Morville@ 1 Information Architecture Designing and Organising Digital Information Spaces Part VII....

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morville@semanticstudios.com 1 Information Architecture Designing and Organising Digital Information Spaces Part VII. Enterprise IA Slide 2 morville@semanticstudios.com 2 business strategy n. Defining how an organization will use its scarce resources to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Slide 3 morville@semanticstudios.com 3 Slide 4 4 Slide 5 5 The Origins of Strategy That general is skillful in attack whose opponent does not know what to defend; and he is skillful in defense whose opponent does not know what to attack. circa 500 BC Sun Tzu, The Art of War Slide 6 morville@semanticstudios.com 6 What is Strategy? strategy The science and art of using all the forces of a nation to execute approved plans as effectively as possible during peace or war. The art or skill of using stratagems in endeavors such as politics and business. strategem A clever, often underhand scheme for achieving an objective. Slide 7 morville@semanticstudios.com 7 What is Business Strategy? Strategy is the creation of a unique and valuable position, involving a different set of activities. But the essence of strategy is in the activities choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than rivals. Michael Porter, Harvard Business School in his book On Competition Slide 8 morville@semanticstudios.com 8 Strategic Fit at Vanguard Early in its history, Vanguard established a mutual structure without precedent in the industry a structure in which the funds would be operated solely in the best interests of their shareholders. Since strategy follows structure, it made sense to pursue a high level of economy and efficiency; operating at bare-bones levels of costfor the less we spend, the higher the returns dollar for dollar for our shareholders/owners. John C. Bogle, Founder of The Vanguard Group http://www.vanguard.com/bogle_site/october192000.html Slide 9 morville@semanticstudios.com 9 Vanguards Activity System Map. Adapted from On Competition Featured in Information Architecture for the World Wide Web http://webword.com/download/chapter18.pdf Slide 10 morville@semanticstudios.com 10 Slide 11 morville@semanticstudios.com 11 We are the blind people and strategy formation is our elephant. Since no one has the vision to see the entire beast, everyone has grabbed hold of some part or other and railed on in utter ignorance about the rest. Henry Mintzberg, McGill University in his book Strategy Safari (written with Bruce Ahlstrand and Joseph Lampel) Strategy Revisited Slide 12 morville@semanticstudios.com 12 The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning by Henry Mintzberg (1993) 10% 90% Slide 13 morville@semanticstudios.com 13 Strategy Defined as 5 Ps Plan. A direction, guide, course of action. Pattern. Consistency in behavior over time. Position. Locating specific products in specific markets. Perspective.Way of doing things (The HP Way) Ploy. Specific maneuver to outwit. From Strategy Safari (Mintzberg, Ahlstrand, Lampel) Slide 14 morville@semanticstudios.com 14 PrescriptiveDescriptive Top-DownBottom-Up PlannedEmergent StableAdaptive CentralizedDistributed In todays marketplace, it is the organizational capability to adapt that is the only sustainable competitive advantage. Willie Pietersen, Reinventing Strategy Slide 15 morville@semanticstudios.com 15 Slide 16 morville@semanticstudios.com 16 Slide 17 morville@semanticstudios.com 17 Pace Layering on the Web Slide 18 morville@semanticstudios.com 18 Enterprise IA For an excellent overview, read: Enterprise Information Architecture: Dont Do ECM Without It By Tony Byrne, EContent Magazine, May 2004 Two questions resound throughout the content industry: Why do Enterprise Content Management (ECM) projects take so long to implement? And why do they fail with such alarming frequency? While all enterprise-level IT projects prove to be difficult and risky undertakings, a deeper examination of the ECM challenge in particular will reveal an endemic inattention toor at best belated appreciation ofits critical corollary: the need for Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA). Slide 19 morville@semanticstudios.com 19 http://www.louisrosenfeld.com/home/bloug_archive/images/EIAroadmap.pdf Slide 20 morville@semanticstudios.com 20 Case Studies Slide 21 morville@semanticstudios.com 21 Case Study: MSWeb 3,100,000+ pages 50,000 authors/users in 74 countries 8,000+ separate intranet sites Employees spend more than one hour per day seeking information Create a unified enterprise information portal Slide 22 morville@semanticstudios.com 22 MSWeb: An Integrated Solution Multi-Disciplinary Team Integrated Information and Technology Architecture 3 Types of Taxonomies Category Labels Metadata Schema Descriptive Vocabularies geography, languages, proper names, organizations / business units, subjects, products, standards / technology Slide 23 morville@semanticstudios.com 23 MDR Slide 24 morville@semanticstudios.com 24 Slide 25 morville@semanticstudios.com 25 Slide 26 morville@semanticstudios.com 26 Case Study HP Employee Portal Methodology (9 Weeks) Opinion Leader Interviews User Research Content, Classification & Search Log Analysis Deliverables User & Opinion Leader Reports Strategy Recommendations Report Final Presentations Slide 27 morville@semanticstudios.com 27 Employee Portal Major Problems Extremely difficult to find things via the portal No idea what category to select in taxonomy Misleading labels (e.g., HP Policies) Search is important for users but works poorly Employees use wrong keywords Employees feel guilty using alternative navigation tools 19 of 44 user testing sessions (43%) expired unsuccessfully at 3 minutes Slide 28 morville@semanticstudios.com 28 Employee Portal Recommendations Provide Multiple Finding Tools classification schemes (taxonomies) search site index Leverage CMS distributed responsibility (metadata) content value tiers (authority, strategic value, popularity) incentives to authors/owners Improve Search integrate with browsing filtering, zones, synonym management Slide 29 morville@semanticstudios.com 29 Employee Portal Recommendations Classification Schemes Sample Terms Topics*Enterprise-wide subject hierarchy. Organizations*Businesses, functions, departments (authors/owners). Countries & Locations*Geographic indicator of intended audience. Products & ServicesComplete range of HP products and services. FormatsContent/object types that are meaningful to employees. RolesMajor employee roles (e.g., managers, admins). LanguagesLanguage of documents. * implement in short-term Slide 30 morville@semanticstudios.com 30 home Slide 31 morville@semanticstudios.com 31 formats level 1 Slide 32 morville@semanticstudios.com 32 formats level 1 Slide 33 morville@semanticstudios.com 33 site index Slide 34 morville@semanticstudios.com 34 http://www.louisrosenfeld.com/home/bloug_archive/images/EIAroadmap.pdf Slide 35 morville@semanticstudios.com 35 IA Therefore I Am Peter Morville morville@semanticstudios.com Semantic Studios http://semanticstudios.com/ Asilomar Institute for Information Architecture http://aifia.org/ Findability http://findability.org/