 Types of Road Use Pricing 47

    Exhibit 46 Projected Oil Prices 47

    Exhibit 47 Fuel Price Elasticity 49

    Exhibit 48 Energy Use by Mode 49

    Exhibit 49 Fuel Price Sensitivity 50

    Exhibit 50 Per Capita Greenhouse Gas Emissions 50

    Exhibit 51 Transport Emissions 51

    Exhibit 52 Emissions by Source 51

    Exhibit 53 Mortality and Morbidity 52

    Exhibit 54 Air Pollutant Exposure 52

    Exhibit 55 Passenger Transport Externality Costs 54

    Exhibit 56 Total Cost of Transport 54

    Exhibit 57 Costs of Transport in Sydney 55

    Exhibit 58 Vehicle Ownership and Income 55

    Exhibit 59 Accessibility of Employment 57

    Exhibit 60 Disadvantage in Suburban Melbourne 57

    Exhibit 61 The Roles of Different Levels of Government 62

  • NATIONAL PASSENGER TRANSPORT AGENDA > ix

    Executive Summary

    Without such an across-the-board focussed agenda,

    backed by all levels of government including the

    Commonwealth, Australia faces growing urban congestion

    and mobility issues, constraining the national economy

    and diminishing the quality of life