Milkfish culture report
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- 1.Milkfish CultureIntroduction:The milk fish is one of the most important food fish and protein source in the world. It makes upabout 40% of the Philippines total aquaculture production. Milkfish culture is carried out mainly in brackish water ponds. production methodsintensified and supplemental is increasingly use to supply the increasing demand.
2. People of Indonesia, Philippines and Taiwan use severalhundred thousand of hectares of lands to grow Milkfish. This large growing activities use large numbers of youngmilkfish fingerlings. In the past, these large number of fingerlings were met bycaptured wild fingerlings. After the wild fingerlings were depleted in many areas in thepast 20years, large milk fish male and females. Maintain in ponds or net cages have been used to reproducethe highly needed finger lings. 3. Classification of Milkfish: Phylum: Chordata Class: Actinopterygii Order: Gonoryn chiformesFamily: Chanidae (only species)Genus: Chanos Species: Chanos chanos 4. Common name of Milkfish in many countries: USA: Milkfish Japan : Sabahii Central taiwan : masaba south taiwan : Hi Tsu HiiChina: Su Mu YiiPhilippines : Sabalo,Bangus Hawaii : Pua Awa,AwaIndonesia : Bendeng Bolu 5. Habits of Milkfish: Milkfish are herbivores and eat diatoms, blue,green, algae, and occasionally some animalssuch as nematodes and copepods. they feedthroughout the year either at the surface oron the both pond. 6. Habitat of Milkfish Young milkfish migrate from the seas to thecoastal areas and may arc end estuaries, riversand lake before migrating back to the sea atmaturity benthopelagic , catadromous, freshH2o.depth range 10-13m. 7. Biology of Milkfish: Adults occur in small to large schools near the coastal oraround islands where reefs are well developed. Eggs and larvae are pelagic up to 2-3 weeks. older larvaemigrate on shore and settle in coastal wetlands during thejuvenile stage or occasionally enter fresh water lakes. Juvenile and sub adults return to sea where they maturesexually. spawns only in fully saline water. larvae eatzooplankton. juveniles and adults cyanobacteria, soft algae,small benthic invertebrates and even pelagic fish eggs andlarvae. Larvae are collected from rivers and are grown in cultureponds into juveniles which are marketed fish. 8. Spawning of Milkfish Maturation is reached rather week season, april-july andseptember-november. Late in life at least age 4 years inmales and 5 or older in females. Fertilization in external, the eggs reign released in the opensea near the shore do float to the surface. As many as 7million eggs have been estimated to produceby a single large female. All attempts to obtain from females either by naturalspawning or by stripping in ponds have failed. In others milkfish spawn only during summer. 9. Early development stage of young milkfish: Blastula stage Eye-cup forming Pigmentation forming Body elongation Lath embryo Hatching Stage 1:yolk sac larvae(3.2-5.4 mm) 3 days Stage 2:pre flexion larvae(5.0-6.3mm)5 days Stage 3:flexion larvae(5.4-10.0mm)6 days Stage 4:post flexion/fry(6.4-14.9mm)7 days Stage 5:transformation(6.4-14.9mm)2-4 weeks 10. Culture of milkfish This is extremely important aqua cultural specieswherever it occurs. sexual maturity in reach latein life and it in difficult to induce mature fish tospawn in captivity. because large scale artificialpropagation has not been successful, seed fishare still obtained fro natural reproduction. Larval rearing in out color ponds is successful. 1.pre culture- benthic algae 10-30 ppt. 2.pond culture(brackish water) plankton method Cage culture(mariculture) 11. Site selection for Milkfish Culture: Naturally or inexpensively, qualify for locatingmilkfish culture. Ponds should provide water retentive soil base,exposed by digging of top soil of the site to pondbottom and embankments. The soil should possess basic mineral nutrientsand respond readily to organic and inorganicfertilizer. There should be a dependable source ofperennially available water in adequate quantityfor the size of the culture. 12. .Self draining ponds should be use on sloping sites..The physical and chemical properties of the water arewithin acceptable limits, such the water quality can befurther manipulated by chemical treatment to suitaquaculture needs..the site is easily accessible by rail and/or road and air..there is a market in the vicinity..there is no industrial, domestic or pesticide pollution atthe site..there are reasonable educational and medical facilitiesavailable in the vicinity of the site. 13. Pond preparation:Pre-stoking Management Cleaning: At first we must clean the pond properly. We have to clean aquatic weed and cut down large plantsso that the sunlight directly fall into the pond. Maintenance of sanitation and good water quality are thetwo most important task in the hatchery. For hatcheries in good sites with biologically clean water,tanks are simply cleaned with detergent solution andClorox, or sprayed with hot water and diluted Cloroxapplied to sites (Mc Veyand fox 1983), then dried for atleast a day before stocking. 