Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Property Evolution during

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Transcript of Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical Property Evolution during

Microstructure, Texture and Mechanical

Property Evolution during Additive

Manufacturing of Ti6Al4V Alloy for

Aerospace Applications

A thesis submitted to the University of Manchester for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy in the faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences

2012

Alphons Anandaraj ANTONYSAMY

School of Materials

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CONTENTS

ABSTRACT 6

DECLARATION 8

COPYRIGHT 9

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 10

DEDICATION 11

PUBLICATIONS AND ORAL PRESENTATIONS FROM THIS PROJECT WORK 13

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 15

LIST OF FIGURES 16

LIST OF TABLES 28

1 INTRODUCTION 30

1.1 WHAT IS ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM) 30

1.2 ADVANTAGES OF AM 31

1.3 GENERAL LIMITATIONS OF AM 32

1.4 Ti ALLOYS IN AEROSPACE 32

1.5 APPLICATIONS OF AM 33

1.6 WHAT ISSUES ARE THERE WITH METALLIC AM? 39

1.7 AIMS OF THE PROJECT 40

1.8 THESIS OUTLINE 41

2 LITERATURE REVIEW 42

2.1 METALLURGY OF TITANIUM AND ITS ALLOYS 42 2.1.1 History of Ti 42 2.1.2 Ti crystal structure and nature of anisotropy 42 2.1.3 Effect of alloying elements on phase transformation 44 2.1.4 Classification of Ti alloys 45 2.1.5 The + alloys 46

2.2 SOLIDIFICATION THEORY 47 2.2.1 Nucleation theory 47

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2.2.2 Growth behaviour 53 2.2.3 Important variables that controls melt-pool solidification behaviour 58

2.3 SOLID STATE PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN TITANIUM ( ) 62 2.3.1 Diffusionless transformation: 64 2.3.1.1 Martensitic transformation () 64 2.3.2 Competitive diffusionless and diffusional transformations: 65 2.3.2.1 Massive transformation (m) 65 2.3.3 Diffusion controlled lamellar microstructures: 66

2.4 HEAT TREATING Ti ALLOYS 70 2.4.1 Recovery 71 2.4.2 Recrystallisation 71 2.4.3 Grain growth 71

2.5 TEXTURE REPRESENTATION 72

2.6 MICROSTRUCTURAL EFFECT ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Ti6Al4V 74

2.7 DEFORMATION MECHANISMS 75

2.8 ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING 79 2.8.1 Introduction 79 2.8.2 Classification of AM processes 80 2.8.3 AM using an electron beam heat source 81 2.8.4 AM using a laser beam heat source 83 2.8.5 Wire plus arc AM (WAAM) 86

2.9 AM BUILD QUALITY AND MICROSTRUCTURE 90 2.9.1 Porosity 90 2.9.2 Development of microstructure in AM processes 91 2.9.2.1 Electron beam AM literature 91 2.9.2.2 Laser beam AM literature 95 2.9.2.3 Influence of process parameter on microstructures in SLM 99 2.9.2.4 Effect of alloy type: 101 2.9.2.5 Wire + arc deposition AM literature 102 2.9.3 Banding in AM deposits 104 2.9.4 Texture evolution in AM 107 2.9.5 Thermal modelling 109 2.9.6 Mechanical properties of AM deposits 113 2.9.6.1 Powder bed EBSM and SLM processes 113 2.9.6.2 Wire + arc AM or SMD (shaped metal deposition) technique: 119

2.10 SUMMARY AND POTENTIAL FOR FURTHER STUDY 123 2.10.1 Potential for further study 124

3 EXPERIMENTAL AND CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES 125

3.1 INTRODUCTION 125

3.2 FEED MATERIALS 125

3.3 AM PROCESSING CONDITIONS 127 3.3.1 Electron beam selective melting (EBSM) - Powder bed technique 127

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3.3.1.1 EBSM samples 131 3.3.2 Selective laser melting (SLM) - Powder bed technique 133 3.3.2.1 SLM samples 134 3.3.2.2 Stress relieving (SR) heat treatment of SLM samples 135 3.3.3 Wire + Arc AM deposition technique 136 3.3.3.1 GTAW deposited samples 136 3.3.3.2 GTAW arc deposited Large walls 1, 2 and 3 138 3.3.4 GMAW deposition technique 140 3.3.4.1 GMAW wire samples 141

3.4 EFFECT OF ROLLING ON TIG ARC WIRE DEPOSITION 142

3.5 THERMAL MODELLING 143

3.6 CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE, TEXTURE AND FRACTOGRAPHY 145 3.6.1 Optical microscopy 145 3.6.2 Scanning electron microscopy 145 3.6.3 EBSD analysis 146 3.6.4 - Grain reconstruction 148

3.7 MECHANICAL TESTING 149 3.7.1 Tensile testing 149 3.7.2 Fatigue testing 152 3.7.3 Vickers micro-hardness tests 153

4 THERMAL MODELLING AND MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION DURING AM 154

4.1 INTRODUCTION 154

4.2 THERMAL MODELLING 155 4.2.1 Introduction 155 4.2.2 Calibration 156 4.2.3 Predicted melt pool shapes and sizes in AM using TS4D 158 4.2.4 Predicted solidification conditions in AM 161

4.3 BULK - GRAIN STRUCTURES IN AM 165 4.3.1 Bulk - grain structures in the SLM process 165 4.3.2 Bulk - grain structures in the EBSM process 167 4.3.3 Bulk - grain structures in the WAAM process 170 4.3.4 Discussion of the bulk grain structures seen across the 3 AM platforms 173

