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Modals Destinations

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  • e Modals: abillty, permssion, advice, criticism, obligation and necessity,degrees of certainty

    lUfodals; abilityUse Modal Example

    Expressing ability now or generally can I can run a kilometre in four minutes.Expressing decisions made nowabout future ability can We can meet at the gym tomorrow,if you like.

    Expressing ability in the past could I could do fifty press-ups with one hand when Iwasyounger.Expressing ability in present futureor general hypothetical situations could lf only I could quit smoking!

    Expressing ability in pasthypothetical situations

    could + perfectinfinitive

    I could have roasted the potatoes, but I decided that bolng themwos healthier,

    We use be able to for the infinitive and other tenses.,/ I'd love to be able to fit into these jeans agolnl (infinitive)/ I'll be able to leave hospital in a few weeks, apparently. (future)/ I've been able to swim since I was five. (present perfect)

    Modals; perrnissonUse Modal Example

    Asking for and giving permission now,for the future or generally


    May / Could / Can I seethe doctor,pleose?


    May is more polite than could,and cauld is more polite than con.We don't usually use a modal to talk about past permission./ lwas allowed to wear a knee support during the match.xHowever, we do use could to talk about past permission in reported speech.,/ fhe coach said I could wear a knee support during the match.


    Modals; adviceUse Modal Example

    Asking for and giving advicenow, for the future or generally

    shouldought to You ought to / should cut down on the amount of red meat you eat.

    fftodals; criticismUse Modal Example

    Crticising past behaviourshould

    ought to(+ perfect infinitive)He ought to / should have made more of an effort with his diet.

  • Modals: ability, permission, advice, crticism, obligation and necessity, degrees of certanty Unit 13

    n Dfi;dals: obliga:tion and necessityExample

    I must / have to / need to pick up that prescription fromthe chemist on the waY home.must / have to / need to

    You needn't / don't have to / don't need to pick up thatprescription from the chemi:i. as ru g itwhile fneedn't I don't have todon't need tot had to take the pills three times a daY for t49 vveeks'

    : Expressing Past obligationI needn't have gone / didn't have to go / didn't need toneedn't (+ perfect infinitive) /

    didnt haveto / didn't need to

    There is usually no difference in meaning between must and have to' However, we are sometimesmore likely to use musf for personal obligation (making our own decision about what we must do)and havefo for external obiigation (somone else mak'ng a d-ecision about what we must do)'We can also se wi!! have/need fo to express future obligation'j you'il have/need to be more carefu! about what you eat in future.It is unusual to use must for questions.we usually use have/need to./ Oot have/need to take ths mdicine before every meal?Must cannot be used as an infinitive' Use to have to'/ td hate to have to have iniections every doy'xMustn,t and don,t/doesn,t have/need to have different meanings.i Vo, mustn't do that! (Don't do thatl)/ You don't have/n"li Ao that. No,u can do that if you want to but it's not necessary')Needn,t(+perfectinfinitive)alwaysreferstoanactionthathappened.'Oit

    nr"'to and didn't need to cn refer to actions that did or didn't happen'/ I needn't have goneto the doctor.(l went but it wasn't necessary.)/ t didn't havelned to go to the doctor because I suddenly felt better' (l didn't go')/ t didn,t have/neealiio to tne doctor but !went iust to be on the safe side. 0 did go')@ Be careful with the verb need. lt can also take the -ing form'

    / I need to sterilise this sYringe.,/ Tns syringe needs sterilising-


    Modals; degrees of certaintYExampleUse Modal

    Expressing certaintY (ornear certainty) about nowor generally



    That must be the dstrict nurse atthe door.These can't / couldn't be the pills;they're the wrong colour'

    She must hqve been in a lot of Pain.His teg can't / couldn't have been in plaster for two years!

    You ouEht to / should fee! better in a few days, os long as youget lots of rest.

    Expressing certainty (ornear certainty) about thepast


    couldn't(+ perfect infinitive)

    Expressing probabilitYabout noqthe future orgenerally


    Expressing probabilityabout the past

    shouldought to

    (+ perfect infinitive)The bruise ought to / should have disappeared days ago' Iwonder why it didn't.

    Expressing possibility aboutnow, the future or generallY



    You should talk to your doctor first because that diet could /may / might be dangerous

    Expressi ng possibility aboutthe real past


    might(+ perfect infinitive)

    That coatd I may / might have been the doctor whorangearlier while we were out.

