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  • 1. Using MLA StyleCitationPrepared by Prof. H. Williams Summer 2012

2. Do we need to cite thisstatement?The worst effect of Europeanscolonization of Africa was how the imageof God was colonized.Why or why not? 3. Questions to ask yourself: Is there a serious difference of opinion on the subject?Is it something YES NO Do the ideas or wordseveryone would know?come from someoneelse?YESNOYESNOCite your Dont cite. Justsource !state as fact or yourpersonal opinion. 4. Sample of citing the same source in text ofyour paper using the MLA format. Dr. John Henrik Clarke argues that the European conquest of Africa was facilitated by their colonization of the image of God. According to Clarke, European colonizers denied conquered people the right to see God through their own imagination and that this was a key tool that they used to conquer the mind of Africans (Clarke 34).The full info will be listed at the end of the paper on aseparate page titled Works Cited . (Text from Dr. JohnHenrik Clarke s Christopher Columbus and the AfricanHolocaust.) 5. What do I need to cite? Direct quotes, statistics, facts Summaries or paraphrased info Info/ideas not generally known Someone elses opinions or analysis that might look like its your ownAdapted from U Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center hand-out on APA format 6. Why list/cite references? Allows readers (or you) to find and double-check a source for accuracy Protects you from charges of plagiarism Shows that you are working with facts, notjust your opinion and your conclusions arebased on evidence Shows professors/ readers that you havedone the work to put together a good paper(this is the equivalent of showing your workin a math class) 7. Soon they forget who theyplucked They whole style from []Im not a biterIm a writerFor myself and othersI say a B.I.G. verse Im only bigginup my brother -Jay-Z What More Can I say fromThe Black Album 8. A few common citation formats MLA = Modern Language Association. Commonin Arts and Humanities. APA = American Psychological Assn. Commonin Social Sciences. (Sociology, Psychology, etc.) Chicago Style = Common in History, someacademic journals.Physical sciences use varying formats andindividual instructors may have their ownrequirements. ASK if you re unsure. Whateverformat you choose, apply it consistently. 9. A closer look at MLA styleentries 10. Format for MLA Citations Full Reference info is listed for each entry onthe last page titled Works CitedFootnotes are generally not usedEntries on Works Cited page are doublespacedWorks Cited entries are listed alphabeticallyby authors last name.See SEEK coursepack and the Purdue U.OWL site for details 11. Book with one author: MLA formatLast name, first name of author. Title of Book, In Italics. Publishers location: name of publisher, year published. 12. Title page of bookPublishersnameYearpublishedA uthorsname Publishers location B ook title 13. Sample MLA entry: book with oneauthor A uthors A uthors first nameB ook title last name in italicsDyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcolm: Indent after first The Myth and Meaning of MalcolmD ouble- line Spaced X. New York: OxfordtextPublisherslocationUniversity Press, 1995. Publishers Publicationname year 14. Format for MLA style references:article or essay in an edited bookLast name, first name of author. Title of article (in quotation marks). Name of books editor, Title of book in italics. Publishers location: name of publisher, year of publication. Page numbers of article. 15. Title page of book: what to look for B ooksPublishers publisherlocation Name of books editorYearPublished 16. Table of contentsTitle of essayyourequotingA uthor of essay Page numbers of essay 17. Sample MLA entry of article or essay inA uthorsedited booklast A uthorsTitle of essay you B ook editorsname first nameare quotingnameBoggs, James. The Influence of Malcolm X onIndentafter firstthe Political Consciousness of BlacklineD ouble-Americans. Ed. Dr. John Henrik Clarke,spacedtext Malcolm X: The Man and His Times. Trenton,Title ofbook the NJ: Africa World Press, 1993. 50-56.PublishersessayYearlocationappears inB ookbook wasPage( in italics) publisherpublished numbers of essay 18. Sample MLA Works Cited pageList everyYour last name Page numbersource you Title the lastquote in pageWilliams 4alphabeticalorderWorks CitedBoggs, James. The Influence of Malcolm X on the Political Consciousness of Black Americans. Ed. Dr. John Henrik Clarke, Malcolm X: The Man and His Times. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 1993. 50-56.Dyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. 19. Resources 20. Selected ResourcesCCNY Writing Center (see quick links on CCNY webpage) One-on-one help with formatting, style, and writing issues.CCNY Library (see quick links on CCNY webpage) Help with style and research questions.U Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center( Has nice online style sheets and helpful hand-outs.Purdue University Online Writing Lab (See link on coursesite) Excellent guide for style and formatting.Google documents ( 21. Revised June, 2012Some rights reservedThis work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 UnportedLicense. To view a copy of this license, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, California,94041, USA.