Military Achievements and Leaders: Ancient Greece

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Military Achievements and Leaders: Ancient Greece. Created By: Andrew Boyce Hussein Rajan Luke Siekris. SPARTA. The Spartan People. Expert warriors At the age of 20 named fully fledged warriors Knew only one home and family, the barracks and their unit - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Military Achievements and Leaders: Ancient Greece

  • Military Achievements and Leaders: Ancient GreeceCreated By: Andrew Boyce Hussein Rajan Luke Siekris

  • SPARTA

  • The Spartan PeopleExpert warriorsAt the age of 20 named fully fledged warriorsKnew only one home and family, the barracks and their unitGirls also given rigorous training to become mothers of healthy childrenWomen regarded as most beautiful in all Hellas and as tough in spirit as menSpartan people freest in all GreeceMother to son Come back with your shield or on it

  • Training for Spartan SoldiersTraining started at age 7Physical training was a mustTraining was harsh but effective Fox TimeEach soldier learned absolute and unwavering loyaltyAlso learned to swim, jump, run, wrestle, box, and most importantly danceThought dancing helped in the movements of battle Spartans do not ask how many, but where

  • HoplitesHeavily armoured infantrymenWore bronze helmet, breastplate, and greaves (shin protectors)Each carried a hoplon, meaning a weapon, and a wide, heavy wooden shield reinforced with bronzeHoplites mean man at armsThe main unit in a Greek armyHoplite training was based more on working in numbers than individuality Forms phalanx

  • PhalanxLine up shoulder to shoulderHeld shield up with one hand and spear with otherPush spears between shieldsEach rank does thisMinimum 7 ranksEnemy sees a wall of shields and spearsOnce they met enemy, the men in the back would push forward If a man died on a spear, his body would be flung around until the battle is over

  • Leonidas and Heroic Stand at Thermopylae A Spartan kingMade a last stand at Thermopylae to give Greek cities time to prepare defencesHad 300 Spartans and 7000 other allies against an army 20 times that sizeChose to fight in a mountain pass so the Persians couldnt use their numbersFirst day, the Persian leader Xerxes sent in his regular troops who got butcheredSecond day, Xerxes sent in his best troops, Immortals, but they were also beaten backOn the second night, Greek traitor told Xerxes of a pass to get behind Spartan forceLeonidas learned of this and sent his allies awayRemained with his 300 Spartan bodyguardsFought in a tight circle so the enemy could not break their formation

  • Leonidas died fighting and a fierce battle was fought over his bodyPersians pushed back four timesArrows finally killed last SpartansBody of Leonidas beheaded and crucifiedBravery still looked back on todayBritish held pass against German advance in World War II at Thermopylae but were surrounded and overwhelmed

    Above: King Leonidas

  • Brasidas431 B.C. Repelled an Athenian sea borne attack against Methone429 B.C. Elected high official425 B.C. Helped plan out assault against Athenians at battle of Pylos, severely wounded424 B.C. Thwarts an Athenian attack against Megara and due to his diplomatic and military skills, manages a successful expedition to Macedonia where he convinced them to break all allegiance to Athens422 B.C. Dies fighting at the battle of Amphipolis

  • AmphipolisBrasidas shows commanding geniusAthenian commander sent a force Brasidas knew he couldnt beatBrasidas waited until commander told his men to head back to the base, thinking Brasidas wont fight himBrasidas charges out into an unorganized Athenian army, causing heavy casualtys and making the army fleeThe Spartans lost only 9 men, 1 of whom was Brasidas

  • VSThe Persian War

  • What was the Persian War?The war was fought between Greece and PersiaConsisted of 11 major battles from 492 B.C.E to 449 B.C.EThe battles of Marathon and Salamis were considered to be the most decisive ones in the history of the Persian/Greek war.Battle of Marathon took place on September 12, 490 B.C.E Militiades and Datis who led them to victory led the Greek armyBattle of Salamis took place in 480 B.C.E Greek army led by Themistocles, which was another victoryThemistocles was one of the most influential leaders in Greek history There were 4 main Greek and Persian commanders during the time of these battles.There were 2 different Greeks fighting the Persians, the Ionians and AtheniansThe war ended in a signing of a peace treaty

