MLA Presentation Spring 12

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    MLA Documentation Style

    Adapted from:

    Writing Resources Centerhttp://wrc.uncc.edu/

    http://wrc.uncc.edu/http://wrc.uncc.edu/
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    2

    Integrating Sources &

    Avoiding Plagiarism

    Writers need to understand current definitions of

    plagiarism, which have changed over time, and which

    differ from culture to culture.

    Adapted from:

    Lunsford, Andrea. The Everyday Writer. 3rd ed. Boston, MA:

    Bedford/St. Martins, 2004. Print.

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    What is Plagiarism?

    In an instructional setting, plagiarism occurs when a

    writer deliberately uses someone elses language, ideas, or

    other original (not common-knowledge) material without

    acknowledging its source.

    This definition applies to texts published in print or

    online, to manuscripts, and to the work of other students.

    http://www.wpacouncil.org/node/9http://www.wpacouncil.org/node/9
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    Plagiarism Is a Cultural Concept

    Many cultures do not recognize Western notions ofplagiarism, which rest on the belief that language andideas can be owned by writers.

    In many countries other than the U.S., using the wordsand ideas of others without attribution is considered a signof respect as well as an indication of knowledge.

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    What is NOT Plagiarism?

    Most current discussions of plagiarism fail to distinguish

    betweenplagiarismand misuse of sources.

    A student who attempts (even if clumsily) to identify andcredit his or her source, but who misuses a specific

    citation format or incorrectly uses quotation marks or

    other forms of identifying material taken from other

    sources, has not plagiarized. Instead, the student has

    failed to cite and document sources appropriately.

    http://www.wpacouncil.org/node/9http://www.wpacouncil.org/node/9
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    Materials That Require

    Acknowledgement

    Quotations, paraphrases, summaries

    Facts not widely known or claims that are arguable

    Help provided by others

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    Quoting, Paraphrasing, and

    Summarizing Quoting: You present the ideas and the wording of

    a source, unchanged from the original (placedwithin quotation marks and cited)

    Paraphrasing: You present the ideas of a source

    unchanged, but you express them in your ownwriting style (doesnt need quotation marks, butstill should be cited)

    Summarizing: You present the important ideas of a

    source in briefer form and in your own writingstyle (doesnt need quotation marks, but stillshould be cited)

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    Materials That Do NOT Require

    Acknowledgement

    In academic writing in the U.S., you should credit all

    materials except:

    Common knowledge

    Ideas available in a wide variety of sources

    Your own findings from primary or field research

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    Understand Reasons to Credit Sources

    Show that you are a knowledgeable and credibleresearcher.

    Demonstrate fairnessthat you have considered multiplepoints of view.

    Provide background for your research by placing it in thecontext of the work of others.

    Help readers follow your thoughts and understand howyour ideas relate to those of others.

    Point readers where to go to find more information onyour subject.

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    10

    IN-TEXT

    CITATIONS

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    Writing Resources Center 11

    Sample In-text Citations

    Basic Format for an in-text citation:

    (Authors last name page number).

    After a Direct Quotation:

    In the debate over toothpaste brands, Nine out of ten

    doctors choose Crest (Mills 106).

    After a Paraphrase:

    In arguments regarding brands of toothpaste, a majority

    of doctors picked Crest (Mills 106).

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    Writing Resources Center 12

    Sample In-Text Citations

    When using sources in your paper, you may refer

    to the author in the beginning of the sentence

    setting up a quote, paraphrase or summary. In this

    case you only need to cite the page number:

    In the debate over toothpaste brands, Mills says

    Nine out of ten doctors choose Crest (106).

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    Writing Resources Center 13

    Sample In-text Citations

    Quotations more than 4 lines are indented 1 inchwith no quotation marks and double-spaced. Thepunctuation comes before the citation.

    A recent study found the following:The placebo effect, which had been verified inprevious studies, disappeared when behaviors werestudied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors

    were never exhibited again, even when real drugs

    were administered. Earlier studies were clearlypremature in attributing the results to a placeboeffect. (Miele 276)

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    Writing Resources Center 14

    In-text Citations: Special Cases

    If the source has no known author, then use an

    abbreviated version of the title

    Full title: California Cigarette Tax Deters SmokersCitation: (California 56)

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    Internet Sources

    Direct Quotations: Use the original sources languageverbatim (word for word) and include quotation marks as well

    as an in-text citation.

    Print source:

    A traffic ticket is a public document because it is: (a) a document issued by apublic employee during the conduct of public business, (b) a record stored in agovernment database, and (c) an exhibit in a legal proceeding (Harrington 7).

    Internet source:

    A traffic ticket is a public document because it is: (a) a document issued by a

    public employee during the conduct of public business, (b) a record stored in agovernment database, and (c) an exhibit in a legal proceeding (Harringtonpar. 3).

    Note that a page or paragraph number appears in the citation.

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    QUOTING,PARAPHRASING,

    ANDSUMMARIZING

    16

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    Proportion: Using Quotations Sparingly

    Novice writers may be tempted to over-quote. Over-quoting tends to weaken an argument:

    The essay will tend to ramble and consequently will lack focus

    The author may inadvertently reveal a very unpersuasive lack of

    self-confidence

    Quote only those parts of others writing that relate to yourclaim.

    Quote only when necessary for establishing authority,making a clarification, providing context, pinpointing a

    controversy, creating a dramatic effect, or showcasingeloquence.

    Use paraphrasing and summarizing whenever possible.

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    Avoiding Misuse of Sources

    Frequently, students unintentionally misuse sources when

    they attempt toparaphrase: to rephrase someone elses

    ideas into your own words and sentence patterns.

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    Paraphrasing

    Samples to Review:

    Original Sentence: The number of studentsentering UNC Charlotte has grown during the last

    30 years. Author John White Page: 33

    Paraphrased Sentence in MLA citation style:

    Over the past three decades, UNC Charlotteexperienced increased student enrollment (White33).

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    Paraphrasing

    The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the

    population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century

    American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a

    feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm

    hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide ofimmigrants. With industry came urbanization, the growth of large cities

    (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived), which became

    the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade.

    Williams, Joyce G., Eric Smithburn, and M. Jeanne Peterson, eds. Lizzie

    Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s. Bloomington,

    IN: TIS Publications, 1980. Print.

    http://www.library.arizona.edu/help/tutorials/plagiarism/index.htmlhttp://www.library.arizona.edu/help/tutorials/plagiarism/index.html
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    An Unacceptable Paraphrase Is

    Too Close to the Original

    The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the

    population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As

    steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the

    country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs

    for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large

    cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived, which turned into centers of

    commerce and tradeas well as production.

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    Acceptable Paraphrase

    According to Williams, Smithburn, and Peterson, Fall River, where t