megha mushroom


Transcript of megha mushroom

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INTRODUCTION• Mushroom is the fleshy, spore bearing fruiting body of

a fungus.• They are also used as a source of human food. • In india, 3 mushroom types are cultivated

commercially-• White button mushroom • Oyster mushroom• Paddy straw mushroom

White button mushroom

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The cultivated mushroom(A.bisporus) & field mushroom(A.campestris) has the following growth


I. Pin Stage (minute fruiting body is formed)

II. Button Stage (slightly expanded form)

III. Mushroom rapidly pulls in water from its mycelium & expands & forms Primordia.

IV. After heavy rainfall attains full size in few hours, known as full size ‘mushroom’

V. It releases the spores

VI. Then collapse

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VARIETIES1. EDIBLE MUSHROOMS Used in cooking Have high fiber content Provide vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, biotin &

ascorbic acid. Minerals such as selenium, potassium & phosphorus. Eg. Oyster mushroom shiitake Portobello mushroom

2. TOXIC MUSHROOM Produce secondary metabolites that render them toxic.

3. PSYCOACTIVE MUSHROOMS (magic mushrooms) Possess psychedelic properties

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CULTIVATION PROCESS1. Selection of strains: Selecting the best strains which should be high yielding, visually attractive,

having desirable flavor & resistant to pests & diseases. Presently, there are many strains of white, cream & brown varieties of


2. Maintenance of Strains: Three methods are known: Multispore culture Tissue culture Mycelium transfer

3. Spawn:• It is a pure mushroom mycelium growing on a sterilized grain


• MANURE SPAWN:• both composted horse dung or synthetic compost may be used.

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SPAWN (cont’d)• Manure is thoroughly washed & excess water is squeezed out.

Then manure is packed in half litre milk bottles.

• It is then inoculated with agar containing mycelium& incubated at 22-24 degree C.

• GRAIN SPAWN: • 10 kg of wheat grains are boiled for 15 min in 15 ltr. of water &

allowed to soak.• The grains are mixed with-• Gypsum: prevents grains from sticking together.• Calcium carbonate: necessary to correct the ph.• Grains are autoclaved at 121 degree C for 2 hr.• Inoculated & incubated at 22-24 degree C.

• PERLITE SPAWN: • Perlite is a mineral which expands at temperature more than 10000C.

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Spawn (cont’d)• The ingredients, of the spawn are : • Perlite (1,450 g), • wheat-bran (1,650 g), • gypsum (200 g), • calcium carbonate (50 g), and• water (665 cc).

The ingredients are mixed, filled in bottles and sterilized.

• Perlite spawn is easy to disperse and can be produced at a cheaper cost. This spawn can be stored for a long time.

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COMPOSTINGCompost is a substrate which provides adequate levels of nutrients to

support the crop.• NATURAL COMPOST: horse dung mixed with wheat straw.• SYNTHETIC COMPOST: base materials used with straw without bulk


1.Base materials: wheat straw, maize cobs & cellulosic plant materials.

Chief function- to provide cellulose, hemicellulose & lignin.• Also provide proper physical structure to the mixture for proper aeration.

2. Supplements: activate fermentation. Animal dung- nitrogen content 1-5% Carbohydrate nutrients- molasses & malt sprouts Concentration meals- wheat or rice bran, seed meals of cotton, soya,

castor etc. nitrogen content 3-12% Nitrogen fertilizers

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METHODS OF COMPOSTINGTwo methods for preparing compost are:

Long method: primitive & commercially suitable

Short method: Quick, definite & advanced

Composting by long method: 1. Wetting the straw: If not wet, it will not soften & unless it softens it

will not absorb water later.2. Mixing & heaping: After wetting the straw, supplements excluding

gypsum are mixed & mixture is finally stacked in a heap.3. Turning schedule: ensure that the heap attains high temperature

(70-75 degree C) otherwise compost will lack necessary nutritive value.

Time schedule to make a heap is as follows:Day zero Wet, mix the stack the heap

4th day First turning

8th day Second turning

12th day Third turning

16th day Fourth turning

20th day Final turning and filling of the trays

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Composting by short method:

It consists of two phases

Phase I Phase II Phase I- similar to initial stages of long method ,except for turning schedule:

Day zero Wet, mix the stack the heap

3th day First turning

th day Second turning

9th day Third turning- gypsum is added

10th day Fourth turning

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• Mushroom pin heads start appearing after 7-10 days.

• About two third of total crop can be harvested within first 3 weeks.

• Mushrooms are harvested as buttons.

• Have a very short shelf life.

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Pest & disease managementPESTS

Variety of small flies & mite species are pests of mushrooms.Some directly attack fruiting bodies & some may attack the mycelium.Mite damage shows small cavities in stem & cap.Mycelium eating mites cause high yield losses.


Nematodes Symptoms & damage


Aphelenchoides composticola

White spawn turns brown, mycelium is stingy, compost surface sinks, poor yields.

Mix dry neem leaf powder with compost(2-5)%

Ditylenchus myceliophagus

Devitalize the mycelium.

Apply Thionazin (80ppm) to the compost.

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Disease Other names Symptoms

Dactylium Cobweb, mildew White to pink cobweb-like fluffy mould.

Diehlomyces Calves brains / false truffle

A competing fungus which produces brain-shaped fruiting bodies.

Fusarium Damping off Mushrooms wither.

Mycogone Wet bubble / white mould

Dense white growth on gills.

Papulaspora Brown plaster mould Brown plaster-like patches on casing.

Scopulariopsis White plaster mould White plaster-like patches on casing.

Trichoderma Green mould Dark green mould patches on casing spreading to lesions on stems.

Verticillium Dry bubble / brown spot Brown irregular pitted areas on stems and caps. Distortion and splitting.


Bacterial diseases: Bacterial spot & Bacterial pit- Pseudomonas cause yellow to brown blotches on the cap.

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• Eradicate early infection centres with formaldehyde.

• Maintaining high levels of hygiene will reduce a number of problems.

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