Motivation and Emotion
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Motivation and Emotion6-8% (previously 7-9% )11Its the only way I can get myself out of bed in the morning"
Source: New Yorker Magazine
A. Biological BasesB. Theories of MotivationC. Hunger, Thirst, Sex, and PainD. Social MotivesE. Theories of EmotionF. Stress3Summary Outline3Evolutionary View Sources of Motivation: Biological factors Emotional factors Cognitive factors Social factors 4A. Biological Bases4Instinct TheoryEvolutionary ApproachBehavioral PredispositionsDrive Reduction Theory (Homeostasis)Arousal TheoryIncentive Theory 5B. Theories of Motivation5
Unit V. States of ConsciousnessInstinct? Need? Drive? Incentive?6Hunger and Satiety as opposing processes7C. Hunger, Thirst, Sex, and Pain7Role of Hypothalamus (Stimulation and lesioning studies)Lateral Hypothalamus (LH)Lateral = SideVentromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)Ventro = Beneath, Medial = CenterDuality of Hypothalamic Functions (Hunger / Satiety)8Biological signals89
9The Role of the Hypothalamus in Hunger and Satiety 1Electrical StimulationLesioning (Destruction)Lateral HypothalamusOn switchVentromedial HypothalamusOff switch1010The Role of the Hypothalamus in Hunger and Satiety 2Electrical StimulationLesioning (Destruction)Lateral HypothalamusOn switchRat eatsVentromedial HypothalamusOff switch1111The Role of the Hypothalamus in Hunger and Satiety 3Electrical StimulationLesioning (Destruction)Lateral HypothalamusOn switchVentromedial HypothalamusOff switchRat stops eating1212The Role of the Hypothalamus in Hunger and Satiety 4Electrical StimulationLesioning (Destruction)Lateral HypothalamusOn switchRat doesnt eatVentromedial HypothalamusOff switch1313The Role of the Hypothalamus in Hunger and Satiety 5Electrical StimulationLesioning (Destruction)Lateral HypothalamusOn switchVentromedial HypothalamusOff switchRat doesnt stop eating1414The Role of the Hypothalamus in Hunger and Satiety 6Electrical StimulationLesioning (Destruction)Lateral HypothalamusOn switchRat eatsTriggers on switchRat doesnt eatRemoves on switchVentromedial HypothalamusOff switchRat stops eatingTriggers off switch
Rat doesnt stop eatingRemoves off switch1515Signals from the Blood Glucose Regulation - Glucostatic Theory (Glucostats)Hormonal RegulationInsulin (Hunger)Cholecystokinin (CKK) (Satiety)Set PointGenetic Predispositions (Fat cells, Obese Gene?) Dopamine deprived lacks the motivation to seek food but enjoys food when it is availableDrugs that elevate serotonin levels are powerful appetite suppressants
16Other Factors in Hunger and Satiety16External CuesSocial factorsCultural factorsEating DisordersObesityAnorexia NervosaBulimia Nervosa17Personal Factors in Hunger17Sexual Response CycleSex hormonesSocial-Cultural Factors in Sexuality
18Biology of Sex18TermDefinitionGender
Gender IdentityGender RolesSexual Orientation19Gender1920Achievement MotivationHow will you ever know whether youre a flying squirrel if you dont give it a shot?
20Achievement Motivation (McClelland)Fear of Failure(Fear of Success Horner)Maslows HierarchyNeed to Belong (Fromm)Industrial Organizational PsychologyIntrinsic / Extrinsic MotivationTheory X / Theory YTask / Social Leadership 21D. Social Motives2122Achievement Motivation
24Defining Emotions, Naming Emotions, Categorizing EmotionsComponents of Emotion Cognitive: Subjective FeelingsPhysiological: Autonomic ArousalBehavioral: Nonverbal Expressiveness25E. Theories of Emotion25Its refreshing to find someone today whos not angry.Emotions
2626Limbic System (Amygdala)Hemispheric Contributions to EmotionRole of Autonomic Nervous System27Biology of Emotions27James-LangeBody response then EmotionFacial feedback hypothesisCannon-BardSimultaneous Body response/EmotionSchachter-SingerBody response/Cognitive InterpretationMisattribution of arousalExcitation transfer28Theories of Emotion28I see a bear -> I tremble -> I am afraidPerception -> physical response -> emotion
Emotions are a response to what is happening to the bodyValue first attempt to explain the process- includes an interpretation aspect
William James - Carl LangeTheories of EmotionJames - Lange TheoryCannon and Bard challenged James-Lange theoryEmotions do not come about as a response to physical responsesEmotions and physical responses occur at the same timeI see a bear -> I am afraid and trembleValueEarly scientific look at emotionsAdvanced understanding of processProblemDoesnt include interpretative part of the process
Walter Cannon - Philip BardTheories of Emotion
Cannon - Bard TheoryStimulusAutonomic ArousalPerception / InterprettaionEmotionalExperienceTheories of Emotion
Schachter-Singer ModelStimulusPerceptionInterpretationStimulusContextAutonomic ArousalEmotional ExperienceFeedbackWhat is self-awareness good for?
It helps people recognize and manage fear, anger and other potentially destructive emotions.
Studies show that when people distance themselves from upsetting feelings, the rational parts of their brains (light green) tamp down emotional ones such as the amygdalaand they feel betterThinking before you react
Facial Expressions (Ekman)Cross Cultural Differences in Emotional ExperienceEvolutionary Basis of Emotion / Fundamental EmotionsSilvan Tomkins, Carroll Izard, Robert Plutchik 36Communicating Emotions36Nature of StressRole of AppraisalStressorsSources of StressFrustrationConflictChangePressure37F. Stress37Social Support, Hardiness, OptimismHealth Impairing Behavior SmokingPoor NutritionLack of ExerciseAlcohol and DrugsUnsafe SexLack of Sleep38Factors Moderating Stress38
39She wears glass slippers? This kind of aggravation I dont need39Emotional: Anger, Fear, SadnessPhysical Stress Responses: Fight or FlightGeneral Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)Behavioral: Aggression, Giving Up, Defensive Coping, Constructive Coping, Indulgence40Reactions to Stress40
41Hey. I feel better already.
41Impaired task performanceBurnoutPosttraumatic Stress DisordersStress and HealthType A Behavior / Heart DiseaseStress and the Immune System42Effects of Stress:42