4.4 BULK TEXTURES IN AM 182 4.4.1 Texture in the SLM process 182 4.4.1.1 Primary - texture in SLM 182 4.4.1.2 Transformed -texture in SLM 183 4.4.2 Texture in the EBSM process 183 4.4.2.1 Primary bulk -texture in EBSM process 184 4.4.2.2 Transformed -texture in the EBSM process 184 4.4.3 Texture in the WAAM process 185 4.4.4 Discussion of the bulk textures seen in the 3 AM platforms 186

4.5 TRANSFORMED MICROSTRUCTURES IN THE AM PROCESSES 191 4.5.1 Transformation microstructure in the SLM process 191 4.5.2 Transformation microstructure in the EBSM process 192

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4.5.3 Transformation microstructures in the WAAM process 194 4.5.4 Defects in the three AM processes 195 4.5.5 Discussion on the -microstructures and defects in the 3 AM platforms 197

4.6 CONCLUSIONS 204 4.6.1 Summary of thermal modelling of AM 204 4.6.2 Summary of the bulk grain structures in AM 204 4.6.3 Summary of bulk textures observed in AM 205 4.6.4 Summary of the transformed room temperature -microstructures in AM 206

5 EFFECT OF GEOMETRY ON GRAINS IN AM 208

5.1 INTRODUCTION 208

5.2 INFLUENCE OF BUILD GEOMETRY ON GRAIN STRUCTURE 208 5.2.1 Effect of wall thickness in EBSM 208 5.2.2 Effect of wall thickness transitions in SLM 211 5.2.3 Effect of wall thickness inverse transitions in EBSM 212 5.2.4 Effect of wall inclination angle in EBSM 213 5.2.5 V- transitions in EBSM 214 5.2.6 Support structures in EBSM 215 5.2.7 X transitions in EBSM 216 5.2.8 Discussion of the influence of build geometry on grain structures in AM 216

5.3 EFFECT OF BUILD GEOMETRY ON TEXTURE DEVELOPMENT 224 5.3.1 Primary Texture 224 5.3.2 Transformed -textures 225 5.3.3 Discussion on the effect of build geometry on texture development in AM 226

5.4 CONCLUSIONS 232 5.4.1 Summary of the influence of build geometry on grain structures in AM 232 5.4.2 Summary of the influence of build geometry on texture in AM 234

6 EFFECT OF PROCESS VARIABLES ON GRAIN STRUCTURES IN WAAM 235

6.1 INTRODUCTION 235

6.2 INFLUENCE OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON GRAIN STRUCTURES IN THE WAAM PROCESS 236

6.2.1 WAAM using a constant current GTAW-DC power source 236 6.2.2 Influence of change in travel speed using the HF interpulse power supply 238 6.2.3 Influence of wire feed speed (WFS) using the VBC interpulse power source 240 6.2.4 WAAM using a GTAW- Standard pulsed current power source 241 6.2.4.1 Influence of (Ip /Ib) ratio on the grain size 241 6.2.4.2 Influence of pulse frequency on the grain size 242 6.2.5 WAAM using the GMAW - CMT process 243 6.2.6 Discussion on the influence of process parameters on grain structures in the WAAM process 244

6.3 INFLUENCE OF PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TEXTURE IN WAAM 248 6.3.1 Primary textures 248 6.3.2 transformation textures 250 6.3.3 Discussion of the influence of process parameters on texture in WAAM 251

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6.4 EFFECT OF ROLLING DEFORMATION IN THE WAAM PROCESS 253 6.4.1 Introduction 253 6.4.2 Deformation conditions 253 6.4.3 Primary grain structure evolution in the deformation +WAAM process 255 6.4.4 Discussion on the effect of rolling on the grain structure with the WAAM process 259

6.5 EFFECT OF ROLLING DEFORMATION ON TEXTURE IN THE WAAM PROCESS 261 6.5.1 Primary -Textures 261 6.5.2 Transformed -textures 263 6.5.3 Discussion on the effect of rolling deformation on Texture in the WAAM 265

6.6 CONCLUSIONS 266 6.6.1 Summary of the influence of process parameters in WAAM 266 6.6.2 Summary of the effect of rolling deformation on grain structure and texture in the WAAM process 267

7 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF AM TEST SAMPLES 268

7.1 INTRODUCTION 268

7.2 TENSILE PROPERTIES OF AM DEPOSITS 268 7.2.1 Tensile properties of the EBSM samples 268 7.2.2 Tensile properties of the WAAM samples 269

7.3 FATIGUE PROPERTIES OF THE AM DEPOSITS 272 7.3.1 Fatigue properties of the EBSM samples 272 7.3.2 Fatigue properties of the WAAM samples 274

7.4 O2 AND N2 ANALYSIS IN THE AM BUILDS 277

7.5 FRACTOGRAPHY OF THE AM TEST SAMPLES 278 7.5.1 Fractography of the EBSM test samples 278 7.5.2 Fractography of the WAAM test samples 279 7.5.3 Fractography of the base line test samples 281

7.6 DISCUSSION OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE AM DEPOSITS 282 7.6.1 Tensile properties of the EBSM and WAAM samples 282 7.6.2 Fatigue properties of the EBSM and WAAM samples 284

7.7 CONCLUSIONS 291

8 CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK 292

8.1 CONCLUSIONS 292 8.1.1 Thermal modelling and microstructure evolution during AM 292 8.1.2 Influence of build geometry on grain structures and textures in AM 294 8.1.3 Influence of process variables on grain structures and textures in AM 295 8.1.4 Mechanical properties of the AM test samples 296

8.2 FURTHER WORK 297

9 REFERENCES 298

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ABSTRACT