Morphology - Syntagmatic versus paradigmatic relations in morphology Paradigmatic relations:...

download Morphology - Syntagmatic versus paradigmatic relations in morphology Paradigmatic relations: relations

of 45

  • date post

    07-Jul-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    4
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Morphology - Syntagmatic versus paradigmatic relations in morphology Paradigmatic relations:...

  • Morphology

    Final summary

    FS 2014

    Rik van Gijn

  • Part I

    Words

  • Lexeme Phonological word Grammatical word

    Words

    Types of words

  • Words

    Grammatical words (units of syntax)

    1. A word can stand alone, part of a word cannot

    4. A word can be referred to by an anaphor, part of a word cannot

    3. Other elements can come in between two words, not between parts

    of words

    2. Syntactic ordering principles can apply to words, but not to parts of

    words

    Words form relatively tight-knit bundles of information, to which

    syntactic rules have no access.

  • Words

    Phonological word (unit of phonology)

    Languages often have a number of phonological rules and principles that tend

    to converge on a certain domain which we might call a phonological word. This

    phonological word often but not necessarily coincides with the grammatical

    word, but there needs to be a systematic mapping between the two.

    Some common phonological operations that can apply to p-words. The p-word

    may be the domain for

    - Stress

    - Tone

    - Minimal word requirements

    - Phonological rules

    - Assimilation

    - Dissimilation

    - Lenition

    - Fortition

    - Vowel harmony

  • Part II

    Morphemes

  • Morphemes: form and meaning

    Morpheme

    Morpheme

    Smallest unit of language with its own meaning

    Morpheme

    Form

    Meaning

    Morpheme

    Highly idealized picture!

  • Morphemes: form and meaning

    Morpheme

    Morpheme

    Smallest unit of language with its own meaning

    Form

    Meaning

    Morpheme

    concrete abstract

    concrete abstract

    consistent variable

    consistent variable

  • Morphemes: form

    Morpheme

    Morpheme

    Smallest unit of language with its own meaning

    Form

    Meaning

    Morpheme

    concrete abstract

    Prefix Suffix Circumfix Infix Root

    Ablaut Cons mutation Subtraction Conversion Reduplication

    morphemes Morphological operations/ processes

  • Morphemes: form

    Parameter 1: position

    Position

    Describes the relative position of a marker with respect to the root.

    Morpheme

    Values

    PRAE the marker appears before the root

    POST the marker appears after the root

    IN the marker and the root are pronounced simultaneously

    SIMUL a combination of the above

  • Morphemes: form

    Morpheme

    Morpheme

    Smallest unit of language with its own meaning

    Form

    Meaning

    Morpheme

    consistent variable

    concrete abstract

  • Morphemes: form

    Exceptions to the pattern one form one meaning

    Form

    Form

    Meaning

    Morpheme Allomorphy

  • Morphemes: form/meaning

    How do we decide between single and different morpheme?

    Regularity is an important criterion for recognizing a morpheme

    MEANING

    ACROSS CONTEXTS

    FORM

    ACROSS CONTEXTS

    Regular Irregular

    Regular Single morpheme Vague or variable

    semantics

    Irregular Allomorphy Different morphemes

  • Morphemes: form

    Allomorphy

    Allomorphs

    Lexically/categorically conditioned

    Phonologically conditioned

    Transparently related

    Non-transparently related

  • Morphemes: form

    Allomorphy

    Allomorphs

    Lexically/categorically conditioned

    Phonologically conditioned

    Transparently related

    Non-transparently related

    Different allomorphs are associated with different

    lexical items and/or grammatical categories Different allomorphs are associated with

    phonological contexts

    The allomorphs cannot be related to each other on the basis of synchronic phonological rules

    The allomorphs can be related to each other on the basis of synchronic

    phonological rules

  • Morphemes: form

    Allomorphy

    Allomorphs

    Lexically/categorically conditioned

    Phonologically conditioned

    Transparently related

    Non-transparently related

    The allomorphs cannot be related to each other on the basis of synchronic phonological rules

