M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

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2 nd Global Conference on Biofortification Prof M S Swaminathan, FNA, FRS UNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology, MSSRF, Chennai Kigali, Rwanda, 1 April 2014 Biofortification and the Zero Hunger Challenge

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Professor M.S. Swaminathan presents "Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification" at The 2nd Global Conference on Biofortification: Getting Nutritious Foods to People in Kigali, Rwanda. April 1, 2014

Transcript of M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

Page 1: M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

2nd Global Conference on Biofortification

Prof M S Swaminathan, FNA, FRSUNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology, MSSRF, Chennai

Kigali, Rwanda, 1 April 2014

Biofortification and theZero Hunger Challenge

Page 2: M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

United Nations Secretary-General’s

Vision (2012)

Source: www.un.org

2025 : Target Year for Achieving Zero Hunger Challenge

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UK Prime Minister’s InitiativeOn 12 August 2012, the closing day of

the London Olympics, the Prime

Minister of the United Kingdom, David

Cameron, launched, a programme

designed to rescue 25 million children

from malnutrition-induced stunting by

2016, when the next Olympics will

take place at Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.

Biofortification is an important

pathway for achieving this goal

speedily and economically.

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South Asian Enigma

o Extraordinary economic growth in South Asia

o Population largely dependent on agriculture

o Yet, 2 out of 5 children stunted

39% of children are stunted in South Asia

UNICEF 2013

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61.7

11 9.6 8 7.5 6

Top 6 countries with highest number of stunted children

(millions)

UNICEF 2013

o Region with the largest number of children with stunted growth

o First 1000 days critical. Low Birth Weight Babies 1 in 4

o Under-nutrition reduces a nation’s economic advancement by 8% (Lancet 2013)

South Asian Enigma

Page 6: M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

Source : IFPRI

AFRICAN ENIGMA

Prosperity of Nature but Poverty of People

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AFRICAHalving hunger :

it can be done

M S Swaminathan &

Pedro A Sanchez

UN Millennium Project 2005

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Source: FAO, US Energy Administration and www.indexmundi.org and http://quotes.post1.org/historical-crude-oil-price-chart/ (data updated as on March 14, 2014)

The Future

Belongs to

Nations with

Grains and

not Guns

Price Volatility

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HungerChronic

Hidden

Transient

Food

Security :

Availability

Access

Absorption

Awareness – Analysis - Action

MSSRF / WFP : Food Insecurity Atlas

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CALORIE DEPRIVATION

PROTEIN DEFICIENCY

MICRONUTRIENTDEFICIENCY

Picture Source: Google images

Three major dimensions of hunger

Biofortifcation answers all three dimensions

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Comparison of woo-gen (right) and dee-geo-woo-gen strains, the latter containing

the sd1 mutation

The effects of different Rht alleles on plant height in wheat (cv. April

Bearded). The wild-type contains Rht-B1a and Rht-D1a, which are homoeologous (corresponding) genes on the B and D genomes. Rht-

B1c is a more severe allele at the Rht-B1 locus

Source: http://5e.plantphys.net/

Overcoming Undernutrition: The Green Revolution in Wheat and Rice

Page 12: M.S. Swaminathan presents: Achieving the Zero Hunger Challenge & the Role of Biofortification

Green Revolution Symphony (1968)

o Technology

o Services

o Public Policies

o Farmers’ enthusiasm

Indian farmers achieved as much progress in wheat production in four years (1964–68), as during the preceding 4000 years.

Major Components

Synergy among Scientific skill, Political will and Farmers’ toil

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Evergreen Revolution is the Pathway

o World requires 50% more

rice in 2030 than in 2004

with approximately 30%

less arable land of today

o Mainstreaming ecology in

technology development

and dissemination is the

road to sustainable

agriculture

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Prodn.x 9Yield x3Area x 2.5

1960-61- 11.0 MT1965-66 – 10.4 MT1973-74 - 20.8 MT

An Evergreen Revolution in Wheat

Goal for 2030 : 150 million tonnes of wheat from 30 million ha

Prerequisites : Soil & Plant Health Care& Remunerative Market

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No Time to Relax : Major Challenges Ahead

o Avoiding Food losses and Food Waste

o Climate change, temperature, precipitation, and

sea level

o Shrinking per capita land and water resources

o Expanding biotic and abiotic stresses

o Adverse cost-risk-return structure of farming

o Market volatility

o Reluctance of youth to take to farming : Lack of

Demographic Dividend

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Biofortification and Zero Hunger Challenge :3 Major approaches

1. Naturally occurring biofortified plants like moringa,

sweet potato, nutri-millets and fruits and vegetables.

