Nanofiller Reinforced Nanocomposite

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    MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF

    NANOFILLER REINFORCED POLYMER

    NANOCOMPOSITE 

     A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

    Doctor of Philosophy

    in

    Mechanical Engineering

    By

    GUJJALA RAGHAVENDRA

    Department of Mechanical Engineering

    National Institute of Technology  Rourkela - 769008

    December-2014

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    MECHANICAL AND TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF

    NANOFILLER REINFORCED POLYMERNANOCOMPOSITE

     A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

    Doctor of Philosophy in

    Mechanical Engineering

    By

    GUJJALA RAGHAVENDRA

    Under the Guidance of

    Department of Mechanical Engineering

    National Institute of Technology  Rourkela – 769008

    December-2014

    PROF. S. K. ACHARYA

    Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    PROF. S. K. PAL

    Dept. of Ceramic Engineering

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    Dedicated to

    My Grand Mother

    Late Chandramma

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Certificate i

     Acknowledgement ii

     Abstract iii

     List of Figures vi

     List of Tables xii

    Chapter-1 Introduction

    1.1  Back ground 1

    1.2   Nanocomposite concept 1

    1.3  Polymer nanocomposites 2

    1.4  Polymer matrices 2

    1.5  Filler 3

    1.5.1  Conventional fillers 4

    1.5.2  Conventional and Nano fillers 4

    1.6   Natural fiber as reinforcing material 8

    1.6.1  Jute fiber composite 9

    1.6.2  Glass fibers 12

    1.6.3  Limitation of glass fiber 12

    1.7   Need for fly-ash and alumina as filler material 13

    1.7.1  Fly-Ash and Alumina 13

    Chapter-2 Literature Survey

    2.1  Introduction 16

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    2.2  Material selection 17

    2.2.1  Thermosets 17

    2.2.2  Bio-derived Thermoplastic Matrices 19

    2.2.3  Reinforcement 21

    2.2.4  Reinforcement Materials 21

    2.3  Fabrication Methods of PMCs 22

    2.3.1  Open Molding Method 22

    2.3.2  Closed Molding Method 22

    2.4   Natural fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites 29

    Chapter-3 Nano fabrication and Characterization

    3.1  Introduction 39 

    3.1.1  Structure of nanoparticles 40 

    3.2   Nanoparticle Synthesis 40 

    3.2.1  Top down approach 41 

    3.2.1.1  High energy ball milling method 41 

    3.2.2  Bottom-up approach 41 

    3.2.2.1  Gas (vapor) phase synthetic methods 42 

    3.2.2.2  Pyrolysis (Spray pyrolysis) system 42 

    3.2.2.3  Liquid phase synthesis methods 42 

    3.2.2.4  Solvothermal methods 43 

    3.2.2.5  Sol-gel methods 43  3.2.2.6  Synthesis in structure media 43 

    3.2.2.7  Co-precipitation method 44 

    3.2.3  Hybrid approach 44 

    3.3  Auto combustion synthesis 44 

    3.3.1  Advantages of Auto combustion synthesis 45 

    3.3.2  Advantages of sol gel auto combustion synthesis 45 

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    3.4  Importance of alumina and fly ash nanomaterials 46 

