Monoclonal antibodies

MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES Dr. JEEVAN JACOB Junior Resident in Pharmacology Calicut Medical College


Monoclonal antibodies

Transcript of Monoclonal antibodies

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Junior Resident in Pharmacology

Calicut Medical College

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-What are antibodies

-Immunoglobulin structure

-HistoryProductionTypesNomenclatureApplication and Side EffectsExamplesConclusion

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Paul Ehrlich at the beginning of the 20th century theorized that a cell under threat grew additional side-chains to bind the toxin, and that these additional side chains broke off to become the antibodies that are circulated through the body.

It was these antibodies that Ehrlich first described as "magic bullets" in search of toxins.

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What are antibodies?

An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. Each antibody recognizes a specific antigen unique to its target.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they are produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell.

Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are derived from different cell lines. They differ in amino acid sequence.

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Immunoglobulin structure

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History of MAB development

1964 Littlefield developed a way to isolate hybrid cells from 2 parent cell lines using the hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine (HAT) selection media.

1975 Kohler and Milstein provided the most outstanding proof of the clonal selection theory by fusion of normal and malignant cells

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984 was awarded jointly to Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

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Characters of Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are a single type of antibody that are identical and are directed against a specific epitope (antigen, antigenic determinant) and are produced by B-cell clones of a single parent or a single hybridoma cell line.

A hybridoma cell line is formed by the fusion of a one B-cell lymphocyte with a myeloma cell.

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Types of Monoclonal Antibodies

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Murine antibody

Whole of the antibody is of murine origin

Major problems associated with murine antibodies include

reduced stimulation of cytotoxicity Formation of complexes after repeated administration allergic reactions anaphylactic shock

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Chimeric antibodies

Chimeric antibodies are

composed of murine variable regions fused onto human constant regions.

Antibodies are approximately

65% human.

This reduces immunogenicity

and thus increases serum half-life.

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Humanised Mab

Humanised antibodies are produced by grafting murine hypervariable amino acid domains into human antibodies.

This results in a molecule of approximately 95% human origin

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Human Monoclonal antibodyHuman monoclonal antibodies are produced by

transferring human immunoglobulin genes into the murine genome, after which the transgenic mouse is vaccinated against the desired antigen, leading to the production of monoclonal antibodies

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Applications of Monoclonal Antibodies Diagnostic Applications

- Detects protein of interest either by blotting or immunofluorescence

Therapeutic ApplicationsTransplant rejectionCancerAutoimmune disordersInflammatory disease

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Arcitumomab Arcitumomab is a murine Fab fragment from an

anticarcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody labeled with technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) that is used for imaging patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma (immunoscintigraphy) to determine extent of disease.

CEA is often upregulated on tumor in patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas.

The use of the Fab fragment decreases the immunogenicity of the agent so that it can be given more than once.

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Capromab pendetide Capromab pendetide is a murine monoclonal antibody

specific for prostate specific membrane antigen.

It is coupled to isotopic indium ( 111 In) and is used in immunoscintigraphy for patients with biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer and post-prostatectomy in patients with rising prostate specific antibody level to determine extent of disease.

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Ibritumomab tiuxetan Ibritumomab tiuxetan is an anti-CD20 murine monoclonal

antibody labeled with isotopic yttrium ( 90 Y) or 111 In.

The radiation of the isotope coupled to the antibody provides the major antitumor activity.

Ibritumomab is approved for use in patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade, follicular, or B-cell non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma, including patients with rituximab-refractory follicular disease.

It is used in conjunction with rituximab in a two-step therapeutic regimen.

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Tositumomab Tositumomab is another anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and

is complexed with iodine 131 ( 131 I).

Tositumomab is used in two-step therapy in patients with CD20-positive, follicular non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma whose disease is refractory to rituximab and standard chemotherapy.

Toxicities are similar to those for ibritumomab and include severe cytopenias such as thrombocytopenia and neutropenia.

Tositumomab should not be administered to patients with greater than 25% bone marrow involvement.

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Side effectsmore common side effects Allergic reactions, such as hives or itching

Flu-like symptoms, including chills, fatigue, fever, and muscle aches and pains



Skin rashes

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Infusion reactions. Severe allergy-like reactions can occur and, in very few cases, lead to death

Dangerously low blood cell counts. Decreased red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets

Cardiac complications Certain monoclonal antibodies may cause heart failure and a small risk of MI

Bleeding. Some of the monoclonal antibody drugs are designed to stop cancer from forming new blood vessels. There have been reports that these medications can cause bleeding

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Muromonab (OKT-3)First FDA-approved therapeutic monoclonal

antibody was a murine CD3 specific in 1986Target CD3 and their blockade suppresses activity

of T cells Indicated in prevention of transplant rejection

in patients receiving kidney, Heart, liver transplants

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S/E – Cytokine release syndrome

- Due to initial activation of T cells and release of cytokines before T cell clearance by macrophages

- Fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, hypotension

- As soon as T cells eliminated, symptoms improve

- Pre-treatment with antihistamines and glucocorticoids reduces risk

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AbciximabChimeric antibody binds to GP IIb/IIIa receptors on

platelets and prevents their aggregationAntiplatelet agent approved 2 mg IV

- In patients undergoing PCI

- In patients with unstable angina not responding to conventional medical therapy when PCI is planned within 24 hours

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RituximabmAb binds to CD20 protein on normal and

malignant B lymphocytesThe mechanism of action includes complement-

mediated lysis, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and induction of apoptosis in the malignant lymphoma cells.