  • Timeline of Events500 BCE - Ionian Greek revolt within Asia Minor (this is what started the Persian/ Greek war)490 BCE - Battle of Marathon (Decisive Greek victory over the Persians)481 BCE- Greek League (Greek league against Persia, with Sparta in charge of the army, and Athens, the navy.)480 BCE- Battle of Thermopylea (Persian victory)479 BCE- Battle of Salamis and Plataea (Salamis was a naval victory for the Greeks and Plataea was the battle that ended the Persian invasion)479 BCE- Battle of Mycale (Another decisive victory for the Greeks)477 BCE- Aristides forms Delian League (Athens, in charge of the Delian League, went on the offensive to free the Ionian cities.)466 BCE- Battle of the Eurymedon River (The last Greek victory in the war)449 B.C. - Peace of Callias (Persia and Athens sign peace treaty)

  • Conditions that Influenced the WarMany Greek colonists set out from mainland Greece, evicted by the Dorians, and ended up in Ionia in Asia MinorThe Ionian Greeks came under the rule of the Lydians and King CroesusIn 546 BCE the Persians took over Ionia, leaving the Greeks under Persian ruleThe Ionian Greeks found the Persian rule oppressive and attempted a revolt with the help of the mainland GreeksMainland Greece then came to the attention of the Persians and war between them begunWith mainland Greece invading Ionia, now under Persian rule, created a lot of tension and anger causing both countries to fight back

  • Effects of the Persian War on the Greek EmpireAthenians felt that the Persian war was a defining moment in their historyThe victory of the war over Persia made Athens one of the strongest city- states in Greece Wealth followed with the power as Greece gathered lots of money and riches from the warMany states started looking towards Athens for help opposed to SpartaThe alliances that Athens made after the victory as well as the Delian league would catapult it into immense powerThis power made Athens the cultural center of the Greek world The Spartans grew increasingly frightened of Athenian power and suspicious of their intentionsAlthough Athens had this great amount of power, it would also cause their downfallThis would eventually lead to the Peloponnesian war

  • ThemistoclesBorn in 524 BCE and died in 460 BCEHe was the son of NeoclesAthenian general and statesmanOne of the Greeks best military commandersCommanded the Athenian fleet at the battle of SalamisConvinced the Athenians to strengthen and expand the Greek navy, which eventually led to the victory at SalamisThe navy grew from 70 to 200 shipsHe had the harbors fortified as wellFunding for this came from the new silver mines and the total money used came out to about sixty million dollars

  • After the death of Militiades, Themistocles gained a sufficient amount of power and did great things to GreeceHe had Piraeus made into a harbor/fortress for AthensAthens thus became the finest trade center in GreeceThemistocles was considered a hero However with the passage of time he became less popular and resentedIn 471 BCE, he was ousted and retired to Argos where Artaxerxes I, king of Persia, welcomed him

  • The Battle of MarathonTook place in Marathon, GreeceTook place on September 12, 490 BCEThe first victory over the PersiansLed by Militiades and DatisAthens army was about one third the size of the PersiansThe Athenian army consisted of 10,000 Athenians and 1,000 PlataeansThe Greeks managed to win by enclosing the Persians in a circleThe Persians had nowhere to run and were taken out by the onslaught of GreeksThe Greeks then marched back to Athens to celebrate their victory when they came across another Persian forceThe Greeks, exhausted and hungry, managed to fight off the invading Persian force and defend the city

  • Peloponnesian WarSparta Athens VS

  • What Was The Peloponnesian War? The Wars were fought between Athens and Sparta and their allies respectively.Athenians were lead by Pericles, but he died in the second year of the war from the plague that killed many of Athenss population. There were two main Peloponnesian WarFirst Peloponnesian War was from 460-445 BCE and the second war was from 431-404 BCEThe first war ended with a truce. Athens would maintain their empire of the sea and the Spartans would maintain their empire on land. Athenians were very strong at sea, and the Spartans were strong on land. In the war, the Spartans out numbered the Athenians 2-1. In the second war, Sparta won and became the leading force in the region. Spartas victory lead to the fall, and eventual end of the great Athenian Empire.

  • Timeline of Events 460-445 BC - First Peloponnesian War445-431 BC Peace Treaty between Athens and Sparta was made. It dissolved after 14 years, even though it was supposed to last 30 years.431 BC- Second Peloponnesian War begins. This was the main and most significant of the two wars because it lead to the collapse of Athens and might of Sparta.430 BC- Plague in Athens which claims the life of Pericles (he died a year later in 429 BC), the leader of the Athenians in the first two years of the war. After he died, he was succeeded by Nicias.421 BC- the Peace treaty of Nicias was signed. This was treaty was signed because the sides thought they could wear each other down but since they couldnt, they decided a treaty would be better and Sparta could keep the land it conquered and Athens could keep its allies and continental territories. Alcibiades was Nicias enemy in parliament and he convinced the Athenians to keep fighting.

  • 415-413 BC- The Athenian expedition to Syracuse, where they lost badly.