Mesoamerican Civilization Pre

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  • 7/30/2019 Mesoamerican Civilization Pre


    Mesoamericancivilizationpre-Columbianepigraphy,Spanishconquistadores, Mayan Calendar

    Yucatn Peninsulacity-states-The most notable monuments are thestepped pyramidsthey built

    in their religious centers and the accompanying palaces of their rulers. The palace atCancunisthe largest in the Maya area, though the site, interestingly, lacks pyramids. Other important

    archaeological remains include the carved stone slabs usually calledstelae(the Maya called

    them tetun, or "tree-stones"), which depict rulers along with hieroglyphic texts describing theirgenealogy, military victories, and other accomplishments.[12]

    The Maya civilization participated in long distancetradewith many of the other Mesoamericancultures, includingTeotihuacan, theZapotec, and other groups in central and gulf-coast Mexico,

    as well as with more distant, non-Mesoamerican groups, for example theTanosin the

    Caribbean. Archeologists have also found gold fromPanamain theSacred CenoteofChichen


    Important trade goods includedcacao,salt,seashells,jade, andobsidian.

    In terrestrial zoology, megafauna(Ancient Greekmegas "large" +New Latinfauna "animal") are large or

    giant animals. The most common thresholds used are 45 kilograms (100 lb)[1][2]

    or 100 kilograms

    (220 lb).[2][3]

    This thus includes many species not popularly thought of as overly large, such aswhite-tailed deerandred kangaroo, and evenhumans. allhierarchicalstatetemples

    Notable constructions

    Ceremonial platforms were commonly limestone platforms of typically less than fourmeters in height where public ceremonies and religious rites were performed.

    Constructed in the fashion of a typical foundation platform, these were often accented by

    carved figures, altars and perhapstzompantli, a stake used to display the heads of victimsor defeatedMesoamerican ballgameopponents.

    Palaces were large and often highly decorated, and usually sat close to the center of acity and housed the population's elite. Any exceedingly large royal palace, or oneconsisting of many chambers on different levels might be referred to as an acropolis.

    However, often these were one-story and consisted of many small chambers and typically

    at least one interior courtyard; these structures appear to take into account the needed

    functionality required of a residence, as well as the decoration required for theirinhabitants stature.

    Detail of carving on right-hand (facing temple) wall of Mask Temple atLamanai
  • 7/30/2019 Mesoamerican Civilization Pre


    "El Castillo" atXunantunich. It stand's at 132 ft. high

    Frieze of "El Castillo" at Xunantunich

    Main palace of Palenque, 7th Century AD

    Governor's Palace rear view and details,10th Century ADUxmal

    Codz Poop, 7th-10th Centuries ADKabah

    E-Groupsare specific structural configurations present at a number of centers in theMaya area. These complexes are oriented and aligned according to specific astronomical

    events (primarily the sun'ssolsticesandequinoxes) and are thought to have been

    observatories. These structures are usually accompanied byiconographicreliefsthat tieastronomical observation into generalMaya mythology. The structural complex is named

    for Group E atUaxactun, the first documented in Mesoamerica.