    The allomorphs can be related to each other on the basis of synchronic

    phonological rules

  • Parameter 2: fusion

    Allomorphs

    Lexically/categorically conditioned

    Phonologically conditioned

    Transparently related

    Non-transparently related

    Morphemes: form

  • Morphemes: form

    Parameter 2: fusion

    Some common phonological operations that can apply to p-words. The p-word

    may be the domain for

    - Stress

    - Tone

    - Minimal word requirements

    - Phonological rules

    - Assimilation

    - Dissimilation

    - Lenition

    - Fortition

    - Vowel harmony

    Allomorphy

  • Parameter 2: fusion

    Fusion: the degree of tightness with which a morpheme/formative is

    integrated with its host.

    Three basic values:

    ISOLATING No p-word level processes between morpheme and

    base (p-word < g-word)

    CONCATENATIVE P-word level processes between base and morpheme,

    but morpheme can be separated from base.

    NONLINEAR Simultaneous expression of morphological process

    and base, not analyzable in any linear string (direct

    modification of the base)

    Morphemes: form

  • Morphemes: form

    Parameter 3: flexivity

    Allomorphs

    Lexically/categorically conditioned

    Phonologically conditioned

    Transparently related

    Non-transparently related

  • Morphemes: form

    Parameter 3: flexivity

    Flexivity

    Describes whether a formative/morphome has lexically determined

    (item-based) allomorphs (i.e. allomorphs that cannot be explained by

    general phonological principles).

    Morpheme

    Values

    FLEXIVE There is variation in marking one and the same category depending on the lexical context

    NONFLEXIVE Marking is invariant across lexical contexts (or phonologically fully predictable)

  • Morphemes: form

    Parameter 3: flexivity

    1. Presence of flexivity

    Can you rule out general phonological explanations for the conditioning

    and the phonetic form of the allomorphs?

    2. Locus of flexivity

    Is flexivity located in the stem or in the affix (or perhaps both?)

    3. Conditioning of flexivity

    Is flexivity arbitrarily or predictably conditioned?

    If predictable, is it lexically or categorically conditioned?

    If lexically conditioned, what is the conditioning factor?

  • Morphemes: form

    Parameter 3: flexivity

    1. Presence of flexivity

    Can you rule out general phonological explanations for the conditioning

    and the phonetic form of the allomorphs?

    2. Locus of flexivity

    Is flexivity located in the stem or in the affix (or perhaps both?)

    3. Conditioning of flexivity

    Is flexivity arbitrarily or predictably conditioned?

    If predictable, is it lexically or categorically conditioned?

    If lexically conditioned, what is the conditioning factor?

    Predictable lexical flexivity: semantics (e.g. agentivity, etymology)

    or phonology (e.g. nr. of syllables)

  • Morphemes: meaning

    Morpheme

    Morpheme

    Smallest unit of language with its own meaning

    Form

    Meaning

    Morpheme

    concrete abstract

    consistent variable

  • Morphemes: meaning

    How do we decide between single and different morpheme?

    Regularity is an important criterion for recognizing a morpheme

    MEANING

    ACROSS CONTEXTS

    FORM

    ACROSS CONTEXTS

    Regular Irregular

    Regular Single morpheme Vague or variable

    semantics

    Irregular Allomorphy Different morphemes

  • Morphemes: meaning

    How do we decide between single and different morpheme?

    Some ingredients of regularity of morphemes

    (apart from phonetic form)

    1. Consistency of meaning across contexts

    2. Consistency of resulting category

    3. Consistency of base category

    4. Consistency of the range of allomorphs

    5. Consistency of effects on the base

    6. Potentiation

  • Morphemes: meaning

    Parameter 4: exponence

    Exponence

    The degree to which different categories are grouped together in

    single, indivisable morphemes

    Values

    SEPARATIVE One meaning per morpheme

    CUMULATIVE More than one meaning per morpheme

  • Morphemes: meaning

    Cumulative exponence

    Exceptions to the patt