2. Biofortified varieties selected by breeding and

selection, eg, iron rich pearl millet and zinc rich rice

3. Genetically biofortified crops like Golden Rice and

iron rich rice (after appropriate regulatory

clearance)

Cultivate and Consume

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25 x iron in spinach17 x calcium in milk15 x potassium in bananas10 x vitamin A in carrots9 x protein in yogurt

National Geographic, November 2012

Role of Agro-forestry in BiofortificationMoringa Oleifera

Agro-forestry : Common land use in Africa

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Breadfruit Can Be Manna

o The Breadfruit Institute has

found that the perennial trees

produce more food in dry

weight per hectare than corn,

rice, or wheat

o A fruit rich in iron, potassium,

and Vitamin A precursors

Source: Science Vol 342 18 October 2013

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Rich source of Vitamin C

Phyllanthus emblica

Picture Source: Google images

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Rich in Nutrition; Climate SmartCulinary Diversity

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Source : http://foodtank.com/news/2014/03/california-drought-time-to-rethink-forgotten-grains

Combating California drought again : Revive Dying Wisdom and Vanishing Crops

Convert Calamity into an Opportunity

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Science, Vol 325, 31 July 2009

Gene Banks for a

Warming Planet

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The National Horticulture

Mission of India aims to provide

horticultural remedies to

nutritional maladies. As a result

of this Mission, the production

of fruits and vegetables has

reached a level of 270 million

tonnes in India during 2013-14.

Develop Safe Storage Facilities

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Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato Rich in Beta carotene

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Quality Protein Maize

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Biofortification through breeding:High-iron Pearl Millet

ICTP 8203ICRISAT-bred OPV

(70-74 ppm Fe)With 10% Higher Yield

86M86Pioneer hybrid (54-64 ppm Fe)

Marketed by NIRMAL SEEDS

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World’s first high-zinc rice released in Bangladesh

Source : Rice Today, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol12, No.4

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19 varieties of Yam in 4 species were in Cultivation (as of

2006) but less than 5 in rural market and none in urban market

Dioscorea alata1. Inchikachil I & II`2. Kuzhikavithu I3. Kuzhikavithu II4. Quintalkachil I 5. Quintalkachil II 6. Anakomban7. Kaduvakkayyan8. Urulan kachil9. Kuppathottikizhangu10. Elivalankachil11. Neendi/Veetukizhangu12. Vella kachil I & II13. Chorakachil/cherakachil/chuvappukachil/ Neela kachil I, II & III

Dioscorea esculenta14. Nanakizhangu15. Vella Enchi kachil16. Mullan Kachil

Dioscorea rotundata17.Africankachil 18. Thoonankachi

Dioscorea bulbifera 19. Erachikachil/Adathappu

Life Saving Crops

in Wayanad

Leveraging Agro-forestry for Nutrition

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Kolli Hills

Biofortified Multiple Cropping System

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o 3500 rice accessions (rice landraces of CG,Orissa, TN), 100 popular rice cultivars and650 advanced breeding lines have beenscreened

o 14 genotypes with high Zn content inpolished grains with 35-40 ug/g have beenidentified

o Selection and phenotyping of 40 ricegenotypes are under multi-location trials

Rice Breeding for High Zinc Rice

Source : MSSRF & IGAU, Raipur

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Marker Assisted Breeding IR 38 x Jeerige sanna

BI 33 x Jeerige sanna

Azucena x Moromutant

Five mapping populationshave been developed andpurified.

Molecular markers for genesassociated with iron uptake,transport and accumulationhave been designed.

Marker Assisted Selection iseligible for organiccertification

Source : Indian Biofortification Network

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Back cross derived lines in Swarna background

using Kaybonet-GR2-R event as donor

Swarna Golden Swarna

Source : IARI, New Delhi

Genetic Modification : Golden Rice

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780

bp

Line 4 Homozygous plantsNT P

(b)

650bp

Line 12 Homozygous Transgenic

plants

H2O

M

NT P

(a)

Tissue specific expression of ferritin gene from

mangrove in rice for iron fortification

Avicennia marina Transgenic Rice lines

Stable inheritance of transgenics

Am Fer

Am Fer

Am Fer

Genetic map of Am Ferin transgenics

Source : MSSRF

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0

5

10

15

20

25

30

1

Series1

Series2

Series3

Series4

Series5

Series6

Series7

Series8

Series9

Series10

Series11

Series12

Series13

Series14Polished rice with stable expression of 21-28ppm Iron

(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Expression of Iron in Rice Endosperm

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Golden Rice : Trial Site Vandalized in Bicol, Philippines

Source: Rice Today, IRRI, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol.12, No.4

Establish Regulatory system which inspires public, professional, political and media confidence

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“FSN involves the introduction of agriculturalremedies to the nutritional maladies prevailing in anarea, through the mainstreaming of nutritionalcriteria in the selection of the components of afarming system involving crops, farm animals andwhere feasible, fish. While finalizing the componentsof a farming system, the gender and age dimensionsof human nutritional needs are kept in view, such asthe special needs of pregnant women and nursingmothers, and new born babies during the first 1000days after conception and birth”. Biofortified cropvarieties are introduced in FSN wherever available.