Rituximab approved in dose of 375 mg/m2 IV weekly for 4 weeks for treatment of non hodgkins lymphoma, CLL

S/E – severe infusion reactions, steven johnson’s syndrome

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Ofatumumab Ofatumumab is a human IgG 1 monoclonal antibody directed

against a different epitope on CD20 than rituximab.

It is approved for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who are refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab.

Ofatumumab binds to all B cells including B-CLL. It is thought to lyse B-CLL cells in the presence of complement and to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

There is a slight risk of hepatitis B virus reactivation in patients taking ofatumumab.

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Basiliximab  Basiliximab  is a chimeric mouse-human

monoclonal antibody to the α chain (CD25) of the IL-2 receptor of T cells.

It is used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, especially in kidney transplants.

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Daclizumab  Daclizumab is a therapeutic humanized monoclonal


It is used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, especially in kidney transplants.

Daclizumab works by binding to CD25, the alpha subunit of the IL-2 receptor of T cells.

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Palivizumab  Palivizumab is produced by recombinant DNA technology.

It is used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. It is recommended for infants that are high-risk because of prematurity or other medical problems such as congenital heart disease.

Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG) directed against an epitope in the A antigenic site of the F protein of RSV.

Palivizumab is dosed once a month via intramuscular (IM) injection, to be administered throughout the duration of the RSV season.

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Infliximab Infliximab is a human-mouse chimeric IgG 1

monoclonal antibody possessing human constant (Fc) regions and murine variable regions.

It is administered intravenously but has the same

anti-TNF-α activity as adalimumab and etanercept.

approved for use in Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, plaque psoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis.

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TrastuzumabHumanized mab that binds to human epidermal growth

factor receptor HER2/neu

Prevents binding of natural ligand and down regulate the receptor

Approved for metastatic Ca breast with overexpressed HER2/neu

S/E - Cardiomyopathy

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Gemtuzumab Humanized MAB specific against CD33, protein found on leukemic

blast cells in AML

Gemtuzumab alone has some antiblast activity, clinical formulation has coupled to cytotoxic agent ozogamicin

Internalization of both by tumor cells releases the cytotoxic agents, binds to DNA leading to cell death

Approved for patients of AML not responding to cytotoxic agents in 2 doses of 9 mg/m2 IV separated by 2 weeks

S/E – severe myelosupression, hepatotoxicity, hypersensitivity reactions

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Alemtuzumab Humanized anti CD52 antibody that binds to normal and

malignant B and T cells, NK cells

Approved 30 mg IV once weekly for treatment of B-cell CLL failed to respond to alkylating agents

S/E – neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, patient should be closely monitored for opportunistic infections

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Adalimumab Adalimumab is a completely human IgG 1 approved for use in

patients with rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis,psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn’s disease, and plaque psoriasis.

Like the other anti-TNF-α biologicals, adalimumab blocks the interaction of TNF-α with TNF receptors on cell surfaces; it does not bind TNF-β.

Adalimumab lyses cells expressingTNF-α in the presence of complement.

Pharmacodynamic studies showed that administration of adalimumab reduced levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, serum IL-6, and matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-3.

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CetuximabMAB that targets epidermal growth factor receptor

(EGFR) Binding of cetuximab to EGFR inhibits tumor growth by

variety of mechanisms, including decrease in kinase activity, MMP activity, growth factor production and increased apoptosis

Approved for metastatic colorectal carcinoma whose tumor overexpresses EGFR

Cetuximab 400 mg/kg loading followed by 200 mg/kg weekly IV alone or in combination with irinotecan

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Omalizumab is an anti-IgE recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that is approved for the treatment of allergic asthma in adult and adolescent patients whose symptoms are refractory to inhaled corticosteroids.

The antibody blocks the binding of IgE to the high-affinity Fc receptor on basophils and mast cells, which suppresses IgE-mediated release of type I allergy mediators such as histamine and leukotrienes.

Total serum IgE levels may remain elevated

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Bevacizumab, Ranibizumab Humanized antibody against VEGF, thus preventing


Approved 5 mg/kg IV every 2 weekly till disease progression declines, for use in combination therapy with fluorouracil-based regimens for metastatic carcinoma colon and non–small-cell lung cancer.

S/E – Since it is antiangiogenic, patient should be watched for hemorrhage, GI perforations and wound healing problems

Off label, it is used IV for neovascular macular degeneration

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Natalizumab Humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody that binds to the α4-

subunit of α4β1 and α4β7 integrins expressed on the surfaces of all leukocytes except neutrophils, and inhibits the α4-mediated adhesion of leukocytes to their cognate receptor.

