muhammad hasnain khan

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    AC,i.O . .

    REPORT No. R-11

    MUHAMMAD HASNAIN KHAN

    OCTOBER 1996 PAKISTAN NATIONAL PROGRAM

    INTERNATIONAL IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE LAHORE

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1. SPECIFIC TERMS USED IN SEDIMENT STUDtES OF CANALS IN PAKISTAN , , . 1

    2. EXPLANATION OF PHENOMENON OF SEDIMENTATION OR SCOURING IN ALLUVIAL CANALS AND THE CORRELATION OF SUSPENDED SEDIMENT CONCENTRATION WITH THE CHANNEL ROUGHNESS AND CHANNEL GEOMETRYPARAMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    3. EVOLUTION OF BASIC CONCEPTS IN CANAL SEDlMENTATlON/SEDlMENT TRANSPORT RELATED TO DESIGN OF CHANNELS IN PAKISTAN . . . . . . . . . . 18

    c ,. c 4. SEDIMENT TRANSPORT EQUATIONS DEVELOPED IN PAKISTAN . . . . . . . . . . 31

    5. SEDIMENT SAMPLING TECHNIQUES AND THEIR IMPROVEMENT/ IMPROVISATION IN PAKISTAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

    6. DESlLTlNG OF CHANNELS IN PUNJAB AND ITS SUBSEQUENT EFFECT ON CHANNEL BEHAVIOR, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    7. RESEARCH STUDY RELATED WITH SILT SELECTIVE HEAD REGULATORS AND PERFORMANCE OF SILT EXCLUDERS AND SILT EJECTORS IN PAKISTAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

    8. SILT DRAWING CAPACITY OF CANAL OUTLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

    BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

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  • Figure 2.1 . Figure 4.1

    Figure 5.1 . Figure 5.2. Figure 5.3. Figure 5.4. Figure 5.5. Figure 5.6. Figure 5.7.

    I Figure 5.8. r Figure 5.9. Figure 5.10. Figure 5.1 1 . Figure 5.12. Figure 5.13.

    Figure 6.1

    Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3

    Figure 6.4.

    Figure 7.1. Figure 7.2s. Figure 7.2b. Figure 7 . 2 ~ . Figure 7.3. Figure 7.4a. Figure 7.4b.

    . Figure 7.5. F Figure 7.6.

    Figure 7.7.

    Figure 8.1. Figure 8.2. Figure 8.3. Figure 8.4. Figure 8.5. Figure 8.6. Figure 8.7.

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    LIST OF FIGURES Size distribution curves . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0

    Comparison of sediment transport predictions for Laceys Channel Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

    Tait-Binckley Sampler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Uppal Sampler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Suspended . Sediment Sampler US DH-48 Hand Line Suspension 44 Suspended . Sediment Sampler US DH-59 Hand Line Suspension . . . . . 45 Suspended . Sediment Sampler US DH-49 Hand Line Suspension 47 Point . Integrating Suspended . Sediment Sampler, USP-46 . . . . . . . . . 49

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    Point . Integrating Suspended-Sediment Cable-And-Reel Sampler USP-61 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Point . Integrating Suspended-Sediment Cable-And-Reel Sampler US P-63 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Point - Integrating Suspended-Sediment Sampler USP-50 . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Layout of ACOP Pumping Sampler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Hand-Held Piston-Type Bed material Sampler US . BMH-53 . . . . . . . . . 5 6 Hand-Held Piston-Type Bed material Sampler US . BMH.60 . . . . . . . . . . 57 Bed Material Sampler US BM 54 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    Upper Gugera Division . distributaries and minors. maintenance and repairs expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9 Lagar Distributary 1992 survey pre & post desiltation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Results of the evaluation surveys of Lagar Distributary . silt removal per foot canal length for different types of work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Lagar Distributary monthly average head and tail waterlevels for 3 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    Silt Selective Head Regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Khanki Excluder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Khanki Excluder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Silt Excluder at Jaba Level Crossing U.J.C., with top removed . . . . . . . 62 Kalabagh Head Works Silt Excluder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Silt Ejector. Salampur Ejector U.B.D. Canal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 The Silt Ejector in the Salampur Feeder of the Upper Bari Doab Canal with top removed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Silt Ejector Vortex Tube Sand Trap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Silt Ejector efficiency versus extraction ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Silt Ejector Efficiency versus d/D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

    Section for Pipe Outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6 Plan and longitudinal section of Scratchley Outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Crumps Open Flume Outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Crumps Adjustable Proportional Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Standard design of A.O.S.M. as used in Punjab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Pipe-Cum Adjustable Orifice-Semi-Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Bendout let . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

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  • PREFACE

    The idea of a literature survey on sediment transport in the canals of Pakistan has come into reality by the author as a joint venture between IlMl Pakistan and the Government Engineering Academy Punjab, Lahore. The literature survey work was initiated to bridge the gap of understanding in the empirical nature of research work done in Pakistan on sediment transport and the efforts of various research organizations around the world to introduce Sediment Transport Computer Simulation Models of canal flows. The purpose of this work is to familiarize the researchers working on Sediment Transport with the research work done in this field in Pakistan and the experience of engineers while dealing with the vast irrigation network of the lndus Basin Irrigation System.

    The articles in this literature survey cover a wide variety of subjects, like basic concepts developed in the region on sediment transport, techniques of sediment sampling applied in this area, and maintenance methods in relation to sedimentation of canals for desilting of channels. There is no relationship developed in quantitative terms between suspended sediment load, channel roughness and channel parameters. The author has tried to describe the work done in Pakistan on this subject in qualitative terms. To control the sediment entry into the canals the operational devices, such as silt selective head regulators, silt excluderslsilt ejectors, have been presented and the experience gained by the engineerslscientists in this respect have been given in the literature survey.

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    There has been difficulty in reproducing some of the photographs. Not only thgre were some of the photographs quite old, but a few had been damaged by moisture. As a consequence, certain photographs were eliminated from the text, but those with historical significance were retained.

    The research work done by scientists of the Irrigation Research Institute of Pakistan in developing sediment transport equations based on observed sediment and hydraulic data, which has been empirical in nature, has been given due consideration to evolve a strategy for validation of sediment transport relations to the lndus Basin Irrigation System by the researchers. The researchers have paid less attention to the role of silt drawing by outletslturnouts through the canal irrigation network. The author has tried to introduce the work done by researcherslengineers related with the silt drawing capacity of outlets. It is hoped that articles of this literature survey would be helpful in opening new avenues for research opportunities in the field of sediment transport in the canals of Pakistan.

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  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    I would like to express gratitude to Mr. Munir Ahmad Zafar, Principal, Government Engineering Academy Punjab (Pakistan) for his cooperation to initiate this work on a Literature Survey on Sediment Transport in the Canats of Pakistan's lndus Basin Irrigation System.

    I would like to express my gratitude to llMl Pakistan for its technical support and guidance by the research experts and for the provision of manpower for word processing. In this regard, I am grateful to Mr. Marcel Kuper for his support and encouragement. Also 1 am thankful to Mr. Muhammad Manshah for typing and formatting the text. I would like to thank Prof. Gaylord V. Skogerboe for reviewing the

    ! I document.

    I would like to offer special thanks to Or. Siddique and Mr. Mujeeb of the International Sedimentation Research Institute, Pakistan (ISRIP) for their technical support on reviewing these articles.

    Mr. Hasnain Khan Assistant Professor Government Engineering Academy Punjab, Lahore

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    C'

  • 1. SPECIFIC TERMS USED IN SEDIMENT STUDIES OF CANALS IN PAKISTAN

    Introduction:

    There are a number of specific terms