Multicultural Counseling Assistant Professor Michele Mallett Fellowship of Christian Counselors...

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Transcript of Multicultural Counseling Assistant Professor Michele Mallett Fellowship of Christian Counselors...

  • Slide 1
  • Multicultural Counseling Assistant Professor Michele Mallett Fellowship of Christian Counselors February 9, 2007
  • Slide 2
  • Objectives Define multiculturalism Theory related to multicultural counseling Multicultural counseling as a professional discipline Cultural competence Tasks of the multicultural counselor Barriers to multicultural counseling
  • Slide 3
  • Defining Multiculturalism Multiculturalismthe professional disposition to acknowledge and appreciate cultural diversity. People vary by gender, race, ethnicity, religion, ability, sexual orientation, social class, age, national origin, and unique experiences over the course of life.
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  • Putting Culture in Context Encompasses a collective reality of a group of people that results in attitudes, behaviors, and formed. Counseling has traditionally be a professional discipline representative of European and European American culture.
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  • Culture as Ethnicity Dynamics considered in culturally responsive counseling Relationship between ethnic identity and Degree of acculturation Strong sense of ethnic identity/high degree of acculturation Weak sense of ethnic identity/high degree of acculturation Strong sense of ethnic identity/low degree of acculturation Weak sense of ethnic identity/low degree of acculturation
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  • Culture as Ethnicity Language Mastery of language implies mastery of culture Kinship influences Immediate and extended family, friends, or community cultural resources Sex role socialization Awareness of how gender based differences play into decision making and problem resolution
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  • Culture as Ethnicity Religious/spiritual influence Immigration experience Forced separation from homeland and family; stress to conform to the dominant culture Historical hostility Long term pattern of exploitation and oppression; can manifest in hostility to helper and helping process
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  • Theory related to multicultural counseling
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  • Cultural Identity Development Theory Members of a particular cultural group go through different stages or statuses marked by different attitudes toward their own and other cultural groups Attitudes and behaviors are the result of a cognitive and emotional process surrounding relationship to their own cultural group The relationship one has with those in their own cultural group determines their relationship to other cultural groups Racial identity is a group collective identity based on common heritage with that group
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  • Adapting to Dominant Culture Individuals choose to deal with living in the dominant culture that is different from their own by: Moving toward Moving against Moving away
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  • Adapting to Dominant Culture Lack of identification with the dominant culture may result in: Isolation Passivity Increased stress Anxiety Depression
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  • Constructivism vs. Social Construction Constructivismunderstanding of another must access the meaning associated with a particular action and the meaning being understood within context. Counselor must interpret within context within culture in which client functions Social construction focus is on mutually-agreed upon meaning of a particular group and their role in shaping individual constructions.
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  • Constructivism vs. Social Construction Constructivism Access the meaning clients give to experiences within their culture There are multiple truths, meanings, and constructions and one story is not considered truth over another. Counseling is an effort to construct meanings that can provide for more cultural harmony.
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  • Constructivism vs. Social Construction Social construction Society has constructed the concept of race, has created a finite number of racial categories based on certain physical characteristics, and has agreed that these socially constructed categories are biologically rather than culturally determined. Social differences may change over time because they are socially constructed and inaccurate therefore subject to change. Meaning and values given to physical attributes of skin color
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  • Multicultural Counseling as a Professional Discipline Traditional counseling theory enriched by notion that cultural differences are real and must be actively considered in mental health intervention. International perspective on counseling as a force in human development
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  • Multicultural Counseling as a Professional Discipline Social responsibility of counselors and the need to consider negative effects of oppression on culturally diverse groups. Problems may lie in intolerant or restrictive environments Counselors are called upon to be agents of systemic change
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  • Multicultural Counseling as a Professional Discipline Emergence of a new type of counselor. One who has the awareness, knowledge, and skill to intervene successfully in diverse clients lives. Considers the clients experiences as well as his/her own personal experiences.
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  • Multicultural Counseling as a Professional Discipline Multiculturalism can contribute to counseling by clarifying How culture shapes the behavior of all human beings How cultural norms, values, and expectations contribute to the problems for which people seek counseling How each culture develops institutions and mechanisms to help individuals deal with such problems How special problems arise in a multicultural society How these problems can be addressed
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  • Cultural CompetenceSelf Awareness How do you define problems? What is your style of problem solving? Which characteristics do you view as strengths and which as weaknesses? Attitudes and beliefs about others values and behaviors Spirituality and the role religion plays in your life Value place on individualism, family, and community Comfort with certain topics How is respect demonstrated and who and what is entitled to respect? Own internalized social constructs
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  • Cultural Competence Understanding cultural differences Learning more about the reality of clients lives Understand that values vary among individuals and variations may be influenced by a persons identity or membership in a group experience. Becoming knowledgeable about different groups
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  • Cultural Competence Dont assume that ethnic identity tells you anything about the person Question what you know about a client from a different culture and test it with each person Sensitivity to the intracultural experience as opposed to intercultural overcomes the danger of categorization.
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  • Barriers Questioning competence in working with culturally diverse clients Focusing on cultural dissimilarities may accentuate human differences and have the potential for fostering renewed forms of intolerance. Assumptions that all people from a specific cultural group are the same and one approach is applicable in all situations
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  • Barriers Lack of ethical guidelines in working with culturally diverse clients. Being unaware of cultural dynamics and their impact on psychosocial development. Counseling profession not highly valued or seen as a valid helping resource among certain groups of people.
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  • Barriers Moving beyond awareness and knowledge to actual practice. Perception of counseling as a tool of oppression and social control (forced rather than a voluntary experience)
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  • Tasks of the multicultural counselor
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  • Build a Relationship Why Build a Relationship? To discover the issues related to the persons area of diversity and how they deal with those issues. To increase awareness of their own prejudice, stereotypes and bias.
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  • Build a Relationship Achieving a Balanced Relationship Factors that affect the process Preconceived perceptions of roles Values and beliefs concerning power and status The ability of both parties to identify and appreciate each others strengths The ability of both parties to accept and respect diversity
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  • Build a Relationship Achieving a Balanced Relationship Factors that affect the process (contd) The ability to overcome judgmental interpretations regarding weaknesses perceived in each other. The ability to demonstrate an understanding of the dynamics of powerlessness and its consequences.
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  • Counseling Relationships Gather information from a variety of sources to gain an understanding about the culture Teach how to cope effectively with feeling isolated in mainstream America or rejected by their own culture Support by providing an avenue to express feelings and handle emotional responses to assimilating to new culture
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  • Counseling Relationships Build a trusting relationship Facilitate mentoring relationship particularly with children Group counseling may be effective because of sense of community Family counseling may be effective due to family being a major part of psychosocial development
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  • References Segal, Elizabeth. Gerdes, Karen. Steiner, Sue. 2004. Social Work an Introduction to the Profession. Belmont, CA. Brooks/Cole-Thomson Le