Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi by Mark Boda

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    Journal for the Study of the Old TestamentVol 32.1 (2007): 113-131

    g 2007 SAGE Publications (Los Angeles, London, New Delhi and Singapore)

    DOI: 10.1177/0309089207083768

    http://JSOT.sagepub.com

    Messengers ofHope in Haggai-Malachi

    MARK J. BODA

    McMaster Divinity College, McMaster University, Divinity Room 233,1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada

    Abstract

    Recent work on the Book of the Twelve has consistently identified various sections ofHaggai-Malachi as a corpus that existed prior to its incorporation into the Book of theTwelve. Many see Haggai/Zechariah 1-8 as an initial collection to which Malachi andZechariah 9-14 were later added (prior to and/or after inclusion in the Book of theTwelve). This study investigates this corpus by interacting with past research and the text

    of these prophetic sections to argue that although each section in the corpus (Haggai,Zech. 1-8, Zech. 9-14, Malachi) displays an integrity of its own, the corpus as a whole iswitness to a developing tradition, the resulting literature of which has been unified througha 'messenger' leitmotif. This leitmotif, however, rather than signalling the end of prophecy(as argued by some), identifies the importance of prophetic, priestly and royal streams tothe emerging hope for a heavenly visitation.

    Keywords: Messengers, angels, Haggai, Zechariah. Malachi, Book of the Twelve,redaction criticism, messianism.

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    114 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32.1 (2007)

    assumed that at least Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 comprised a pre-existent

    collection that then entered into the Book ofthe Twelve. This position is

    often based on the work ofEric and Carol Meyers in their AnchorBibleCommentary, in which they argued that Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 were

    composed prior to and possibly for the dedication ofthe temple.1

    Their

    argument is based upon striking similarities on literary (especially super

    scriptions) and thematic (especially temple rebuilding) grounds between

    Haggai and Zechariah 1-8 along with the absence of any mention ofthe

    completion ofthe temple in these books.

    Positions have diverged over the issue of what followed Zechariah 8,

    either in the pre-Book ofthe Twelve phase or in later redactional activity

    on the Book ofthe Twelve. For many, some form ofMalachi followed

    immediately after Zechariah 8, evidence for which is provided in, for

    example, Nogalski's list of catch words {Stichwortverkettung) linking

    Zechariah 8 and Malachi 1 as well as Bosshard and Kratz's list ofcon

    nections between the Haggai/Zechariah 1-8 corpus and Malachi.2

    In a

    later phase, Zechariah 9-14 was inserted between Zechariah 8 and

    Malachi 1 and, according to Redditi, with its ubiquitous intertextualallusions to earlier prophetic literature, Zechariah 9-14 represented a

    reflection on the Book of the Twelve as a whole and was intended to

    shape one's reading ofthe book ofMalachi.3

    One possible reason it was

    1. C.L. Meyers and E.M. Meyers, Haggai, Zechariah 1-8: A New Translation with

    Introduction and Commentary (AB, 25B; Garden City: Doubleday. 1987). pp. xliv-xlv.

    2. Forcatchwords (e.g. 'loveV'hate* in Zech. 8.17 and Mai. 1.2-3; 'entreat the face of

    YHWH' in Zech. 8.22 and Mai. 1.9), see especiallyJ.D. Nogalski, Literary Precursorsto the Book of the Twelve (BZAW, 217; Berlin: W. de Gruyter. 1993), pp. 53-56;

    J.D. Nogalski. RedactionalProcesses in the Book of the Twelve (BZAW, 218; Berlin:

    W. de Gruyter, 1993), p. 187 . 21, where he lists 12 words orphrases common to Zech.

    8.9-23 and Mai. 1.1-14. ForNogalski, Haggai/Zech. 1-8 entered the Bookfirst,then came

    Malachi and finallyZech. 9-14. For the connections between Malachi and the larger

    corpus of Haggai-Zech. 1-8, see E. Bosshard and R.G. Kratz, 'Maleachi im Zwlf-prophetenbuch\BN 52 (1990), pp. 27-46. who see Malachi as originally the continuationof Zech. 7-8, although later expanded in two phases. See the criticism of using the

    catchword phenomenon for redaction theory in B.A. Jones. The Formation ofthe Book ofthe Twelve- A Study in Text and Canon (SBLDS, 149: Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1995),

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    BODA Messengers of Hope in Haggai-Malachi 115

    inserted prior to the end of Malachi was that the editors did not want toexceed the number twelve for the corpus.