    3.4.1  Alumina (Al2O3) 46 

    3.4.1.1  Different routes of nano alumina

    synthesis 47 

    3.4.2  Fly ash 47 

    3.5  Application of nanomaterials 47 

    3.6   Nano Fabrication and Characterization 48 

    3.6.1   Nano Alumina synthesis 48 

    3.6.2   Nano Fly ash synthesis 50  3.6.2.1  Fly ash composition 51 

    3.6.3  Production of nanostructure fly ash by planetary

     ball milling 51 

    3.6.4  Surface Area Analysis (BET) and Average particle

    diameter 52 

    3.6.5  X-ray diffraction studies 53 

    3.6.6  Proximate analysis of Jute fiber 53 

    3.6.7  Ultimate analysis of Jute fiber 53 

    3.6.8  Chemical composition of Jute fiber 54 

    3.6.9  Thermo gravimetric analysis of jute-epoxy

    composite (TGA) 55 

    3.6.10  FTIR (Fourier transformation infrared) Spectra

    of Jute fiber 55 

    3.7  Experimental Density of sample 55 

    3.8  Results and Analysis 56 

    3.8.1  X-ray diffraction studies 56  3.8.1.1  Alumina 56 

    3.8.1.2  Fly ash 58 

    3.8.2  EDX analysis 60 

    3.8.2.1  EDX analysis of Jute fiber 60 

    3.8.3  BET analysis of Fly ash 61 

    3.8.4  FTIR analysis of Jute fiber 62 

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    3.8.5  TGA analysis (thermo gravimetric analysis) of

    Jute fiber composite 63 

    3.8.6  SEM Analysis 64 

    3.8.6.1  SEM analysis of micro and nano Alumina 64 

    3.8.6.2  SEM analysis of micro and nano Fly ash 65 

    3.9  Conclusions 67 

    Chapter-4 Mechanical properties of Jute-glass fiber hybrid

    composite with micro and nano filler

    4.1  Introduction 68 

    4.2  Materials and Methods 73 

    4.2.1  Raw materials used 73 

    4.2.2  Preparation of composites 75 

    4.3  Characterization of the Composites 78 

    4.3.1  Density and void fraction 78 

    4.3.2  Tensile Strength 81 

    4.3.3  Flexural Strength 84 

    4.4  Results and Discussion 86 

    4.4.1  Effect of Alumina filler content on void fraction 86 

    4.4.2  Effect of Fly ash filler content on void fraction 86 

    4.4.3  Hybrid Composites 87 

    4.4.4  Micro Filler Hybrid Composites 89 

    4.4.4.1  Fly ash Micro filler 89 

    4.4.4.2  Alumina Micro filler 92 

    4.4.5   Nano Filler Hybrid Composites 95 

    4.4.5.1  Fly ash Nano filler 95 

    4.4.5.2  Alumina Nano filler 97 

    4.4.6  Comparison of flexural and tensile strength 99

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    4.4.7  Morphological Studies of tensile tested specimens 100

    4.4.8  Morphological studies of flexural tested specimens 102

    4.5  Conclusions 106 

    Chapter-5 Solid particle erosion studies of jute-glass fiber

    reinforced epoxy hybrid composite

    5.1  Introduction 107 

    5.2  Recent trends in wear research 108 

    5.3  Theory of wear 109 

    5.4  Types of wear 112 

    5.4.1  Abrasive wear 112 

    5.4.2  Adhesive wear 113 

    5.4.3  Erosive wear 113 

    5.4.4  Surface fatigue wear 113 

    5.4.5  Corrosive wear 114 

    5.5  Symptoms of wear 114 

    5.6  Solid particle erosion of polymer and polymer nano composites 116 

    5.7  Experiment 118 

    5.7.1  Preparation of the test specimens 118 

    5.7.2  Micro-Hardness 119 

    5.7.3  Measurement of impact velocity of erodent particles:

    Double disc method 119 

    5.8  Test apparatus & Experiment 121 

    5.9  Result and Discussion 123 

    5.10  SEM Analysis 125 

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    5.11  Conclusions 126 

    Chapter-6 Erosion characterization of jute-glass fiber hybrid

    composite with Micro and Nano filler

    6.1  Introduction 138 

    6.2  Materials and Methods 139 

    6.2.1  Raw Materials Used 139 

    6.2.1.1  Jute fiber 139 

    6.2.1.2  E glass fiber 139 

    6.2.1.3  Fly ash and Alumina filler

    (both micro and nano) 140 

    6.2.1.4  Epoxy resin and Hardener 140 

    6.3  Methods 140 

    6.3.1  Preparation of Composites 140 

    6.3.2  Test apparatus & Experiment 140 

    6.4  Results and Discussion 140 

    6.4.1  Surface morphology 142 

    6.5  Conclusions 143 

    Chapter-7 Conclusions and Scope for Future Work

    7.1  Conclusions 185 

    7.2  Recommendation for Further Research 186 

    Miscellaneous

    References 187 

    Publications 210

    Bibliography 213

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