Moro National Liberation Front & Moro Islamic Liberation Front

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  1. 1. Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)
  2. 2. Moro National Liberation Front created 1969 by Nur Misuari tension between the native Muslim population and the newly-arrived Christian population sparked its creation to establish an independent Muslim state in the Bangsamoro region to establish an egalitarian society (Open Society), tolerant of all religions
  3. 3. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions MNLF began a rebellion against the govt on October 1972 Government troops and Muslim rebels clashed Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) appealed to the govt to end its repression of Muslims President Marcos ordered a ceasefire, proposed a peace plan MNLF rejected OIC mediated between the govt & MNLF in Tripoli parties agreed to a cessation of military hostilities
  4. 4. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions On March 1977, Marcos issued a proclamation establishing an autonomous region in the south Referendum was boycotted by the MNLF Government troops and Muslim rebels clashed Muslims fled to Sabah as refugees President Corazon Aquino & MNLF representatives signed a ceasefire agreement on September 1986
  5. 5. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions Govt and MNLF signed the Jeddah Accord on January 1987 MNLF agreed to abandon its campaign for independence in favor of autonomy for Mindanao island MNLF resumed its rebellion against the government Approval of a plan providing autonomy of the Moro provinces MNLF called upon Muslims to boycott the referendum OIC mediated, ceasefire agreement was signed by the govt & MNLF
  6. 6. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions September 1996, the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao was established with Nur Misuari as its governor World Bank and Japan provided reconstruction assistance in the ARMM beginning 2002 Issue of revenue-sharing from mineral-extraction in the ARMM On February 2013, OIC appealed to the govt & MNLF to negotiate a resolution of the remaining issues
  7. 7. Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)
  8. 8. Moro Islamic Liberation Front founded by Hashim Salamat in 1984 separated from the Moro National Liberation Front rejected the peace agreement signed by the government and the MNLF which established the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) adhered to its goal of securing an independent Muslim state in the southern Philippines
  9. 9. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions MILF rejected the establishment of ARMM Government troops launched a military offensive against the MILF rebels on 1996 Govt announced a unilateral ceasefire on December 1996 and peace negotiations began on January 1997 International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) provided emergency humanitarian assistance for displaced individuals Cessation of military hostilities went into effect on July 1997
  10. 10. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions October 1999, govt troops and MILF clashed President Estrada pursued an all-out-war against the MILF MILF declared jihad against the govt Govt troops captured Camp Omar (Maguindanao), Camp Bushra and Camp Abu Bakr Moammar Gadhafi of Libya facilitated negotiations between the parties in Tripoli on June 2001 Formal ceasefire agreement was signed in Malaysia on August 2001
  11. 11. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions On February 2003, govt clashed with MILF in Maguindanao 22 individuals were killed in a bombing attack at Davao airport on March 4, 2003; 10 were killed in political violence in Cotabato on March 26 Representatives of the govt and MILF signed a ceasefire agreement on 2003 International Monitoring Team (ITM-Mindanao) was established to monitor the ceasefire agreement
  12. 12. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions On July 2008, the govt announced a preliminary agreement with the MILF Supreme Court blocked the formal signing of the agreement on August Govt troops and MILF clashed Malaysia-mediated negotiations resumed on December 2009
  13. 13. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions Government troops and MILF clashed On September 2010, Mohagher Iqbal said that the MILF will concede to an autonomous substate rather than independence October 2012, the representatives of the govt and MILF signed the Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro On March 2014, the Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro was signed
  14. 14. Conflict, Violence and Resolutions 44 Members of Philippines National Police Elite Special Action Force (PNP-SAF), 18 Members of the MILF and 5 civilians were killed in a clash with members of MILF and Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) on Sunday January 25, 2015 Search for Malaysian bomb expert Zulkifli bin Hir (Marwan), who is reportedly being protected by the BIFF, and has a bounty of $5,000,000 from the US FBI Delay on the approval of Comprehensive Agreement on the Bansamoro
  15. 15. References: http://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi- bin/groups/view/379 http://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadm-project/asiapacific- region/philippinesmoro-national-liberation-front-1968-present/ http://web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi- bin/groups/view/309 http://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadm-project/asiapacific- region/philippinesmoro-islamic-liberation-front-1978-present/