    The scholarly consensus, however, has not been unanimous on thisissue, and so for others a substantial portion ofZechariah 9-14 wasalready in place after Zechariah 8, before Malachi was added to thecollection. Schart, for instance, questions Nogalski's claims for catchwords linking Zechariah 8 and Malachi 1 and finds evidence ofcatchwords and themes which link Zechariah 14 to Malachi 1.4 For Schart, theaddition of Malachi occurred after Zechariah 9-14 had been incorporatedinto the Book of the Twelve5 and helped put the eschatological visions of

    Biblical Seminar, 20; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993), pp. 80-81; P.L. Redditi, 'Zechariah9-14, Malachi, and the Redaction of the Book of the Twelve', in Watts and House (eds.),Forming Prophetic Literature, pp. 245-68; P.L. Redditi, 'Zechariah 9-14: The Capstoneof the Book of the Twelve', in M.J. Boda and M.H. Floyd (eds.), Bringing Out theTreasure: Inner Biblical Allusion andZechariah 9-14 (JSOTSup, 370; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2003), pp. 305-32. Nogalski argued that Zech. 9-11 was added firstto smooth the transition between Zech. 8 and Malachi; Zech. 12.1-13.2 (3-6) was added to

    correct chs. 9-11 with a more positive attitude toward Jerusalem; and then 14.1-21 wasadded, relocating at the same time 13.7-9 to function as a transition to the remnant motifin Zech. 14.2 and adding superscriptions in 9.1 and 12.1. Since Zech. 13.9 echoes Hos.1.9; 2.25 and Mai. 3.2-3, which open and close the Book of the Twelve, when Zech. 13.9was added it assumed a book of the Twelve that began with Hosea and ended withMalachi; Nogalski, Redactional Processes, pp. 234-36,245-46; idem, 'Zechariah 13.7-9as a Transitional Text: An Appreciation and Rvaluation of the Work of Rex Mason', inBoda and Floyd (eds.), Bringing Out the Treasure, pp. 292-305. Collins, Mantle, pp. 63-64, 80-81, has Haggai/Zech. 1-8 entering near the time of the temple reconstruction, and

    in the mid-fifth century BCE Malachi (with Joel, Habakkuk, and additions to Zephaniah),and finally Zech. 9-14 and Mai. 4.4-6. Steck argues that the foundational layer of Malachiwas added to Zech. 8, after which then there was a slow accretion of parts of Zech. 9-14until finally Malachi was distinguished from Zechariah in the Greek period; O. Steck, Der

    Abschluss der Prophtie im Alten Testament: Ein Versuch zurFrage derVorgeschichtedes Kanons (BTS, 17; Neukirchen-Vluyn: Neukirchener Verlag, 1991), pp. 196-98; cf.the table in Redditi, 'Capstone', pp. 315-32.

    4. Schart's catchwords and themes include the superscription KCC, the emphasis onthe holiness of the house of Yahweh in Zech. 14.20-21 and the emphasis on temple and

    priesthood in Mai. 1, the catchword 'king' in Zech. 14.9 and Mai. 1.14. This evidence iscited by Redditi, 'Capstone', p. 317, and expanded to include the connection to 'one' in

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    116 Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 32.1 (2007)

    Zechariah 9-14 in proper perspective.6

    Curtis, on the other hand, has

    argued that Zechariah 9-14 and Malachi (which had undergone 'a com

    posite unifying redaction'") were fused to an original Haggai-Zechariah1-8 corpus, prior to incorporation into the Book ofthe Twelve.

    8

    The concern ofthe work at hand is to highlight any evidence within

    Haggai-Malachi that would suggest that at some point it formed a unified

    corpus with its own integrity apart from the Book of the Twelve. If so,

    who was responsible for the corpus and what was its significance?

    Redactional Conclusions

    My own work has challenged the Meyers' consensus that Haggai and

    Zecnariah 1-8 were composed for the dedication ofthe temple. On the

    one hand, Haggai as a book shows strong connections to the structure of

    W. de Gruyter, 1998); idem, Entstehung, pp. 252-60,297-303; idem* 'Reconstructing the

    Redaction History ofthe Twelve Prophets: Problems and Models', in J.D. Nogalski and

    M.A. Sweeney (eds.), Reading andHearingthe Book of the Twelve (Symposium; Atlanta:Society of Biblical Literature, 2000), pp. 34-48 (42).

    6. A. Schart ('Putting the Eschatological Visions ofZechariah in TheirPlace: Malachi

    as a Hermeneutical Guide for the Last Section ofthe Book ofthe Twelve', in Boda and

    Floyd [eds.], Bringing Out the Treasure, pp. 333-43 [339]) notes: do not think that

    Zechariah and Malachi formed a literary stratum from the verybeginning. The evidence is

    too weak/

    7. B.G. Curtis, 'Social Location and Redaction History in the Haggai-Zechariah-

    Malachi Corpus' (unpublished paper delivered to the Society of Biblical Literature,

    Washington, DC, 1993), with thanks to the presenter for a written copy ofthe paper.8. Curtis, 'Social Location'; idem. 'The DaughterofZion Oracles and the Appendices

    to Malachi: Evidence on the Later Redactors and redaction ofthe Book ofthe Twelve',

    SBLSP 37 (1998), pp. 872-92: idem. "The Zion-Daughter Oracles: Evidence on the

    Identityand Ideology ofthe Late Redactors ofthe Book ofthe Twelve", in Nogalski and