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Northern Ireland Peace Settlement NegotiationsBackground GuideTopic 1: Bring a Permanent End to Violence in Northern Ireland Topic 2: Work Towards a Peace Accord between the Disputing Parties and the Governments of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland C0-Chair: Amy OHalloran Co-Chair: Patrick Smith

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Table of ContentsLetter from the Chair ....................................................................................................... 3 History of the Division of Ireland .................................................................................... 5 19121922....................................................................................................................... 5 19221966....................................................................................................................... 7 History of The Troubles ............................................................................................. 7 Emergence of the Ulster Volunteer Force .................................................................. 7 Riots of August 1969 ..................................................................................................... 8 Peak in Violence during the 1970s ............................................................................... 9 Sunningdale Agreement and UWC Strike ................................................................ 12 Growing Desire for a Peaceful End to the Conflict ................................................. 12 Hunger strikes and the emergence of Sinn Fin ...................................................... 13 Topic 1: Bring a Permanent End to Violence in Northern Ireland ............................ 14 Topic 2: Work Towards a Peace Accord between the Disputing Parties and the Governments of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland ........................... 15 First ceasefire .............................................................................................................. 15 Second ceasefire .......................................................................................................... 16 Works Cited ..................................................................................................................... 19

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Letter from the Chair Greetings Delegates!

Welcome to the 14th annual Washington Area Model United Nations Conference and the Northern Ireland Peace Settlement Negotiations! My name is Amy OHalloran, and I am very excited to serve as one of your Co-Chairs in your committee, and to get the opportunity to meet and interact with all of you. I originally come from Dublin, Ireland, but now am now living in the beautiful city of Atlanta, Georgia. I am a freshman in the Elliott School of International Affairs majoring in International Affairs, with a concentration in Security Policy and a minor in French. This is my first time as a WAMUNC Chair, and Im very excited! I hold duel citizenship with the US and Ireland, and so am naturally very interested in the issues of Northern Ireland, or The Troubles as they are referred to back home.

I am joined by your Co-Chair, Patrick Smith. Patrick is originally from Cape Cod, Massachusetts but now lives in Sunny South Florida. While not hailing from Ireland proper, Patrick's family comes from County Longford in the north of the Republic of Ireland. He is a freshman in the Columbian College of Arts and Sciences with a double major in Political Science and International Affairs, with a concentration in International Development. Patrick is bilingual in Gaelic and is looking forward to sharing his love of ire with of the delegates.

This committee will be running with the typical parliamentary procedure used in General Assemblies with a slight crisis feel. As it runs over the course of several years, we will keep you updated on the events to help guide debate and settlements. You will each by representing different groups or special people who took part in the actual negotiations back in 1990. Some of you will have official characters, Madeline Albright as the US Secretary of State for example. However, there will also be those of you who will be representatives of different political groups, such as Sinn Fin. Each had their own heads

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throughout the negotiations, and some of them were very interesting personalities that, at times used their parties to achieve their own personal goals even if it meant contradicting their own partys principles and ideologies. With that said, Patrick and I are leaving it up to you all to see how you will embrace the roles you have been given. You must be able to consider both the party you are representing and the head of that party when deciding what you wish to achieve in the negotiations.

As a special note, it is very important that you all treat this issue with the sensitivity it is owed. This issue has plagued this region for many, many years. Therefore, Patrick and I ask that you treat and approach it with the utmost professionalism and not as an opportunity to simply bomb your opponents and the like.

Although this is a historical committee, do not feel restricted to do only what your party ended up doing during the negotiations. If you find through your research that your party was shortchanged or didnt pursue a certain policy aggressively enough, then by all means act on that. This is your chance to rewrite history, so go for it!

With that being said, I wish you nothing but the best as you embark on your research. I hope to be greeted at the start of the conference by a committee full of students wellprepared, and eager to delegate. Both Patrick and I look forward to meeting you all in March. Best, Amy OHalloran Co-Chair, Northern Ireland Peace Settlement Negotiations WAMUNC XIV amy_s_oh@gwmail.gwu.edu

Patrick Smith Co-Chair, Northern Ireland Peace Settlement Negotiations WAMUNC XIV psmith@gwmail.gwu.edu

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by all means, including force, if History of the Division of Ireland Although the time of this committee does not begin until the 1990s, it is very important for all delegates present at these negotiations to have a thorough and complete understanding of the history of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Such history is important to understanding how to formulate solutions to the problems, and your understanding should be reflected in whatever sort of agreement is formed as a result of the negotiations. The following should aid in your appreciation for the history and complexity of The Troubles. 19121922 By the 1920s, Home Rule in Ireland was on the brink of collapse due to the agitation of the Irish Parliamentary Party. In response, mostly Protestant Unionists, concentrated in Ulster, resisted independence for Ireland due to their fear of losing their position in a predominately Catholic country. This fear led to these unionists signing the Ulster Covenant in 1912 under the leadership of Edward Carson that was their official pledge to resist Home Rule The rise of such a group would naturally not go unnoticed or without reaction. Therefore, nationalists formed the Irish Volunteers to oppose the Ulster Volunteers. The outbreak of the First World War in 1914 temporarily averted the crisis of possible civil war and delayed any current quest for the Irish independence. Home Rule also was suspended during this time given the circumstances. necessary. This pledge led to them forming the paramilitary group the Ulster Volunteers, and to fund their efforts began importing arms from Germany. Interestingly enough, those involved in the Easter Rising resorted to similar deals prior to 1916.

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Following the nationalist Easter Rising in Dublin in 1916 by the Irish Republican Brotherhood, the Sinn Fein party used the emotional momentum they had received from the events to win a majority of seats in Ireland and set up the First Dil (Irish Parliament) in Dublin. Their victorious run was also fueled by the publics fear of mass conscription into the British Army. With this election, and subsequent formation of the Dil, Ireland had officially seceded from the United Kingdom. The Irish War of Independence followed, which ultimately lead to official Irish independence. In Ulster however, the Sinn Fein movement was nowhere near as successful due to differing political opinions on Irish rule.

Due to these political differences, The Government of Ireland Act 1920 partitioned the island of Ireland into two separate jurisdictions, Southern Ireland and Northern Ireland. This partition of Ireland was confirmed when the Parliament of Northern Ireland exercised its right in December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 to remove itself from the newly established Irish Free State.

Northern Ireland remained a part of the United Kingdom, though it operated under its own Parliament and government systems. While this arrangement met the desires of unionists to remain part of the United Kingdom, nationalists vehemently opposed this partition due to the fact that they considered the division of Ireland illegal and unauthorized.

Northern Ireland came into being in a violent manner with over 500 people killed in between the years of 1920 and 1922. Most of those killed were Catholic. As a result of this, tension grew between the Catholic and Protestant communities due to the fact that both were falling victim to the

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others aggression. This tension would eventually get worse and linger for many decades in the long run. 19221966 Sir James Craig, the first Prime Minister of Northern Ireland notably said: "all I boast is that we are a Protestant Parliament and Protestant State."

These included a brief and ineffective IRA campaign in the 1940s, and another abortive IRA campaign between 1956 and 1962. By the early 1960s Northern Ireland was fairly stable.

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