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    Chaperone Enzyme Provides New Target for Cancer Treatments

    Altered Gene Protects Some African-Americans from Coronary Artery Disease


2. 3. 4. Introduction
Everyday we are all exposed to UV rays, which is slowly causing alterations in our DNA and creating effects that are inherited with the passage of time. Therepairmethods are of vital importancetoassist in thetranscription of genetic material, notonlytorepairbutalsotoavoidtransmittingmutationsthroughgenerations.
5. Explanationfirst new
Chaperonesare enzymesthatpromoteproperfolding of newlysynthesizedproteins. Its has a quaternarystructurefor a number of subunitsthat resemble a kind of molecular box.These chaperones are notpart of theprimarystructure of a functionalprotein, butonlyjoinittohelp in itsfolding, assembly and cellulartransporttoanotherpart of thecellwheretheproteinperformsitsfunction.
6. A DNA polymerase is a holoenzyme that assists in DNA replication. It catalyzes the polymerization of dNTPs (deoxyribonucleotides) and of ddNTPs (dideoxyribonucleotides) alongside a template ssDNA. It "reads" this ssDNA using it as a template. The newly polymerized molecule is complementary and antiparallel to the template strand and identical to the template's partner strand.All DNA pols synthesize DNA in the 5' to 3' direction.
7. Cancer: proliferation of cells, a persistent, abnormal and relatively independent of a series of structural changes in certain cells capable of transmission to other cells.Cancer in a cell changes its genetic makeup so that this change creates a clone that multiplies and how the tumor mass.
Xerodermapigmentosum (XP) referringtoitscharacteristicdry, pigmentedskin. Is a raredisordertransmitted in anautosomalrecessivemanner. Itischaracterizedbyphotosensitivity, pigmentarychanges, prematureskinaging, and malignant tumor development.1 Thesemanifestations are dueto a cellularhypersensitivitytoultraviolet (UV) radiationresultingfrom a defect in DNA repair.
8. There are many factors that can produce a tumor, but there are many others who are unknown.Genetic factors are located in the DNA, such as in producing chromosome trisomies.Radiation: There are a lot of radiation-related diseases especially ionizing type.Smoke: causes cancer of the lung, pancreas, bladder, pharynx, mouth. The probability of having or developing cancer among smokers decreases nearly to equal that of nonsmokers, if the first quit smoking during a period of approximately ten to fifteen years.
9. Firts new personal comment
Observation: exogenous agents such as sunlight and cigarette smoke (just to name a few) are constantly affecting the cell replication. The chaperone in its work against this stress-induced lifestyle, should be very focused in the search for treatment todifferent types of cancer where takingthe cells toapoptosis turnsinofficious .
10. Explanationsecond new
Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease, affects about 14 million men and women in the United States.
Disease develops when a combination of fatty material, calcium, and scar tissue builds up in the arteries that supply the heart with blood. Through these arteries, called the coronary arteries , the heart muscle (myocardium) gets the oxygen and other nutrients it needs topump blood.
The plaque often narrows the artery so that the heart does not get enough blood.
This slowing of blood flow causes chest pain, or angina.
If plaque completely blocks blood flow, it may cause a heart attack (myocardial infarction) or a fatal rhythm disturbance (sudden cardiac arrest).A major cause of death and disability, coronary heart disease claims more lives in the United States than the next 7 leading causes of death combined.
11. As a child, the inner lining of the coronary arteries is quite smooth, allowing blood to flow easily. As a person ages, the cholesterol and calcium content in the walls of the coronary arteries increases, making them thicker and less elastic.
Unhealthy habits, such as a diet high in cholesterol and other fats, smoking, and lack of exercise accelerate the deposit of fat and calcium within the inner lining of coronary arteries.
This process is known as atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. The deposits, or plaques, eventually obstruct the blood vessel, which begins to restrict blood flow.
Plaque is like a firm shell with a soft inner core containing cholesterol. As blood hits it during each heartbeat, the plaque may crack open and expose its inner cholesterol core, which promotes blood clotting. Clots may further reduce blood flow, causing severe pain (angina), or even block it all together.
12. Coronary Heart Disease Causes

  • Hereditary: Coronary heart disease runs in the family.

13. High cholesterol :Levels of cholesterol in the blood are above healthy levels. This usually involves high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), the bad cholesterol, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the good cholesterol.Tobacco abuse: This includes not only smoking any form of tobacco (cigarettes, cigars, pipes). 14. Obesity 15. HypertensionDiabetes 16. Lack of regular exercise 17. High-fat diet 18. Emotional stress 19. Type A personality (impatient, aggressive, competitive)