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    Modelling Passenger Flows

    in Public Transport Facilities

    Winnie Daamen

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    Cover illustration: Winnie Daamen

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    Modelling Passenger Flows

    in Public Transport Facilities

    Proefschrift

    ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor

    aan de Technische Universiteit Delft,

    op gezag van de Rector Magnificus prof. dr. ir. J.T. Fokkema,

    voorzitter van het College voor Promoties,

    in het openbaar te verdedigen op donderdag 9 september 2004 om 10:30 uur

    door Winnie DAAMEN

    civiel ingenieur

    geboren te Leidschendam

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    Dit proefschrift is goedgekeurd door de promotor:

    Prof. dr. ir. P.H.L. Bovy.

    Samenstelling promotiecommissie:

    Rector Magnificus, voorzitter

    Prof. dr. ir. P.H.L. Bovy, Technische Universiteit Delft, promotor

    Dr. ir. S.P. Hoogendoorn, Technische Universiteit Delft, toegevoegd promotor

    Prof. dr. J. Kerridge, Napier University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom

    Prof. dr. M. Schreckenberg, Universitt Duisburg-Essen, Deutschland

    Prof. dr. H.J.P. Timmermans, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven

    Prof. dr. W.E. Walker, Technische Universiteit Delft

    Prof. dr. B. van Wee, Technische Universiteit Delft

    Trail Thesis Series, T2004/6, The Netherlands TRAIL Research School

    This thesis is the result of a Ph.D. study carried out from 1998 to 2004 at Delft University

    of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Department Transport &

    Planning.

    Published and distributed by: DUP Science

    DUP Science is an imprint of

    Delft University Press

    P.O. Box 98

    2600 MG Delft

    The Netherlands

    Telephone: +31 15 27 85 678Telefax: +31 15 27 85 706

    E-mail: info@library.TUDelft.nl

    ISBN 90-407-2521-7

    Copyright c 2004 by Winnie Daamen.

    All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be

    reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, includ-

    ing photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without

    written permission of the publisher: Delft University Press.

    Printed in The Netherlands

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    v

    P(everythingflows)

    -Heraclites

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    vi TRAIL Thesis series

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    Preface

    Until the early seventies of the last century, pedestrian traffic has hardly been subject of

    research. About that time, researchers started studying pedestrian behaviour more in-

    tensively, first by watching and deriving (simple) theories and models from what they

    observed. Only recently, when more advanced observation techniques became avail-

    able, computers became faster and could handle larger and more complicated models,the number of available pedestrian models as well as their application scope and accuracy

    increased significantly.

    Despite these developments, designers of public transport stations and other public fa-

    cilities accommodating large pedestrian flows nowadays still use simple rules of thumb.

    Meeting the increasing needs of these designers for more advanced assessment tools was

    the impetus for my doctoral research to develop a dedicated simulation tool for modelling

    passengerflows in larger multi-modal public transport facilities. This new simulation tool

    does not only include walking behaviour as such, but covers as well the main behavioural

    dimensions in pedestrian behaviour in public accommodations, including route choice,

    performing activities, and boarding and alighting from public transport vehicles. For the

    validation of the modelled walking behaviour, I have performed innovative large-scale

    laboratory experiments involving large groups of subjects, who were assigned various

    walking tasks with respect to among other things walking direction and walking speed.

    In developing the new models, I did extensive observations of passenger behaviour on

    railway platforms in the city of Delft and route choice observations in the railway stations

    of the cities of Delft and Breda. A variety of case studies have shown the applicability

    of the new tool, given the name of SimPed. The alternations between the theoretical and

    practical activities of the dissertation research formed one of the attractive aspects of mywork.

    This doctoral research followed from a joint research endeavour by Delft University of

    Technology and Holland Railconsult. It is part of the research programme Seamless Mul-

    timodal Mobility (SMM), carried out within the Netherlands Research School for Trans-

    port, Infrastructure, and Logistics (TRAIL). This research programme studies all kinds of

    components of a multimodal transport system, such as travel demand modelling, design

    of multimodal transport networks, design of robust timetables, and operational control of

    line-bound public transport services.

    Several years of dedicated research and hard work form the foundation of this thesis. I

    vii

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    viii TRAIL Thesis series

    am indebted to each from whom I have learned and who have contributed in many ways

    to this dissertation.

    First of all, I wish to acknowledge the crucial contributions of my thesis supervisor pro-

    fessor Piet Bovy, supporting my research with admirable enthusiasm. Secondly, I would

    like to express my thanks and gratitude to my daily supervisor Serge Hoogendoorn forhis scientific, mathematical, and personal support. Being always very critical, but at the

    same time prepared to help me finding solutions for seemingly inexplicable traffic phe-

    nomena. Their critical comments and many suggestions made this thesis more than I

    could have done by myself alone. In addition, I would like to thank all members of the

    promotion committee, taking the time to read this dissertation thesis and to provide very

    useful suggestions for improvement.

    The design and implementation of the developed simulation tool SimPed were performed

    at my former employer Holland Railconsult, whereas the scientific research underlying

    the simulation tool leading to this thesis has been conducted at the Transport & Planningdepartment of the faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences of the Delft University

    of Technology. I like to thank Sidney van de Stouwe formerly from Holland Railconsult

    for making this research possible at Holland Railconsult, as well as Patrick van Esch

    and Jack Kruijer for their efforts and dedication in developing the simulation tool and

    performing the first assignments (including the necessary work late at night and during

    the weekends). I would especially like to thank my former colleagues from the very

    beginning of this endeavour (of the department Processimulatie) for being a closely-

    knit group and making me realise there is more in life than just work, even at work.

    I would equally like to thank my colleagues of the Transport & Planning department

    with whom I had many inspiring discussions especially during the last two years of my

    research. Despite the hard working needed, there was always time for a helping hand, an

    encouraging word, an interested question, or just a chat. I have had (and still have) a great

    time working with you!

    Last but not least, special thanks go out to my family, being there for me when I needed

    them, for much more than just this piece of paper. Id like to dedicate this thesis to

    them, since it would not have been possible without their continuous encouragement and

    support.

    Winnie Daamen

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    Contents

    Preface vii

    List of Figures xv

    List of Tables xxi

    Notation xxiii

    1 Introduction 1

    1.1 Research motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1.2 Research objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    1.3 Research approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    1.4 Thesis contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    1.5 Relevance of the research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

    1.6 Outline of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    2 User requirements of a pedestrianflow simulation tool 11

    2.1 Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    2.2 Performance indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    2.3 System requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    2.3.1 Graphical user inter