Motivation and Emotion

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Motivation and Emotion. Unit 9. Why?. Why do you play sports so intensely?. Why do you practice music so long?. Why do you memorize songs?. Do you know who the Toledo Mud Hens are?. 2. Study or Party?. 3. What is learned helplessness?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Motivation and EmotionUnit 9

  • Why?2Why do you play sports so intensely?Why do you practice music so long?Why do you memorize songs?Do you know who the Toledo Mud Hens are?

  • 3Study or Party?

  • What is learned helplessness?Condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable.I have no control over what goes on around me.Its all LUCK!!!I cant do it, so why try?

  • Can it be changed?YES

  • MotivationAn internal state that activates behavior and directs it toward a goal.Includes the various psychological and physiological factors that cause us to act a certain way at a certain time.

  • William McDougallInstinct theoryNatural or inherited tendencies to make a specific response to certain environmental stimuli without involving reason.

    A flaw however:Instincts do not explain behavior; they simply label it.

  • Instincts for Humans9

  • A QuestionSo, what motivates us to action?

  • Need DriveNeed results from a lack of something desirable or usefulCan be physiological or psychological Drive an internal condition that can change over time and pushes the individual towards a specific goal or goals.Drive-reduction theoryClark HullAll human motives are extensions of basic biological needs.Some say Hull overlooked motivation.

  • TextDepravation leads to agitation.

  • Quick CheckWhat is the difference betweena need and a drive?

  • Homeostasis14

  • Clark Hull approval becomes a learned drive.

    Drive-reduction theory

  • Harry Harlow

  • Drive-reductionEmphasizes the internal states.IncentiveStresses the role of the environment.The object we seek or the result we are trying to achieve.Reinforces, goals, and rewards.Drives push needs; incentives pull to obtain.

  • Cognitive TheoryPsychologists seek to explain by looking at forces inside and outside of us that energize us to move.Two types:ExtrinsicActivities that reduce biological needs or obtain incentives or external rewards.IntrinsicEngaging in activities because those activities are personally rewarding or because engaging in them fulfills our beliefs or expectations.

  • Biological and Social Motives

  • Why is it that some people seem more motivated than others when it comes to achieving something?

  • Much of life is spent trying to satisfy biological and social needs.Biological needs are physiological requirements that we must fulfill to survive.Social needs are those that are learned through experience.

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    Some Biological NeedsSome Social NeedsFoodWaterOxygenSleepAvoidance of PainNeed to excelNeed for social bondsNeed to nourish and protect othersNeeds to influence or control othersNeed for orderlinessNeed for fun and relaxation

  • Biological MotivesCritical to survival and physical well-being.Built-in regulating systems work like thermostats to maintain such internal processes as body temperature, the level of sugar in the blood, and the production of hormones.Homeostasis the tendency of all organisms to correct imbalances and deviations.

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  • The Story of D.W.

  • HungerWhat motivates you to seek food?What produces a hunger sensation?What makes you hungry?

    To what is your body responding?

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  • Lateral Hypothalamus The part of the hypothalamus that produces hunger signals.

    Ventromedial hypothalamusThe part of the hypothalamus that can cause one to stop eating.

  • Three kinds of information the hypothalamus interprets:The amount of glucose entering the cells,Your set-point (day-to-day weight)Body temperature

  • Hunger Other FactorsExternalWhere, When, What we eatSmellPeer pressure (to eat; to not eat)PsychologicalBinge eatingDepressed eatingStress eatingBoredom

  • ObesityObese 30% or more above the ideal weight.

    Overweight 20% over the ideal weight.

    Stanley Schachter (Columbia):Research study - normal people eat when hungry and obese people eat either way.Interval cues vs. External cues.

  • Anorexia NervosaAbout 1% of people suffer from the disease.

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  • Social MotivesLearned from interactions with other people.Need for achievement.Fear of failure.Fear of success.Martina HornerAfter first term finals, ____ finds himself at the top of ____ medical school class.Bright women had a strong fear of success than did average or slightly above average women.

  • Michele Bachmann

  • Expectancy-ValueDeveloped by J.W. Atkinson

    Expectancy estimated likelihood of success.

    Value what the goal is worth.

  • Abraham MaslowHumanistic psychology.

    ALL humans need to feel competent, to win approval and recognition, and to sense they are achieving something.

  • The Need To Belong

  • What Evidence Points to Our Human Need to Belong?Aristotle - We are social

    Without friends no one would choose to live, through he had all other goods.43

  • This doesnt mean that we need...

  • Survival Staying close to kin. Cooperation.45

  • What Is It That Makes Your Life Meaningful?

  • Pause to ConsiderWhat was your most satisfying moment in the past week?

  • Happy People are distinguished by their rich and satisfying relationships.

  • Mark LearyMuch of our social behavior is directed toward increasing our belonging.To avoid rejection:ReformTo win friendships and esteem:Monitor our behaviorSeeking love and belongingJust how far are we willing to go?50

  • Sustaining Relationships

  • People Fear...Being Alone.52

  • Emotions

  • Brandi Chastain hits the winning goal.How do you think she felt?

  • Psychological vs. BiologicalDrive/motivation = the emphasis placed on needs, desires, and mental calculations that lead to goal-directed behavior.

    Emotion/affect = the feelings associated with these decisions and activities.

    Sometimes emotions function like biological drives our feelings energize us and make us pursue a goal.

  • Emotions:a subjective feeling provoked by real or imagined objects or events of significance to the individual.Result from four occurrences:Must interpret some stimulus.You have a subjective feeling.Fear or happiness.You experience physiological responses.Increased heart rate.You display an observable behavior.Smiling or crying.

  • All emotions have three parts:PhysicalHow does the emotion affect the physical arousal?BehavioralThe outward expression of the emotion.CognitiveHow we think about or interpret a situation.

  • Paul Eckman

  • Common ExpressionsJoyAngerSadnessSurpriseFearDisgustContempt*

  • The Range of EmotionsGraphic from page 329 in textbook.

  • Emotions are universal, but the expression of them is limited by learning how to express them.

  • Physiological TheoriesWilliam James (1890)Just about every emotion he read emphasized bodily change.

    The James-Lange Theory

    Facial Feedback Theory (Carroll Izard)

    The Cannon-Bard Theory

  • James-Lange Theory

    You experience psychological change.

    Your brain interprets the psychological changes.

    You feel a specific emotion.

    You demonstrate observable behavior.

  • Facial Feedback Theory (Carroll Izard)

    The muscles in your face move to form an expression.

    Your brain interprets the muscle movement.

    You feel an emotion.

    You demonstrate observable behavior.

  • Cannon-Bard Theory

    Your experience activates the hypothalamus.

    This produces messages to the cerebral cortex and your body organs. The reacting organs activate sensory signals.

    Sensory signals combine with cortical message, yielding emotion.

  • Cognitive TheoriesBodily changes and thinking work together to produce emotion.

    The Schachter-Singer Experiment

    Opponent-Process TheorySolomon-Corbit Theory

  • Schachter-Singer Experiment

    You experience physiological arousal.

    You interpret (cognitively) environmental cues.

    You feel an emotion.

    You demonstrate observable behavior.

  • Opponent-Process Theory

    Physiological processes clearly are controlled by homeostatic mechanisms.

    Operates under classical conditioning theory.

    Sympathetic = energizes the body.Parasympathetic = calms the body.