METEOROLOGY Demystified - S... · PDF file 2019. 5. 26. · Quantum Mechanics...

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  • METEOROLOGY DEMYSTIFIED

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071448489

  • Demystified Series Advanced Statistics Demystified Algebra Demystified Anatomy Demystified Astronomy Demystified Biology Demystified Business Statistics Demystified C++ Demystified Calculus Demystified Chemistry Demystified College Algebra Demystified Data Structures Demystified Databases Demystified Differential Equations Demystified Digital Electronics Demystified Earth Science Demystified Electricity Demystified Electronics Demystified Environmental Science Demystified Everyday Math Demystified Geometry Demystified Home Networking Demystified Investing Demystified Java Demystified JavaScript Demystified Macroeconomics Demystified Math Proofs Demystified Math Word Problems Demystified Microbiology Demystified OOP Demystified Options Demystified Personal Computing Demystified Physics Demystified Physiology Demystified Pre-Algebra Demystified Precalculus Demystified Probability Demystified Project Management Demystified Quantum Mechanics Demystified Relativity Demystified Robotics Demystified Six Sigma Demystified Statistics Demystified Trigonometry Demystified

  • METEOROLOGY DEMYSTIFIED

    STAN GIBILISCO

    McGRAW-HILL New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London

    Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071448489

  • Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

    0-07-148790-5

    The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-144848-9.

    All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trade- marked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringe- ment of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps.

    McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069.

    TERMS OF USE

    This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohib- ited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms.

    THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMIT- ED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its oper- ation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inac- curacy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsi- bility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licen- sors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inabil- ity to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

    DOI: 10.1036/0071448489

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071448489

  • To Samuel, Tim, and Tony from Uncle Stan

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  • Preface xi

    CHAPTER 1 Background Physics 1 The Solid Phase 1 The Liquid Phase 6 The Gaseous Phase 14 What Is Heat? 17 Temperature 21 Some Effects of Temperature 27 Temperature and States of Matter 31 Quiz 36

    CHAPTER 2 The Atmosphere 39 Common Variables 39 Atmospheric Circulation 44 Weather Systems 49 Weather Maps 57 Wind Speed 61 Clouds 64 Quiz 72

    vii

    CONTENTS

    For more information about this title, click here

    http://dx.doi.org/10.1036/0071448489

  • CHAPTER 3 Observation and Forecasting 75 Some Weather Lore 75 Basic Observation Tools 80 Advanced Observation Tools 88 Forecasting Methods 94 Numerical Forecasting 100 Quiz 102

    CHAPTER 4 Rain and Lightning 105 Thunderstorm Formation and Evolution 105 A Hypothetical Severe Thunderstorm 111 Effects of a Thunderstorm 114 The Anatomy of Lightning 119 Protection from Lightning 126 Quiz 130

    CHAPTER 5 Tornadoes 133 Formation and Prediction 133 Tornado Behavior 140 Variations on a Violent Theme 146 Protecting Property and Life 152 Quiz 156

    CHAPTER 6 Tropical Cyclones 159 A Hypothetical Storm 159 The Azores-Bermuda High 163 Anatomy of a Hurricane 167 Hurricane Life Cycles 169 Effects of a Hurricane 172 Preparation and Survival 182 Debby Strikes 186 Quiz 192

    CONTENTSviii

  • CHAPTER 7 Winter Weather 195 The Stormiest Season 195 Anatomy and Effects 202 Blizzards 212 Winter into Spring 222 Quiz 227

    CHAPTER 8 Abnormal Weather 231 Heat Waves 231 Cold Spells 240 Too Much Water 246 Not Enough Water 251 Quiz 255

    CHAPTER 9 The Past and Future Climate 259 Early Weather 259 Glacial and Interglacial Periods 260 The Future: Warming or Cooling? 273 Weather and Climate Modification 279 Quiz 282

    Final Exam 285

    Answers to Quiz and Exam Questions 313

    Suggested Additional References 317

    Index 319

    CONTENTS ix

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  • This book is for people who want to learn the fundamentals of meteorology without taking a formal course. It can serve as a supplemental text in a class- room, tutored, or home-schooling environment. I recommend that you start at the beginning of this book and go straight through.

    There are “conversational” problems and solutions scattered throughout the text. There is a practice quiz at the end of each chapter, and a final exam at the end of the book. The quiz and exam questions are multiple-choice, and are similar to the sorts of questions used in standardized tests.

    The chapter-ending quizzes are “open-book.” You may (and should) refer to the chapter texts when taking them. When you think you’re ready, take the quiz, write down your answers, and then give your list of answers to a friend. Have the friend tell you your score, but not which questions you got wrong. Stick with a chapter until you get most (hopefully all) of the answers right. The correct choices are listed in the appendix.

    Take the final exam when you have finished all the chapters and chapter- ending quizzes. A satisfactory score is at least 75 correct answers. With the final exam, as with the quizzes, have a friend tell you your score without letting you know which questions you missed. Note the exam topics (if any) that give you trouble. Review those topics in the text. Then take the exam again, and see if you get a better score.

    I recommend that you complete one chapter a week. An hour or two daily ought to be enough time for this. That way, you’ll complete the course in a little over two months. When you’re done with the course, you can use this book, with its comprehensive index, as a permanent reference.

    Suggestions for future editions are welcome.

    STAN GIBILISCO

    xi

    PREFACE

    Copyright © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.

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  • 1 CHAPTER

    1

    Background Physics

    Thousands of years ago, the alchemists believed that all things in the material uni- verse consist of combinations of four “elements”: earth, water, air, and fire. According to this theory, different proportions of these four “elements” give mate- rials their unique properties. Later, physical scientists discovered that there are dozens of elements, and even these are not the fundamental constituents of mat- ter. Three basic states of matter are recognized by scientists today. These states, also called phases, are known as the solid phase (the latter-day analog of earth), the liquid phase (the analog of water), and the gaseous phase (the analog of air). A sample of matter in one of these states is called a solid, a liquid, or a gas.

    The Solid Phase A sample of matter in the solid phase retains its shape unless it is subjected to violent impact, placed under stress, or put in