    Expressing possibility abouta hypothetical past


    (+ perfect infinitive)It's a good thing you went to the doctor or you cotild / mighthave become quite ill.


  • 73 Grammar

    A lf a word 0r phrase in bold is correct, put a tick (4.ft it is incorrect, rewrite it correctly on theline.

    1 Can you to speak French?2lcangiveyouahandtomorroWmorning,ifyoulike.3 l'll can take my driving test after a few more lessons.4 Jack can play the guitar before he learnt to talk!5 lf only I can afford to buy that top!6 We can have gone up the EiffelTower while we were in Paris, but we decided to go to the

    Louvre instead.7 I could get a more expensive computer, but t didnt seem worth it: .................8lwishlcouldgetoutofthemathste5ttomorrow!..............9 I bet you'd love to be can to get satellite TV.

    10 You'd better tell the coach if you can't playing on Saturday

    B Circle the correct word or phrase. lf both options are correct, circle both.1 Hello. Could / Can I speak to Mrs Johnson, please?2 We could / were allowed to go home early yesterday because our teacher was ill.3 The head teacher said we could / were allowed to go home.4 Do you think I should I could be worried about these spots on my forehead?5 You ought to / should enter that talent contest!6 You couldn't / shouldn't talk to people like thatl lt's rude!7 Alan should write / have written two essays in the exam yesterday, not one!8 No, you rnay i should not go out tonight.You know you're groundedl9 Diana should have waited / been waiting for me at the corner.I wonder where she went.

    1O What were you doing in the park? You ought to have done / been doing your homeworkthen!

    1 1 Yes, of course you can / are able to open the window if you're too hot!

    {t Writeaformof musf haveto,needorneedt0ineachgaptoc0mpleteihesentences. lf m0rethan one possibility is correct, write all possibilities'

    'l Oh,l ..................... ...... remember to get some potatoes on the way home tonight.Z Jason .... see the headmaster during the next break.l wonder what

    it's about?3 We .... light lots of candles during the power cut two nights ago.4 l'll..................5 Carl, you ................... ........ run into the street like that without looking's

    dangerous!6 People with solar-powered cars .............. worry about the price of petrol.7 I wouldn't like to .... get up at five o'clock every morning.I We ............... do any washing-up after the picnic because we'd used

    disposable plates and cutlerY.g Do professional musicians................. .......... practise every day?' 0 I ..................... ...... have bothered cooking all that food; they d eaten before they



  • Modals: ability, permission, advice, cricism, obligation and necessity, degrees of certainty Unit 7

    B Complete each second sentence using the word given, so that it has a similar meaning to thefirst sentence. Write between two and five words in each gap.

    His lights are on so l'm pretty sure Dan is at home. as,Dan ..............Susiet car's not here so she's almost certainly taking Dobber to the vet. b'e

    Dobber to the vet since her car's nothere.There's no way that boyt Simon. Het much taller! boy

    ... Simon. He's much taller!l'm certain the Winners don't think we're coming tonight; we arranged it for nextTuesday.expectingTheWinners..... tonight; we arranged it for nextTuesday.I bet you were exhausted after such a long journey! haveYou .............. .... exhausted after such a long journey!The only explanation is that Evan was on the phone to someone in Australia! talkingEvan ................r,,.........i.r............:... on the phone to someone in AustralialTheret no way Casey won the disco dancing competition

    - he's got two left feet! have

    Casey the disco dancing competition -

    he's gottwo left feet!I don't believe Helen's been trying to call us allday.The phone hasnt rung once. beenHelenonce.

    Use the words in the box only once to complete the sentences in Table A. The meanng of thesentences in Table B will help you.

    able "

    cannot "

    could u had o have "

    miEht a tustneedn't"s mustn't. ought. should . will

    Table A Table B1 I ......................;.. have left my bag on the bus. expressing certainty2 ln a few months,l'll be .. to buy a car. exp ressi ng futu re abi lity3 I ......................... drive when I was thirteen years old! exp ressi n g past abi I ity4 No,you .. have any more pocket money! refusing a request5 I thnk tou ...:..................... consider a career in the

    armed forces. giving advice

    6 I ......................... forget to phone Julie tonight! exp res s i ng perso n a I o b li g ation7 I ......................... to havea filling at the dentist's. exp ress i ng externa I ob I i gati o n i n