The drug works by reducing the ability of inflammatory immune cells to attach to and pass through the cell layers lining the intestines and blood–brain barrier.

Ithas proven effective in treating the symptoms of both diseases, preventing relapse, vision loss, cognitive decline and significantly improving quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis, as well as increasing rates of remission and preventing relapse in Crohn's disease

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Panitumumab Panitumumab , is a fully human monoclonal

antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor 

Used in the treatment of refractory EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer in patients with non-mutated (wild-type) KRAS

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Eculizumab Eculizumab  is a humanized monoclonal antibody that is a

first-in-class terminal complement inhibitor and the first therapy approved for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH),

Eculizumab also is the first agent approved for the treatment of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), an ultra-rare genetic disease that causes abnormal blood clots to form in small blood vessels throughout the body, leading to kidney failure, damage to other vital organs and premature death.

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Certolizumab pegol

Certolizumab pegol is a therapeutic monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), for the treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis,

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Golimumab Golimumab targets tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha),

a pro-inflammatory molecule  and hence is a TNF inhibitor.

subcutaneous treatment for adults with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.

 Golimumab has been approved in 2013 for use in adults with moderately to severely active Ulcerative Colitis.

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Canakinumab Canakinumab  is a human monoclonal antibody targeted

at interleukin-1 beta. It has no cross-reactivity with other members of the interleukin-1 family, including interleukin-1 alpha.

Canakinumab was approved for the treatment of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes

CAPS is a spectrum of autoinflammatory syndromes including familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle–Wells syndrome, and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease.

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Catumaxomab Catumaxomab is a rat-mouse hybrid monoclonal

antibody which is used to treat malignant ascites, a condition occurring in patients with metastasizing cancer. It binds to antigens CD3 and EpCAM.

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Ustekinumab Ustekinumab is a human IgG 1 monoclonal antibody that

binds to the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It blocks IL-12 and IL-23 from binding to their receptors, therefore inhibiting receptor- mediated signaling in lymphocytes

Ustekinumab is approved in Canada, Europe and the United States to treat moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

It has been tested in Phase II studies for multiple sclerosis and sarcoidosis, the latter versus golimumab.

On September 24, 2013, the FDA approved the use of ustekinumab for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis.

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Tocilizumab Tocilizumab is an immunosuppressive drug, mainly for the

treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, a severe form of RA in children.

It is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 receptor(IL-6R). 

Interleukin 6(IL-6) is a cytokine that plays an important role in immune response and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, multiple myeloma and prostate cancer.

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Denosumab Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody for the

treatment of osteoporosis, treatment-induced bone loss, bone metastases,multiple myeloma

Human IgG 2 monoclonal antibody specific for human RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand).

By binding RANKL it inhibits the maturation of osteoclasts, the cells responsible for bone resorption.

Before starting denosumab, patients must be evaluated to be sure they are not hypocalcemic. During treatment, patients should receive supplements of calcium and vitamin D.

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Belimumab Belimumab  also known as B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS)


Belimumab is approved for treatment of SLE.

U.S. F.D.A. reviewers were concerned that belimumab is only "marginally" effective, and that there were more deaths in the treatment group.

Belimumab's defenders said that in addition to its modest efficiency, belimumab allowed patients to significantly reduce their use of corticosteroids.

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Ipilimumab Ipilimumab for the treatment of melanoma. It is a monoclonal

antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can recognize and destroy cancer cells.

In addition to melanoma, ipilimumab is undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), small cell lung cancer (SCLC), bladder cancer,and metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

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Brentuximab vedotin

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) directed to the protein CD30, which is expressed in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL).

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Pertuzumab Pertuzumab is a monoclonal antibody for the treatment of

HER2-positive breast cancer, in combination with trastuzumab and docetaxel.

The first of its class in a line of agents called "HER dimerization inhibitors".

By binding to HER2, it inhibits the dimerization of HER2 with other HER receptors, which is hypothesized to result in slowed tumor growth

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Raxibacumab injection is a monoclonal antibody targeting the protective antigen (PA) component of the lethal toxin of Bacillus anthracis and is being developed for the treatment of inhalational anthrax

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Trastuzumab emtansine Trastuzumab emtansine is an antibody-drug conjugate

consisting of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) linked to the cytotoxic agent mertansine (a maytansine derivative; also known as DM1).

Trastuzumab alone stops growth of cancer cells by binding to the HER2/neu receptor, whereas mertansine enters cells and destroys them by binding to tubulin.

Because the monoclonal antibody targets HER2, and HER2

is only over-expressed in cancer cells, the conjugate delivers the toxin specifically to tumor cells

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Vedolizumab is a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody, inhibits adhesion and migration of leukocytes into the gastrointestinal tract by binding the α4β7 integrin

Blocking the α4β7 integrin results in gut-selective anti-inflammatory activity

Treatment of ulcerative colitis

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Conclusion Monoclonal antibodies are Antigen specific, can be

produced against any type of antigen, hence vast diagnostic applications

Target specificity, a novel therapeutic approach particularly in cancer

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Katzung's - Basic and Clinical Pharmacology 12th edition MD consult Wikipedia

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