Farming System for Nutrition (FSN)*

*Designed by MSS for LANSA

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“Take it to the Farmer” (Dr Norman Borlaug)

Lab to Lab:All India Coordinated Research Project

Lab to LandNational DemonstrationsKrishi Vigyan Kendras (Farm Science Centre)Village Knowledge CentresDairy CooperativesFisher Friend Applications

Land to LabGlobally Important Agricultural Heritage Sites

Land to LandNational Tonnage Club of FarmersFarm Schools (Farmer to Farmer Learning)

Bridging the gap betweenscientific know-how and farmers’ do how

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Jamsetji Tata National Virtual Academy (NVA) Fellows

Celebration of the Core Competence of Rural India

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Role of Community Hunger Fighters in Biofortification

o Become well-versed on thecauses and cures for theendemic and hidden hungerprevailing in the village /town through a nutritionliteracy programme

o Identify and introduceagricultural remedies tonutritional maladies based ongender and age

o Introduce in the farmingsystem biofortified crops andvarieties

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Fighting Poverty induced Chronic HungerNational Food Security Bill of India, 2013

Goal : To provide food and nutritional security by ensuring access toadequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices

Special Features :

o Life Cycle approach with emphasis on the 1000 days of achild’s life

o The senior most woman in the household will be designatedthe Head of the Household from the point of view of foodentitlements

o Enlargement of the Food Basket by including nutri-milletsand other orphan crops in the Public Distribution System

o Entitlement : Every person belonging to priority householdsshall be entitled to receive five kilogram of foodgrains perperson per month at subsidised prices.

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Conclusions

o Enlargement of the Food Basket : Under the National FoodSecurity Act, nutri-cereals like a wide range of millets andorphan crops will be included in the Public DistributionSystem at Rs. 1 per kg (1 US Dollar - 60 Rupees)

o National Horticulture Mission : Horticultural Remedies willbe popularised for major nutritional maladies under a wellfunded National Horticulture Mission

o Launching a Nutri-Farm Movement : The Nutri-farmMovement will include the popularisation of biofortifiedvarieties and crops like iron-rich pearl millet, zinc rich wheatand rice, protein rich maize

I. Initiatives of the Government of India

The above steps will help to address both calorie deprivation and micro-nutrient malnutrition

Contd….

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Conclusions

II. Initiatives of State Governments

o Supply of protein rich grain

legumes like chickpea, beans,

pigeon pea, lentils, green and

black gram etc

o Multiple fortified salt

o Supply of eggs in school noon

meal programmes

Contd….

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Conclusions

III. Contributions of MSSRF1. Getting Governments resolve at the Asia-Pacific

conference on the Year of Family Farming that everyFamily Farm will be developed into a biofortified farm

2. Establishment of Genetic Gardens of Biofortified Cropsand varieties both for promoting nutritional literacy andthe conservation, cultivation, consumption andcommerce of such nutrition rich crops. The proposedMSSRF Genetic Garden of Biofortified crops may be thefirst of its kind in the world.

3. Take an active part in the HarvestPlus programme andother similar programmes and undertake nutritionalenrichment of staples and commonly consumedvegetables through Mendelian breeding and marker-assisted selection.

Contd….

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Conclusions

o 2013 was commemorated as the Year of Quinoa

o 2014 is observed as the International Year of FamilyFarming

o 2016 will be celebrated as the Year of Pulses

o The Second Global Biofortification Conference mayrecommend to the UN that a Year between 2018 and 2020may be observed as the International Year of Biofortifiedand Underutilised Crops. This will be an important step inmeeting the Zero Hunger Challenge by 2025, sincebiofortified crops help to address simultaneously under-and malnutrition.

Contd….

4. International Year of Underutilised and Biofortified Crops

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Six Keys to Success

1. Farmers Decision on Crop and Varietal Choice: governed by the cost – risk – return structure of farming; soil nutrient composition influences crop nutrient composition

2. Consumers Decision based on cost and culinary characteristics

3. Public – Private Partnerships: Pricing, procurement, value chain development, public distribution and social protection

Contd….

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4. Nutritional Literacy: capacity building of community hunger fighters

5. Convergence and Synergy among food and non food factors; Coalition for a Nutrition Secure India

6. Measurement of Impact: adopt measurable indicators

Six Keys to Success

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Towards an Era of Biohappiness

Sustainable Development Goals

Zero Hunger Challenge

Biofortification is the Pathway

LANSA (Leveraging Agriculture

for Nutrition in South Asia) is

an effective platform for

partnership