Muscles and bones

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  • 1. MUSCLES ANDBONES The musculoskeletal system

2. THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM The musculoskeletal system is composed of many muscles and bones.Its lets you move different parts of your body and get you around fromone place to another. Garfield can runs with his musculoskeletal system 3. THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON Humans have got an internal skeleton. It is made of 206 different bones.The skeleton perfoms three main functions: Its supports the body and helps to keep its shape. Its protects the bodys soft, internal organs. It is connected to muscles that move the different bones.Bones are made of bone cells that form bone tissue. These cells cangrow and reproduce to repair broken bones. 4. THE SKELETON:Supports the body Protects the bodys softYour feets carry all the weight of your The ribs protects organs like the heart orbody. the lungs 5. BONES ARE MADE OF 6. JOINTS Joints are parts of the skeleton when two or more bonesare connected. In some joints, there are elastic tissuescalled ligaments that keep the bones together. 7. THE MOVEMENTS OF THE KNEE JOINT 8. MUSCLES Muscles can contract and relax to move differentparts of the body. Some muscles are connected tobones by long, non-elastic fibres called tendons.When the muscles contract, they pull on thetendons and move the bones. 9. THE HUMAN SKELETON Bones can be different shapes and sizes. Thererelong bones, short bones, flat bones and cilyndricalbones The femur is a long, cilyndrical bone The parietal is a flat bone The vertebrae is a short bone 10. THE HUMAN SKELETON We can put the bones of the human skeleton into threegroups: the bones of the head the bones of the trunk the bones of the extremities 11. THE HUMAN SKELETON 12. THE BONES OF THE HEAD The bones of the head form the skull (or cranium). These bones protectthe brain and they also form the face. 13. THE BONES OF THE TRUNK The bones of the trunk include the spinal column, the sternumand the ribs. The spinal column is made of smaller bones called vertebrae. The spinal column supports the head and it also protects the spinal cord. The sternum and the ribs form the rib cage. This isprotects theheart and the lungs. 14. THE BONES OF THE TRUNK 15. THE BONES OF THE EXTREMITIES Each upper extremity is connected to the trunk by: theclavicle at the front, and the scapula at the back. The bones of the upper extremities form the arms, handsand fingers. Each hand has got 27 bones called carpals, metacarpalsand phalanges. 16. THE BONES OF THE EXTREMITIES The lower extremities are connected to the trunk by thepelvis. The bones of the lower extremities form the legs, feets andtoes. Each foot has got 26 bones, called tarsals, metatarsals andphalanges. 17. MUSCLES Muscles can move and apply force. They have got differentshapes ans sizes:circular muscles long muscles flat muscles 18. MUSCLES We can also clasiffy muscles by the way theyfunction: Some muscles are voluntary: you cant controlthem whenever you want. Some muscles are involuntary: you cant controlthem because they work automatically: Your heartand your intestinal muscles are involuntary. 19. MUSCLESVoluntary: Involuntary: 20. MUSCLES OF THE FACE 21. MUSCLES OF THE ARMS AND LEGS 22. MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK 23. JOINTS Joints are places when to or more bones areconnected. We can clasiffy joints by how much they move: Fixed joints cany move. Semi-moveable joints cant move very much. Moveable joints can move a lot. Inside this joints, there is a tough, flexible tissue called cartilage. 24. JOINTSfixed joints semi-moveable moveable joint - elbow 25. JOINTS AND PAIRS OF MUSCLES Muscles often works togheter inpairs.They take turns contracting andrelaxing. When one of the musclescontracts, it becomes shorter and pullson the other muscles. At the same time,the other muscle relaxes and becomeslonger. 26. A PROJECT BY