Military Theory and Strategy (cont)
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Military Theory and Strategy (cont)Lsn 3
AgendaForms of ManeuverLevels of WarElements of Operational DesignBasic Army Elements
Forms of Maneuver
Forms of ManeuverThe five forms of maneuver are the envelopment, turning movement, infiltration, penetration, and frontal attack.
EnvelopmentThe envelopment is a form of maneuver in which an attacking force seeks to avoid the principal enemy defenses by seizing objectives to the enemy rear to destroy the enemy in his current positions. Envelopments avoid the enemy front, where he is protected and can easily concentrate fires. Single envelopments maneuver against one enemy flank; double envelopments maneuver against both. Either variant can develop into an encirclement.Example: The Germans conducted a double envelopment of the Russians in the World War I battle of Tannenberg.
Turning MovementA turning movement is a form of maneuver in which the attacking force seeks to avoid the enemy's principal defensive positions by seizing objectives to the enemy rear and causing the enemy to move out of his current positions or divert major forces to meet the threat.A major threat to his rear forces the enemy to attack or withdraw rearward, thus "turning" him out of his defensive positions. Turning movements typically require greater depth than other forms of maneuver. Example: The Inchon landing in the Korean War
InfiltrationAn infiltration is a form of maneuver in which an attacking force conducts undetected movement through or into an area occupied by enemy forces to occupy a position of advantage in the enemy rear while exposing only small elements to enemy defensive fires Typically, forces infiltrate in small groups and reassemble to continue their mission.Infiltration rarely defeats a defense by itself. Commanders direct infiltrations to attack lightly defended positions or stronger positions from the flank and rear, to secure key terrain to support the decisive operation, or to disrupt enemy sustaining operations. Example: Hutier tactics in World War I
PenetrationA penetration is a form of maneuver in which an attacking force seeks to rupture enemy defenses on a narrow front to disrupt the defensive system.Commanders direct penetrations when enemy flanks are not assailable or time does not permit another form of maneuver. Successful penetrations create assailable flanks and provide access to enemy rear areas. Because penetrations frequently are directed into the front of the enemy defense, they risk significantly more friendly casualties than envelopments, turning movements, and infiltrations.Example: Shermans Meridian Campaign and his March to the Sea
Frontal attackThe frontal attack is frequently the most costly form of maneuver, since it exposes the majority of the attackers to the concentrated fires of the defenders. As the most direct form of maneuver, however, the frontal attack is useful for overwhelming light defenses, covering forces, or disorganized enemy resistance. It is often the best form of maneuver for hasty attacks and meeting engagements, where speed and simplicity are essential to maintain tempo and the initiative. Commanders may direct a frontal attack as a shaping operation and another form of maneuver as the decisive operation. Example: The Charge of the Light Brigade in the Crimean War
Levels of WarStrategicOperationalTactical
Levels of WarStrategicLevel at which a nation, often as a member of a group of nations, determines national or multinational strategic security objectives and guidance, and develops and uses national resources to accomplish these objectives
Example: The Allies Strategic Objective for Europe in World War IICombined Chiefs directed Eisenhower to enter the continent of Europe and, in conjunction with other Allied nations, undertake operations aimed at the heart of Germany and the destruction of her armed forces
Levels of WarOperationalLevel at which campaigns and major operations are conducted and sustained to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or areas of operationLink tactics and strategy
Example: Eisenhowers Operational Objective at NormandySecure a foothold on the continent of Europe from which to support offensive operations against Germany
Levels of WarTacticalLevel at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to accomplish military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces
Example: Tactical Objectives of the Airborne Forces on D-DaySecure exits from the beaches to allow the amphibious forces to move inlandBlock German counterattack routes to protect amphibious forces
StrategyStrategy is the pursuit, protection, or advancement of national interests through the application of the instruments of powerInstruments of power (DIME)DiplomaticInformationalMilitaryEconomic
Traditional Military StrategiesAttritionThe reduction of the effectiveness of a force caused by loss of personnel and materiel ExhaustionThe gradual erosion of a nations will or means to resistAnnihilationSeeks the immediate destruction of the combat power of the enemys armed forces
OperationsCampaigns are the operational extension of the commanders strategyThey are a series of related military operations aimed at accomplishing a strategic or operational objective within a given time and spaceCampaigns should be planned to adhere to the elements of operational design
Elements of Operational Design
Elements of Operational DesignSynergySimultaneity and depthAnticipationBalanceLeverageTiming and tempoOperational reach and approach
Elements of Operational Design (cont)Forces and functionsArranging operationsCenters of gravityDirect versus indirectDecisive pointsCulminationTermination
Elements of Operational Design (cont)SynergySeek combinations of forces and actions to achieve concentrations in various dimensions, all culminating in attaining the assigned objective(s) in the shortest time possible and with minimum casualtiesExample: In the US Civil War Jacksons Shenandoah Valley Campaign relieved pressure on Lee outside of Richmond.Simultaneity and depthPlace more demands on adversary forces than can be handled both in terms of time and spaceExample: Operation Just Cause (Panama) in 1989 involved simultaneously attacking 26 separate locations.
Elements of Operational Design (cont)AnticipationRemain alert for the unexpected and opportunities to exploit the situationExample: Believing the Arab armies were poised to strike, Israel launched a preemptive strike in the 1967 Six-Day War.BalanceMaintain the force, its capabilities, and its operations in such a manner as to contribute to freedom of action and responsiveness Example: The Allies decided on a Germany First strategy for World War II.
Elements of Operational Design (cont)LeverageGain, maintain, and exploit advantages in combat power across all dimensionsExample: In World War I the Germans leveraged new technology by waging unrestricted submarine warfare.Timing and tempoConduct operations at a tempo and point in time that best exploits friendly capabilities and inhibits the adversaryExample: The German Blitzkrieg of World War II maximized speed.
Elements of Operational Design (cont)Operational reach and approachThe distance over which military power can mass effects and be employed decisivelyExample: In the Korean War, the North Koreans overextend their operational reach making them vulnerable to having their line of communications cut at Seoul.Forces and functionsFocus on defeating either adversary forces or functions, or a combination of bothExample: Shermans March to the Sea targeted Confederate functions of war-making ability and while at the same time Grants Overland Campaign targeted Lees forces.
Elements of Operational Design (cont)Arranging operationsAchieve dimensional superiority by a combination of simultaneous and sequential operationsPhases: Deter/engage, Seize initiative, Decisive operations, TransitionExample: The coalition air campaign in Operation Desert Storm created the conditions necessary for the ground campaign.Centers of gravityThose characteristics, capabilities, or sources of power from which a military force derives its freedom of action, physical strength, or will to fightDestroying or neutralizing adversary centers of gravity is the most direct path to victoryExample: The North Vietnamese effectively influenced the US center of gravity of domestic support during the Vietnam War.
Elements of Operational Design (cont)Direct versus indirectTo the extent possible, attack centers of gravity directly, but where direct attack means attacking into an opponents strength seek an indirect approachExample: The North Vietnamese used guerrilla tactics to neutralize the US firepower advantage in Vietnam.Decisive pointsUsually geographic in nature, but can sometimes be key events or systemsGive a marked advantage to whoever controls themKeys to attacking protected centers of gravityExample: Each of the bridges in Operation Market Garden in World War II was a decisive point.
Elements of Operational Design (cont)CulminationPoint in time and space at which an attackers combat power no longer exceeds that of the defender or the defender no longer can preserve his forceExample: Napoleon was defeated in Moscow in 1812 by General Winter.TerminationMilitary operations typically conclude with attainment of the strategic ends for which the military force was committed, which then allows transition to other i