14. After each run, tanks as well as pipelines andmaterials use in the hatchery are disinfectedwith 12%Na hypo chlorite at 200 ppm for 24hrs. 15. Ploughing the pond: The ponds are drained completely during lowtides. the bottom is leveled, rake with awooden rake or ploughed to bring the sub-surface soil nutrients to the surface and toeradicate weeds. The pond bottom is leveled in such a way thatit slopes gradually towards the deepestportion of the pond. 16. Drying ponds: The ponds dried and exposed to the sun fortwo or three days until the layer of surface soilcracks. In order to get rid of any predatory fish orpredatory pests burrowing in the mud. Drying also helps in the mineralization oforganic mailer in the soil. 17. Fertilizing: The pond is then treated with chicken manure at therate of 2 tons/ha. Water is just to cover the pond bottom and 150kg/haof 16-20-ONPK fertilizer or half that quantity of 18-46-ONPK fertilizer per ha, is added after 2or 3 days.inorder to speed up the breakdown of the chickenmanure, urea may be added at the rate of 25kg/ha.Within a week lablab growth start. The water level in the pond is then gradually increasedto 25-30 cm in a period of one and half-monthincreasing the level by 3-5cm each time. 18. Watering: Watering should be done after 4-7 days offertilizing. Watering is done by water pump orother source. Water is done up to 2-4 feet. 19. Stocking: Fry can be stocked directly in the nurserypond if the salinity of the water in which thetransported is approximately the same as thesalinity of the pond water. 20. Stocking management: The density of fry in the nurseries is generally 30-50 per m. some exchange of water may beneeded it is reported that the growth of Milkfishfry is retarded at salinity above 45ppt. Favorable temperatures for growth are above23c. artificial feeds like rice bream or driedcumut are provide. In about one and half to two, the fry have growthto a weight of 1-3g and are then either stock inthe rearing ponds or transferred to transition orstunting ponds. 21. Fry selection Fry should be healthy Fry must be diseases free It can tolerant environmental fluctuation The fry captured are between 10-30mm. Inlength. 22. Fry collection and transportation: This includes fry barriers or fences, sine net andbulldozer nets. The collected milkfish fry placed in well ventilatedcontainers preferably wooden vats of big earthenjar filled with clean brackish water. The containers must be kept in cool areas. Over exposed to sun light should be avoided. The fry should also be brought to theconcessionaries buying stations without delay. 23. Stocking density: Repeated stocking is done with fingerlings andfry of different sizes. Stocking rates may be as follows:2000 to 2500fish per ha. For large over winteredfingerlings:1500to200 fish per ha. Forsmall:6000 to 7000 fish/ha. Some ponds are stocked at a low density for4000 fry/ha. To ensure faster growth. 24. Species composition: In freshwater ponds milk fish can be culturedwith mullet, tilapia and carp with yieldsaveraging 7,500 kg/ha. In brackish water ponds, shrimp, mud crabsand sea bass most common species combinedwith milkfish. 25. Feeding of Milkfish: Fish feeds are 2 types, such as natural feeds plankton, benthos which is produced in pondsby minoring. The other is supplementary feed such as richbran, wheat brand, sesame oil cake, mustardoil cake, grasses etc. 26. Monitoring: Environmental parameters such as watertemperature, salinity and p should be checkedtwice daily. MAINTAINING WATER QUALITY: Cleanliness must be strictly maintained to ensurebest results. constant vigilance is required toprevent or control out breaks of disease. The wall of the tank should be cleaned with a softbrush every third day. 27. Health management of milkfish: 1:regularly have to control the water quality. 2:regularly have to given the supplementaryfeed and life food. 3:have to observe the growth rate of milkfish. 4:have to maintain the p temp. salinity etc. 5:regularly have to observe the fry to freefrom discuses and parasites. 28. Suitability of culture of Milkfish: Economically friendly Highly productivity High community acceptance Sustainable culture of Milkfish depends onvarious factors, For sustainable development the followingvariables are important. Production aspects Environmental aspects Economics and community aspects 29. Advantages of Milkfish culture: Milkfish spawners have a high fecundity, they arecapable of producing an abundant supply of fry. The fry are easy identify and are caught inseason. Milkfish are hardy, euryhaline and are capable ofenduring a salinity range of 0 to 158 ppt. They are basically herbivorous but they can bealso omnivorous. Formulated feed for Milkfish can be available atlow costs. 30. Advantages of milkfish culture: 1.Milkfish spawners have high fecundity. 2.the fry are easy identified and are caught in